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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1670-1688, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718413

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is experiencing a second wave of COVID-19 since March 2021, despite the nationwide vaccination drive with ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine from early February 2021. Here, we characterized 19 nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples from COVID-19 suspect patients using genomic and metagenomic approaches. Screening for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed 17 samples of COVID-19 positive (vaccinated = 10, nonvaccinated = 7) and 2 samples of COVID-19 negative. We did not find any significant correlation between associated factors including vaccination status, age or sex of the patients, diversity or abundance of the coinfected organisms/pathogens, and the abundance of SARS-CoV-2. Though the first wave of the pandemic was dominated by clade 20B, Beta, V2 (South African variant) dominated the second wave (January 2021 to May 2021), while the third wave (May 2021 to September 2021) was responsible for Delta variants of the epidemic in Bangladesh including both vaccinated and unvaccinated infections. Noteworthily, the receptor binding domain (RBD) region of S protein of all the isolates harbored similar substitutions including K417N, E484K, and N501Y that signify the Beta, while D614G, D215G, D80A, A67V, L18F, and A701V substitutions were commonly found in the non-RBD region of Spike proteins. ORF7b and ORF3a genes underwent a positive selection (dN/dS ratio 1.77 and 1.24, respectively), while the overall S protein of the Bangladeshi SARS-CoV-2 isolates underwent negative selection pressure (dN/dS = 0.621). Furthermore, we found different bacterial coinfections like Streptococcus agalactiae, Neisseria meningitidis, Elizabethkingia anophelis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, expressing a number of antibiotic resistance genes such as tetA and tetM. Overall, this approach provides valuable insights on the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and microbiome composition from both vaccinated and nonvaccinated patients in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Metagenomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Microbiota/genetics , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selection, Genetic , Vaccination , Viral Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 696003, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299397

ABSTRACT

Antiviral, antibacterial, and antiparasitic drugs and vaccines are essential to maintaining the health of humans and animals. Yet, their production can be slow and expensive, and efficacy lost once pathogens mount resistance. Chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY) is a highly conserved homolog of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) that has shown benefits and a favorable safety profile, primarily in animal models of human infectious diseases. IgY is fast-acting, easy to produce, and low cost. IgY antibodies can readily be generated in large quantities with minimal environmental harm or infrastructure investment by using egg-laying hens. We summarize a variety of IgY uses, focusing on their potential for the detection, prevention, and treatment of human and animal infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Chickens/immunology , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Parasitic Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Protozoan/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Protozoan/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulins/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Parasitic Diseases/diagnosis , Parasitic Diseases/immunology , Parasitic Diseases/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/virology
3.
Microbes Infect ; 23(4-5): 104806, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120151

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the frequency and characteristics of respiratory co-infections in COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this retrospective observational study, pathogens responsible for potential co-infections were detected by the bacterial culture, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), or serological fungal antigen tests. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as microbial results, were analyzed. Bacterial culture identified 56 (58.3%) positive samples for respiratory pathogens, with the most common bacteria being Burkholderia cepacia (18, 18.8%). RT-PCR detected 38 (76.0%) and 58 (87.9%) positive results in the severe and critical groups, respectively. Most common pathogens detected were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (28.0%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.0%) in the severe group and S. maltophilia (45.5%) in the critical group. P. aeruginosa was detected more during the early stage after ICU admission. Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were more frequently identified during late ICU admission. Fungal serum antigens were more frequently positive in the critical group than in the severe group, and the positive rate of fungal serum antigens frequency increased with prolonged ICU stay. A high frequency of respiratory co-infections presented in ICU COVID-19 patients. Careful examinations and necessary tests should be performed to exclude these co-infections.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
4.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(2): 203-205, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065793

ABSTRACT

Bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 patients has the potential to complicate treatments and accelerate the development of antibiotic resistance in the clinic due to the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, including in Indonesia. The surge of COVID-19 patients may worsen antibiotic overuse; therefore, information on the actual extent of bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 patients in Indonesia is crucial to inform appropriate treatment. This Viewpoint elaborates on a nascent research project focused on sequencing of swab samples to detect bacterial coinfection in COVID-19 patients in Indonesia. Supported by a L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science National Fellowship, it is designed to inform better clinical management of COVID-19 in Indonesia.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Indonesia , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(4)2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048648

ABSTRACT

The role of procalcitonin in identifying community-associated bacterial infections among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 is not yet established. In 2,443 patients of whom 148 had bacterial coinfections, mean procalcitonin levels were significantly higher with any bacterial infection (13.16 ± 51.19 ng/ml; P = 0.0091) and with bacteremia (34.25 ± 85.01 ng/ml; P = 0.0125) than without infection (2.00 ± 15.26 ng/ml). Procalcitonin (cutoff, 0.25 or 0.50 ng/ml) did not reliably identify bacterial coinfections but may be useful in excluding bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Procalcitonin/therapeutic use , Aged , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
6.
Microb Pathog ; 150: 104706, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988886

ABSTRACT

To explore the applicability of MuLBSTA Score in COVID-19 patients, a retrospective analysis was performed on 330 cases of COVID-19 patients in Southeast Hospital of Xiaogan City, Hubei Province. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients were described and multilobe infiltrate in CT, bacterial infection, lymphocyte count, smoke in history, history of hypertension, and age distribution in the population of mild and severe patients were analyzed. All included patients were scored according to the MuLBSTA early warning scoring system and its efficacy in early warning of severe symptoms was analyzed. CT feature of infiltration changes on multiple lobes, the absolute value of lymphocyte count of less than 0.8 × 109, accompanied by bacterial infection, history of smoking, history of hypertension, and an age of greater than 60 years old were all statistically significant factors in patients with severe COVID-19. ROC curve analysis indicated that the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the early warning system were 0.651, 0.954 and 0.93, respectively. The MuLBSTA Score has a good early warning effect on severe COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Smoking
7.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 24: 45-47, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have reported high antibiotic use in patients hospitalised for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting in concerns of increasing antimicrobial resistance with increase antibiotic use in this pandemic. Point prevalence survey (PPS) can be a quick tool to provide antibiotic prescribing information to aid antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) activities. OBJECTIVES: To describe antibiotic utilization and evaluate antibiotic appropriateness in COVID-19 patients using PPS. METHODS: Adapting Global-PPS on antimicrobial use, the survey was conducted in COVID-19 wards at 2 centres in Singapore on 22 April 2020 at 0800h. Patients on systemic antibiotics were included and evaluated for antibiotic appropriateness. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy-seven patients were screened. Thirty-six (6.2%) patients were on antibiotics and which were started at median of 7 days (inter-quartile rate (IQR), 4, 11) from symptom onset. Fifty-one antibiotics were prescribed in these patients. Overall, co-amoxiclav (26/51, 51.0%) was the most often prescribed antibiotic. Thirty-one out of 51 (60.8%) antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Among 20 inappropriate prescriptions, 18 (90.0%) were initiated in patients with low likelihood of bacterial infections. Antibiotic prescriptions were more appropriate when reviewed by infectious diseases physicians (13/31 [41.9%] versus 2/20 [10.0%], p=0.015), and if reasons for use were stated in notes (31/31 [100.0%] versus 16/20 [80.0%], p=0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Despite low prevalence of antibiotic use among confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients at 2 centres in Singapore, there was significant proportion of inappropriate antibiotics use where bacterial infections were unlikely. AMS teams can tailor stewardship strategies using PPS results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Singapore/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(10): 1397-1404, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888663

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections are commonly associated with prior or concomitant respiratory viral infections. Viral infections damage respiratory airways and simultaneously defects both innate and acquired immune response that provides a favorable environment for bacterial growth, adherence, and facilitates invasion into healthy sites of the respiratory tract. Understanding the molecular mechanism of viral-induced secondary bacterial infections will provide us a chance to develop novel and effective therapeutic approaches for disease prevention. The present study describes details about the secondary bacterial infection during viral infections and their immunological changes.The outcome of discussion avails an opportunity to understand possible secondary bacterial infections associated with novel SARS-CoV-2, presently causing pandemic outbreak COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/immunology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacterial Adhesion , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Immune Tolerance , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/complications , Influenza, Human/complications , Microbial Interactions , Pandemics , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1958-1964, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725886

ABSTRACT

Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (P<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Conclusion Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/pathology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fungemia/pathology , Mycoses/pathology , Opportunistic Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/pathology , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Bacteremia/mortality , Bacteremia/virology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bacterial Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Female , Fungemia/microbiology , Fungemia/mortality , Fungemia/virology , Fungi/pathogenicity , Gram-Negative Bacteria/pathogenicity , Gram-Positive Bacteria/pathogenicity , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung/microbiology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/mortality , Mycoses/virology , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/mortality , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology , Urinary Tract Infections/mortality , Urinary Tract Infections/virology
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 104(18): 7777-7785, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709732

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel ß-coronavirus, is the main pathogenic agent of the rapidly spreading pneumonia called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 infects much more people, especially the elder population, around the world than other coronavirus, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, which is challenging current global public health system. Beyond the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2, microbial coinfection plays an important role in the occurrence and development of SARS-CoV-2 infection by raising the difficulties of diagnosis, treatment, prognosis of COVID-19, and even increasing the disease symptom and mortality. We summarize the coinfection of virus, bacteria and fungi with SARS-CoV-2, their effects on COVID-19, the reasons of coinfection, and the diagnosis to emphasize the importance of microbial coinfection in COVID-19. KEY POINTS: • Microbial coinfection is a nonnegligible factor in COVID-19. • Microbial coinfection exacerbates the processes of the occurrence, development and prognosis of COVID-19, and the difficulties of clinical diagnosis and treatment. • Different virus, bacteria, and fungi contributed to the coinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Lymphopenia/epidemiology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/microbiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Disease Progression , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Lymphocytes/microbiology , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/microbiology , Lymphopenia/virology , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/microbiology , Virus Diseases/virology
12.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1395-1399, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-702950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of bacterial and fungal coinfection of hospitalized patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in this retrospective observational study across two London hospitals during the first UK wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A retrospective case series of hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by PCR was analysed across two acute NHS hospitals (20 February-20 April 2020; each isolate reviewed independently in parallel). This was contrasted to a control group of influenza-positive patients admitted during the 2019-2020 flu season. Patient demographics, microbiology and clinical outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 836 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were included; 27 (3.2%) of 836 had early confirmed bacterial isolates identified (0-5 days after admission), rising to 51 (6.1%) of 836 throughout admission. Blood cultures, respiratory samples, pneumococcal or Legionella urinary antigens and respiratory viral PCR panels were obtained from 643 (77%), 110 (13%), 249 (30%), 246 (29%) and 250 (30%) COVID-19 patients, respectively. A positive blood culture was identified in 60 patients (7.1%), of which 39 were classified as contaminants. Bacteraemia resulting from respiratory infection was confirmed in two cases (one each community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae and ventilator-associated Enterobacter cloacae). Line-related bacteraemia was identified in six patients (three Candida, two Enterococcus spp. and one Pseudomonas aeruginosa). All other community-acquired bacteraemias (n = 16) were attributed to nonrespiratory infection. Zero concomitant pneumococcal, Legionella or influenza infection was detected. A low yield of positive respiratory cultures was identified; Staphylococcus aureus was the most common respiratory pathogen isolated in community-acquired coinfection (4/24; 16.7%), with pseudomonas and yeast identified in late-onset infection. Invasive fungal infections (n = 3) were attributed to line-related infections. Comparable rates of positive coinfection were identified in the control group of confirmed influenza infection; clinically relevant bacteraemias (2/141; 1.4%), respiratory cultures (10/38; 26.3%) and pneumococcal-positive antigens (1/19; 5.3%) were low. CONCLUSIONS: We found a low frequency of bacterial coinfection in early COVID-19 hospital presentation, and no evidence of concomitant fungal infection, at least in the early phase of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Mycoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Community-Acquired Infections , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/microbiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/microbiology , Mycoses/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2097-2111, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696287

ABSTRACT

The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected millions of people worldwide. To date, there are no proven effective therapies for this virus. Efforts made to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. Respiratory viral infections, such as influenza, predispose patients to co-infections and these lead to increased disease severity and mortality. Numerous types of antibiotics such as azithromycin have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections in patients with a viral respiratory infection (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). Although antibiotics do not directly affect SARS-CoV-2, viral respiratory infections often result in bacterial pneumonia. It is possible that some patients die from bacterial co-infection rather than virus itself. To date, a considerable number of bacterial strains have been resistant to various antibiotics such as azithromycin, and the overuse could render those or other antibiotics even less effective. Therefore, bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection are considered critical risk factors for the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19. Also, the antibiotic-resistant as a result of overusing must be considered. In this review, we will summarize the bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection in some featured respiratory viral infections, especially COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Haemophilus influenzae/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Legionella pneumophila/drug effects , Legionella pneumophila/pathogenicity , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/pathogenicity
16.
J Infect ; 81(2): 266-275, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In previous influenza pandemics, bacterial co-infections have been a major cause of mortality. We aimed to evaluate the burden of co-infections in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We systematically searched Embase, Medline, Cochrane Library, LILACS and CINAHL for eligible studies published from 1 January 2020 to 17 April 2020. We included patients of all ages, in all settings. The main outcome was the proportion of patients with a bacterial, fungal or viral co-infection. . RESULTS: Thirty studies including 3834 patients were included. Overall, 7% of hospitalised COVID-19 patients had a bacterial co-infection (95% CI 3-12%, n=2183, I2=92·2%). A higher proportion of ICU patients had bacterial co-infections than patients in mixed ward/ICU settings (14%, 95% CI 5-26, I2=74·7% versus 4%, 95% CI 1-9, I2= 91·7%). The commonest bacteria were Mycoplasma pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Haemophilus influenzae. The pooled proportion with a viral co-infection was 3% (95% CI 1-6, n=1014, I2=62·3%), with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and influenza A the commonest. Three studies reported fungal co-infections. CONCLUSIONS: A low proportion of COVID-19 patients have a bacterial co-infection; less than in previous influenza pandemics. These findings do not support the routine use of antibiotics in the management of confirmed COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mycoses/complications , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/complications , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/microbiology
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