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1.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(30): 45971-45980, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1681577

ABSTRACT

A detailed coastal water monitoring near Diu coast, western part of India was performed from October, 2020 to May, 2021 covering the 2nd lockdown time. Average monthly fluctuation from 7 different sampling stations of total 9 physico-chemical parameters such as pH, salinity, turbidity, nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), ammonia (NH3), phosphate (PO4), total alkalinity and silicate were recorded. Initially, Mann-Kendall trend test for all the 9 parameters showed non-zero trend, which may be either linear or non-linear. During 2nd lockdown period, there was a fluctuation of value for parameters like pH, salinity, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate. Average total bacterial count and differential bacterial count also gradually decreased from March, 2021 sampling. Principal component analysis (PCA) plot covering all the physico-chemical parameters as well as the differential bacterial count showed a distinct cluster of all bacterial count with total alkalinity value. Subsequently, mathematical equation was formulated between total alkalinity value and all differential bacterial count. Upto our knowledge, this is the first report where mathematical equation was formulated to obtain value of different bacterial load based on the derived total alkalinity value of the coastal water samples near Diu, India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Quality , Bacterial Load , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , India , Nitrates/analysis , Nitrites/analysis , Phosphates/analysis
2.
J Immunol ; 207(7): 1776-1784, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497460

ABSTRACT

Acquired neutrophil dysfunction frequently develops during critical illness, independently increasing the risk for intensive care unit-acquired infection. PI3Kδ is implicated in driving neutrophil dysfunction and can potentially be targeted pharmacologically. The aims of this study were to determine whether PI3Kδ inhibition reverses dysfunction in neutrophils from critically ill patients and to describe potential mechanisms. Neutrophils were isolated from blood taken from critically ill patients requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, renal support, or blood pressure support. In separate validation experiments, neutrophil dysfunction was induced pharmacologically in neutrophils from healthy volunteers. Phagocytosis and bacterial killing assays were performed, and activity of RhoA and protein kinase A (PKA) was assessed. Inhibitors of PI3Kδ, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), and PKA were used to determine mechanisms of neutrophil dysfunction. Sixty-six patients were recruited. In the 27 patients (40.9%) with impaired neutrophil function, PI3Kδ inhibition consistently improved function and significantly increased bacterial killing. These findings were validated in neutrophils from healthy volunteers with salbutamol-induced dysfunction and extended to demonstrate that PI3Kδ inhibition restored killing of clinical isolates of nine pathogens commonly associated with intensive care unit-acquired infection. PI3Kδ activation was associated with PDK1 activation, which in turn phosphorylated PKA, which drove phosphorylation and inhibition of the key regulator of neutrophil phagocytosis, RhoA. These data indicate that, in a significant proportion of critically ill patients, PI3Kδ inhibition can improve neutrophil function through PDK1- and PKA-dependent processes, suggesting that therapeutic use of PI3Kδ inhibitors warrants investigation in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Critical Illness , Neutrophils/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sepsis/immunology , 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Load , Bacteriolysis , Cells, Cultured , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phagocytosis , Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Respiratory Insufficiency , Risk
3.
Retina ; 41(11): 2215-2220, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483570

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the bacterial growth in the surgical face masks used by patients who received intravitreal injections and study the effect of povidone-iodine on the periocular area (PA) of masks. METHODS: Forty patients who attended for intravitreal injections were divided in those with less (<4 hours) and more (>4 hours) than 4 hours of mask use. Each group was divided depending on the application or not of povidone-iodine in the PA of the mask. Bacterial load was studied on PA and mouth area samples. RESULTS: The bacterial load in the PA was higher in the >4 hours group compared with the <4 hours group (13.2 vs. 48.75 colony-forming units/µL; P = 0.03). The contamination in the PA significantly decreased after applying povidone-iodine in the >4 hours group (P = 0.01). The use or not of povidone-iodine was strongly correlated to a positive culture (OR = 9.0, P = 0.00. CI 1.63-49.44). CONCLUSION: Surgical face masks worn for more than 4 hours present higher contamination in the PA than those with less use. Bacterial load in the PA is reduced with povidone-iodine on masks used for more than 4 hours. This contamination should be considered in the asepsis protocol of intravitreal injections.


Subject(s)
Angiogenesis Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Equipment Contamination , Masks/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Bacterial Load , Bacteriological Techniques , Female , Humans , Intravitreal Injections , Male , Middle Aged , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Retinal Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(10): 1245-1258, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380902

ABSTRACT

Respiratory failure is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. There are no validated lower airway biomarkers to predict clinical outcome. We investigated whether bacterial respiratory infections were associated with poor clinical outcome of COVID-19 in a prospective, observational cohort of 589 critically ill adults, all of whom required mechanical ventilation. For a subset of 142 patients who underwent bronchoscopy, we quantified SARS-CoV-2 viral load, analysed the lower respiratory tract microbiome using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics and profiled the host immune response. Acquisition of a hospital-acquired respiratory pathogen was not associated with fatal outcome. Poor clinical outcome was associated with lower airway enrichment with an oral commensal (Mycoplasma salivarium). Increased SARS-CoV-2 abundance, low anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and a distinct host transcriptome profile of the lower airways were most predictive of mortality. Our data provide evidence that secondary respiratory infections do not drive mortality in COVID-19 and clinical management strategies should prioritize reducing viral replication and maximizing host responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , COVID-19/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Load , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Microbiota , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Load
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5887, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135699

ABSTRACT

Based on the current knowledge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, wearing a mask has been recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic. Bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) measurements enable designing and regulating medical masks to prevent bioaerosol dissemination; however, despite the simplicity of these measurements, several scientific questions remain unanswered regarding BFE tests. Here, we investigated (1) the impact of substituting 100-mm Petri dishes with 90-mm disposable Petri dishes, (2) the impact of colony-counting methods on the bioaerosol aerodynamic size, and (3) the impact of colony-counting methods on the total viable particle counts. We demonstrated that disposable 90-mm Petri dishes can be used to replace the 100-mm dishes. We also showed that an automatic high-resolution colony counter can be used to directly count viable particles on collection substrates and to measure the bioaerosol size parameters. Our results enable possible modernization of the outdated testing methods recommended in the US and European standards for BFE measurements. Specifically, use of a modernized colony counter should be clearly regulated and permitted to avoid the counting of positive holes. The median aerodynamic diameter appears to be the most relevant parameter for characterizing bioaerosol size.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Filtration/standards , Masks/standards , Bacterial Load , Environmental Microbiology , Filtration/methods , Humans , Masks/microbiology , Particle Size , Porosity
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 478-482, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The best way of preventing the dispersion of an infectious disease is decreasing the transmissibility of the pathogen. To achieve such a goal, it is important to have epidemiological surveillance to retrieve data about its routes of transmission and dispersion. This study investigated the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 detection using filtration through 0.22 µm pores. METHODS: A filtration system with vacuum pump was used for sampling, and molecular analysis was performed by RT-PCR for detecting the COVID-19 virus. RESULTS: It was found that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in particulate matter trapped on 0.22 µm filters 3 h after air sampling, and the only contaminated areas were those near patient zones. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the possibility of finding this virus in floating particulate matter in contaminated zones, with a simple and economic sampling method based on filtration technology through 0.22 µm pores and detection with molecular techniques (RT-PCR). The higher risk zones were those near patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Monitoring/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Bacterial Load , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 478-482, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915487

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The best way of preventing the dispersion of an infectious disease is decreasing the transmissibility of the pathogen. To achieve such a goal, it is important to have epidemiological surveillance to retrieve data about its routes of transmission and dispersion. This study investigated the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 detection using filtration through 0.22 µm pores. METHODS: A filtration system with vacuum pump was used for sampling, and molecular analysis was performed by RT-PCR for detecting the COVID-19 virus. RESULTS: It was found that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in particulate matter trapped on 0.22 µm filters 3 h after air sampling, and the only contaminated areas were those near patient zones. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the possibility of finding this virus in floating particulate matter in contaminated zones, with a simple and economic sampling method based on filtration technology through 0.22 µm pores and detection with molecular techniques (RT-PCR). The higher risk zones were those near patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Air Microbiology , COVID-19/transmission , Environmental Monitoring/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Bacterial Load , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals , Humans , RNA, Viral/analysis
9.
J Dent Res ; 99(11): 1228-1238, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-652798

ABSTRACT

The aim of this systematic review and network meta-analysis was to identify and rank the effectiveness of different interventions used in dental practice to reduce microbial load in aerosolized compounds. Seven electronic databases were searched to April 6, 2020, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or nonrandomized prospective studies in the field. Study selection, data extraction, and risk-of-bias assessment were performed for all included studies, while the outcome of interest pertained to differences in bacterial load quantification through the use of different interventions prior to aerosol-generating procedures in dental practices. Random effects frequentist network meta-analysis was performed, with mean difference (MD) and 95% CI as the effect measure. Confidence in the documented evidence was assessed through the newly fueled CINeMA framework (Confidence in Network Meta-analysis) based on the GRADE approach (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation). Twenty-nine clinical trials were deemed eligible, 21 RCTs and 8 nonrandomized studies, while 11 RCTs contributed to the network meta-analysis, comprising 10 competing interventions. Tempered chlorhexidine (CHX) 0.2% as compared with nonactive control mouth rinse, prior to routine ultrasonic scaling, was most effective toward reduced postprocedural bacterial load with an MD of -0.92 (95% CI, -1.54 to -0.29) in log10 bacterial CFUs (colony-forming units). For CHX 0.2%, an MD of -0.74 (95% CI, -1.07 to -0.40) was observed as compared with control. Tempered CHX 0.2% presented the highest probabilities of being ranked the most effective treatment (31.2%). Level of confidence varied from very low to moderate across all formulated comparisons. These findings summarize the current state of research evidence in the field of aerosolized bacteria in dentistry. Instigated by the era of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the stipulation of a broader evaluation of the aerosolized microbes, including viruses, potentially coupled with disinfectant-based prevention schemes should be prioritized.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dentistry/methods , Disinfectants , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Bacterial Load , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
10.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 77, 2020 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-19745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by frequent exacerbation phenotypes independent of disease stage. Increasing evidence shows that the microbiota plays a role in disease progression and severity, but long-term and international multicenter assessment of the variations in viral and bacterial communities as drivers of exacerbations are lacking. METHODS: Two-hundred severe COPD patients from Europe and North America were followed longitudinally for 3 years. We performed nucleic acid detection for 20 respiratory viruses and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing to evaluate the bacterial microbiota in 1179 sputum samples collected at stable, acute exacerbation and follow-up visits. RESULTS: Similar viral and bacterial taxa were found in patients from the USA compared to Bulgaria and Czech Republic but their microbiome diversity was significantly different (P < 0.001) and did not impact exacerbation rates. Virus infection was strongly associated with exacerbation events (P < 5E-20). Human rhinovirus (13.1%), coronavirus (5.1%) and influenza virus (3.6%) constitute the top viral pathogens in triggering exacerbation. Moraxella and Haemophilus were 5-fold and 1.6-fold more likely to be the dominating microbiota during an exacerbation event. Presence of Proteobacteria such as Pseudomonas or Staphylococcus amongst others, were associated with exacerbation events (OR > 0.17; P < 0.02) but more strongly associated with exacerbation frequency (OR > 0.39; P < 4E-10), as confirmed by longitudinal variations and biotyping of the bacterial microbiota, and suggesting a role of the microbiota in sensitizing the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights bacterial taxa in lung sensitization and viral triggers in COPD exacerbations. It provides a global overview of the diverse targets for drug development and explores new microbiome analysis methods to guide future patient management applications.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Lung/microbiology , Lung/virology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/microbiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Load , Disease Progression , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sputum/microbiology , Sputum/virology , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Viral Load , Viruses/genetics
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