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1.
J Antibiot (Tokyo) ; 75(6): 321-332, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878523

ABSTRACT

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most dangerous pathogens commonly associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Sortase A is considered as a promising molecular target for the development of antistaphylococcal agents. Using hybrid virtual screening approach and FRET analysis, we have identified five compounds able to decrease the activity of sortase A by more than 50% at the concentration of 200 µM. The most promising compound was 2-(2-amino-3-chloro-benzoylamino)-benzoic acid which was able to inhibit S. aureus sortase A at the IC50 value of 59.7 µM. This compound was selective toward sortase A compared to other four cysteine proteases - cathepsin L, cathepsin B, rhodesain, and the SARS-CoV2 main protease. Microscale thermophoresis experiments confirmed that this compound bound sortase A with KD value of 189 µM. Antibacterial and antibiofilm assays also confirmed high specificity of the hit compound against two standard and three wild-type, S. aureus hospital infection isolates. The effect of the compound on biofilms produced by two S. aureus ATCC strains was also observed suggesting that the compound reduced biofilm formation by changing the biofilm structure and thickness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Staphylococcal Infections , Aminoacyltransferases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biofilms , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA, Viral/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus
2.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(6): e24427, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Azithromycin (AZM), sold under the name Zithromax, is classified as a macrolide. It has many benefits due to its immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. This review aims to study different clinical and biochemisterial aspects and properties of this drug which has a priority based on literature published worldwide. METHODS: Several databases including Web of Science, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus were searched to obtain the relevant studies. RESULTS: AZM mechanism of action including the inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production, inhibition of neutrophil infestation, and macrophage polarization alteration, gives it the ability to act against a wide range of microorganisms. Resistant organisms are spreading and being developed because of the irrational use of the drug in the case of dose and duration. AZM shows synergistic effects with other drugs against a variety of organisms. This macrolide is considered a valuable antimicrobial agent because of its use as a treatment for a vast range of diseases such as asthma, bronchiolitis, COPD, cystic fibrosis, enteric infections, STIs, and periodontal infections. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows an increasing global prevalence of AZM resistance. Thus, synergistic combinations are recommended to treat different pathogens. Moreover, continuous monitoring of AZM resistance by registry centers and the development of more rapid diagnostic assays are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin , Cystic Fibrosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins , Cystic Fibrosis/drug therapy , Cystic Fibrosis/microbiology , Humans
3.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(5)2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875758

ABSTRACT

Melittin, the main toxic component in the venom of the European honeybee, interacts with natural and artificial membranes due to its amphiphilic properties. Rather than interacting with a specific receptor, melittin interacts with the lipid components, disrupting the lipid bilayer and inducing ion leakage and osmotic shock. This mechanism of action is shared with pneumolysin and other members of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin family. In this manuscript, we investigated the inverse correlation for cholesterol dependency of these two toxins. While pneumolysin-induced damage is reduced by pretreatment with the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-ß-cyclodextrin, the toxicity of melittin, after cholesterol depletion, increased. A similar response was also observed after a short incubation with lipophilic simvastatin, which alters membrane lipid organization and structure, clustering lipid rafts. Therefore, changes in toxin sensitivity can be achieved in cells by depleting cholesterol or changing the lipid bilayer organization.


Subject(s)
Lipid Bilayers , Melitten , Animals , Bacterial Proteins , Bees , Cholesterol , Melitten/chemistry , Melitten/toxicity , Streptolysins/toxicity
4.
ACS Chem Biol ; 17(5): 1239-1248, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805550

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major threat to human health, as the US mortality rate outweighs those from HIV, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections acquired during hospital stays have increased. Antibiotic adjuvants are a key strategy to combat these bacteria. We have evaluated several small molecule antibiotic adjuvants that have strong potentiation with ß-lactam antibiotics and are likely inhibiting a master regulatory kinase, Stk1. Here, we investigated how the lead adjuvant (compound 8) exerts its effects in a more comprehensive manner. We hypothesized that the expression levels of key resistance genes would decrease once cotreated with oxacillin and the adjuvant. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses would reveal biochemical pathways enriched in differentially expressed genes. RNA-seq analysis showed 176 and 233 genes significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, in response to cotreatment. Gene ontology categories and biochemical pathways that were significantly enriched with downregulated genes involved carbohydrate utilization, such as the citrate cycle and the phosphotransferase system. One of the most populated pathways was S. aureus infection. Results from an interaction network constructed with affected gene products supported the hypothesis that Stk1 is a target of compound 8. This study revealed a dramatic impact of our lead adjuvant on the transcriptome that is consistent with a pleiotropic effect due to Stk1 inhibition. These results point to this antibiotic adjuvant having potential broad therapeutic use in combatting MRSA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Carbazoles/pharmacology , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Staphylococcus aureus , Transcriptome
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788579

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is the primary pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. The spread of CRAB is mainly driven by the dissemination of resistant clones, and in Latin America, International Clones IC-1 (also known as clonal complex CC1), IC-4 (CC15) and IC-5 (CC79) are the most prevalent.Gap Statement. There are no documented outbreaks of CRAB International Clone 2 (IC-2) reported in Brazil.Aim. To describe a large outbreak of CRAB caused by the uncommon IC-2 in a Brazilian COVID-19 hospital.Methodology. From May 2020 to May 2021, 224 patients infected or colonized with CRAB were identified in a single hospital; 92 % of them were also infected with SARS-CoV-2. From these patients, 137 isolates were recovered and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR analysis and molecular typing. Whole-genome sequencing and downstream analysis were carried out on a representative isolate (the first available isolate).Results. In 76 % of the patients, a single OXA-23-producing CRAB IC-2 was identified. All the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B, but highly resistant (>95 %) to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and beta-lactams. Genomic analysis revealed that the representative isolate also carried the 16S rRNA Methylase ArmA, which was detected for the first time in this species in Brazil.Conclusion. We report the rapid spread of an emerging CRAB clone responsible for causing a large outbreak in a hospital in Brazil, a country with predominance of other CRAB clones. Continuous and prospective surveillance is warranted to evaluate the impact of this clone in Brazilian hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clone Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 712657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775961

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a highly lethal disease initiated after the ingestion of Listeria-contaminated food. This species comprises different serovars, from which 4b, 1/2a, and 1/2b cause most of the infections. Among the different proteins involved in pathogenesis, the internalins A (InlA) and B (InlB) are the best characterized, since they play a major role in the enterocyte entry of Listeria cells during early infection. Due to their covalent attachment to the cell wall and location on the bacterial surface, along with their exclusive presence in the pathogenic L. monocytogenes, these proteins are also used as detection targets for this species. Even though huge advancements were achieved in the enrichment steps for subsequent Listeria detection, few studies have focused on the improvement of the antibodies for immunodetection. In the present study, recombinant InlA and InlB produced in Escherichia coli were used as targets to generate antibodies via phage display using the human naïve antibody libraries HAL9 and HAL10. A set of five recombinant antibodies (four against InlA, and one against InlB) were produced in scFv-Fc format and tested in indirect ELISA against a panel of 19 Listeria strains (17 species; including the three main serovars of L. monocytogenes) and 16 non-Listeria species. All five antibodies were able to recognize L. monocytogenes with 100% sensitivity (CI 29.24-100.0) and specificity (CI 88.78-100.0) in all three analyzed antibody concentrations. These findings show that phage display-derived antibodies can improve the biological tools to develop better immunodiagnostics for L. monocytogenes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacterial Proteins , Listeria monocytogenes , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Bacteriophages , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Humans , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 823626, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775645

ABSTRACT

The serious challenge of antimicrobial resistance continues to threaten public health and lingers in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), declared pandemic by the World Health Organization. While the pandemic has triggered the importance of infection control practices and preventive measures such as physical distancing, hand hygiene, travel reduction and quarantine, the ongoing alarm of antimicrobial resistance seems to accompany the pandemic too. Antimicrobial resistance has been fostered during COVID-19, possibly due to high rate of empirical antibiotic utilization in COVID-19 patients, increased use of biocides, and the disruption of proper healthcare for other conditions. Specifically, carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria have shown to cause secondary bacterial infections in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Clinical and microbiological evidence of such infections is accumulating in different parts of the world. With the resilient nature of carbapenemases, their association with mortality, and the limited treatment options available, concerns regarding this group of antibiotic-hydrolyzing enzymes during the pandemic are expected to upsurge. While the additional burden carbapenemases exert on healthcare is worrisome, it remains hidden or abandoned among the various health consequences of the pandemic. The purpose of this minireview is to shed a light on carbapenemase-associated infections during such unprecedented time of COVID-19. A focused insight shall be made into carbapenemases, their implications for COVID-19 patients, and the features and consequences of co-infection, with a review of available evidence from pertinent literature. The importance of increased surveillance for carbapenemase-producers and optimizing their management in relation to the pandemic, shall be addressed as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bacterial Proteins , Humans , Pandemics , beta-Lactamases
10.
Biomolecules ; 12(3)2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760346

ABSTRACT

Prokaryotic Argonautes (pAgos) from mesophilic bacteria are attracting increasing attention for their genome editing potential. So far, it has been reported that KmAgo from Kurthia massiliensis can utilize DNA and RNA guide of any sequence to effectively cleave DNA and RNA targets. Here we find that three active pAgos, which have about 50% sequence identity with KmAgo, possess typical DNA-guided DNA target cleavage ability. Among them, RsuAgo from Rummeliibacillus suwonensis is mainly explored for which can cleave both DNA and RNA targets. Interestingly, RsuAgo-mediated RNA target cleavage occurs only with short guide DNAs in a narrow length range (16-20 nt), and mismatches between the guide and target sequence greatly affect the efficiency of RNA target cleavage. RsuAgo-mediated target cleavage shows a preference for a guide strand with a 5'-terminal A residue. Furthermore, we have found that RsuAgo can cleave double-stranded DNA in a low-salt buffer at 37 °C. These properties of RsuAgo provide a new tool for DNA and RNA manipulation at moderate temperatures.


Subject(s)
Argonaute Proteins , Bacterial Proteins , Argonaute Proteins/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , DNA/chemistry , Endonucleases , Planococcaceae , RNA
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 988, 2022 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713165

ABSTRACT

Translating ribosomes unwind mRNA secondary structures by three basepairs each elongation cycle. Despite the ribosome helicase, certain mRNA stem-loops stimulate programmed ribosomal frameshift by inhibiting translation elongation. Here, using mutagenesis, biochemical and single-molecule experiments, we examine whether high stability of three basepairs, which are unwound by the translating ribosome, is critical for inducing ribosome pauses. We find that encountering frameshift-inducing mRNA stem-loops from the E. coli dnaX mRNA and the gag-pol transcript of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) hinders A-site tRNA binding and slows down ribosome translocation by 15-20 folds. By contrast, unwinding of first three basepairs adjacent to the mRNA entry channel slows down the translating ribosome by only 2-3 folds. Rather than high thermodynamic stability, specific length and structure enable regulatory mRNA stem-loops to stall translation by forming inhibitory interactions with the ribosome. Our data provide the basis for rationalizing transcriptome-wide studies of translation and searching for novel regulatory mRNA stem-loops.


Subject(s)
Frameshifting, Ribosomal , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA Polymerase III/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , HIV/genetics , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Bacterial/chemistry , RNA, Bacterial/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , RNA, Transfer/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Single Molecule Imaging , Thermodynamics
12.
Cell Rep ; 38(8): 110414, 2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700507

ABSTRACT

Inflammasome activation exacerbates infectious disease caused by pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Although these pathogens activate host inflammasomes to regulate pathogen expansion, the mechanisms by which pathogen toxins contribute to inflammasome activation remain poorly understood. Here we show that activation of inflammasomes by Listeria infection is promoted by amino acid residue T223 of listeriolysin O (LLO) independently of its pore-forming activity. LLO T223 is critical for phosphorylation of the inflammasome adaptor ASC at amino acid residue Y144 through Lyn-Syk signaling, which is essential for ASC oligomerization. Notably, a Listeria mutant expressing LLO T223A is impaired in inducing ASC phosphorylation and inflammasome activation. Furthermore, the virulence of LLO T223A mutant is markedly attenuated in vivo due to impaired ability to activate the inflammasome. Our results reveal a function of a pathogen toxin that exacerbates infection by promoting phosphorylation of ASC.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Bacterial Toxins/metabolism , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/metabolism , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hemolysin Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Toxins/chemistry , Bacterial Toxins/genetics , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/chemistry , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/deficiency , CARD Signaling Adaptor Proteins/genetics , Gene Editing , Heat-Shock Proteins/chemistry , Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics , Hemolysin Proteins/chemistry , Hemolysin Proteins/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/cytology , Macrophages, Peritoneal/metabolism , Macrophages, Peritoneal/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Phosphorylation , Syk Kinase/genetics , Syk Kinase/metabolism , Virulence , src-Family Kinases/genetics , src-Family Kinases/metabolism
13.
Cells ; 11(3)2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662647

ABSTRACT

In this contribution, we report on the possibility that cryptococcal protease(s) could activate the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. The S protein is documented to have a unique four-amino-acid sequence (underlined, SPRRAR↓S) at the interface between the S1 and S2 sites, that serves as a cleavage site for the human protease, furin. We compared the biochemical efficiency of cryptococcal protease(s) and furin to mediate the proteolytic cleavage of the S1/S2 site in a fluorogenic peptide. We show that cryptococcal protease(s) processes this site in a manner comparable to the efficiency of furin (p > 0.581). We conclude the paper by discussing the impact of these findings in the context of a SARS-CoV-2 disease manifesting while there is an underlying cryptococcal infection.


Subject(s)
Aspartic Acid Proteases/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Cryptococcus neoformans/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Aspartic Acid Proteases/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cryptococcus neoformans/genetics , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Furin/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism , Proteolysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(4): 573-580, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640882

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of multi-carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (EB) and the activity of cefiderocol (CFDC), meropenem-vaborbactam (MEV), ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA), and combinations of CZA plus aztreonam (ATM), MEV plus ATM and CFDC plus CZA against them. METHODS: A collection of carbapenemase-producing EB clinical isolates (n = 1242) was investigated by lateral flow immunoassay NG-Test CARBA-5 and molecular testing. Cefiderocol MICs were determined using broth microdilution SensititreTM panel. MICs of CZA and MEV were determined by the gradient diffusion method. Antimicrobial synergy testing was performed using gradient diffusion strip crossing. RESULTS: KPC were the most frequent carbapenemases (83.2%), followed by VIM (9.2 %), OXA-48-like (4.3 %) and NDM enzymes (4.1%). Multi-carbapenemase producers were found in 10 (0.8%) isolates. Three combinations of two different carbapenemases were observed: KPC+VIM (n = 4), NDM+OXA-48-like (n = 4), and VIM+OXA-48-like (n = 2). CFDC showed potent activity against eight out of ten dual-carbapenemases producers, while resistance or reduced susceptibility was shown towards CZA and MEV. CFDC in combination with CZA showed no synergistic effects and only two additive effects on seven (87.5%) of the CFDC-susceptible strains. Conversely, CZA plus ATM and MEV plus ATM combinations were synergistic against all ATM-resistant strains regardless of dual-carbapenemases phenotype. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of multi-carbapenemase producers is not uncommon in Northern Italy area. MEV in combination with ATM might be considered as a potential therapeutic option, alternative to CZA plus ATM. CFDC susceptibility testing and synergy evaluation of ATM-based combinations should be performed in the lab routine to evaluate the most in vitro active antimicrobial regimen.


Subject(s)
Aztreonam , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azabicyclo Compounds , Aztreonam/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Boronic Acids , Ceftazidime/pharmacology , Cephalosporins , Drug Combinations , Humans , Meropenem/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactamases/genetics
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(4): 1140-1145, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report an outbreak of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Prospective, observational study including consecutive COVID-19 patients with hvKp infections admitted to the University Hospital of Pisa (Italy). Clinical data and outcome of patients were collected. All patients were followed-up to 30 days from the diagnosis of infection. Mortality within 30 days of the diagnosis of hvKp infection was reported. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was determined by the 'string test'. Molecular typing was performed on three strains collected during different periods of the outbreak. The strains underwent whole genome sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq instrument. The complete circular assemblies were also obtained for the chromosome and a large plasmid using the Unicycler tool. RESULTS: From November 2020 to March 2021, hvKp has been isolated from 36 COVID-19 patients: 29/36 (80.6%) had infections (15 bloodstream infections, 8 ventilator-associated pneumonias and 6 complicated urinary tract infections), while 7/36 (19.4%) had colonization (3 urine, 2 rectal and 2 skin). The isolates belonged to ST147 and their plasmid carried three replicons of the IncFIB (Mar), IncR and IncHI1B types and several resistance genes, including the rmpADC genes encoding enhancers of capsular synthesis. The hvKp isolates displayed an ESBL phenotype, with resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam and susceptibility only to meropenem and ceftazidime/avibactam. The majority of patients were treated with meropenem alone or in combination with fosfomycin. Thirty-day mortality was 48.3% (14/29). CONCLUSIONS: ST147 ESBL-producing hvKp is associated with high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Strict microbiological surveillance and infection control measures are needed in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Prospective Studies
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 41(3): 495-500, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603573

ABSTRACT

The objective was to study ceftazidime-avibactam resistant and susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from a patient admitted to the Policlinico Umberto I of Rome for SARS-CoV2. Data on the evolution of patient's conditions, antimicrobial therapies, and microbiological data were collected. Whole-genome sequencing performed by Illumina and Nanopore sequencing methods were used to type the strains. During the hospitalization, a SARS-CoV2-infected patient was colonized by a KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strain and empirically treated with ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) when presenting spiking fever symptoms. Successively, ST2502 CZA-resistant strain producing the KPC-31 variant gave a pulmonary infection to the patient. The infection was treated with high doses of meropenem. The KPC-31-producing strain disappeared but the patient remained colonized by a KPC-3-producing K. pneumoniae strain. An interplay between highly conserved KPC-31- and KPC-3-producing ST2502 strains occurred in the SARS-CoV2 patient during the hospitalization, selected by CZA and carbapenem treatments, respectively.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Klebsiella Infections , Meropenem , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/complications , Ceftazidime/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , beta-Lactamases/genetics
17.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261442, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593549

ABSTRACT

A laboratory validation study was conducted to assess the equivalence of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra testing on the GeneXpert System and the GeneXpert Omni System ('Omni') for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. High concordance of the two devices was demonstrated for well-characterized clinical samples as well as control materials, with controls tested on Omni at normal and challenging environmental conditions (i.e. 35°C, 90% relative humidity). Equivalence of the Cts for all probes was also shown. Equivalence was demonstrated for the Omni and GeneXpert devices for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance detection for a diverse range of clinical specimens and environmental conditions.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular/pharmacology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/drug effects , Point-of-Care Testing , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolation & purification , Rifampin/pharmacology , Sputum/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 714027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581346

ABSTRACT

In the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) health crisis, one major challenge is to identify the susceptibility factors of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in order to adapt the recommendations for populations, as well as to reduce the risk of COVID-19 development in the most vulnerable people, especially patients with chronic respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in the modulation of both immune responses and COVID-19 severity. SARS-CoV-2 infects the airway through the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and a host protease, transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), plays a major role in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. Here, we show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa increases TMPRSS2 expression, notably in primary AECs with deficiency of the ion channel CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Further, we show that the main component of P. aeruginosa flagella, the protein flagellin, increases TMPRSS2 expression in primary AECs and Calu-3 cells, through activation of Toll-like receptor-5 and p38 MAPK. This increase is particularly seen in Calu-3 cells deficient for CFTR and is associated with an intracellular increased level of SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, with no effect on the amount of virus particles released. Considering the urgency of the COVID-19 health crisis, this result may be of clinical significance for CF patients, who are frequently infected with and colonized by P. aeruginosa during the course of CF and might develop COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Cystic Fibrosis , Flagellin/metabolism , Pseudomonas Infections/complications , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism
19.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105188, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568934

ABSTRACT

The best and most effective way to combat pandemics is to use effective vaccines and live attenuated vaccines are among the most effective vaccines. However, one of the major problems is the length of time it takes to get the attenuated vaccines. Today, the CRISPR toolkit (Clustered Regularly Inerspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) has made it possible to make changes with high efficiency and speed. Using this toolkit to make point mutations on the RNA virus's genome in a coculture of permissive and nonpermissive cells and under controlled conditions can accelerate changes in the genome and accelerate natural selection to obtain live attenuated vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gene Editing/methods , Mutation Rate , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/immunology , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/immunology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , Endonucleases/genetics , Endonucleases/immunology , Gene Expression , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Selection, Genetic , Vaccines, Attenuated , Viral Proteins/immunology
20.
J Hosp Infect ; 120: 48-56, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of VIM carbapenemase-expressing Enterobacter cloacae complex occurred between March and October 2020 in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care and teaching hospital in France. At the same time, the hospital was facing the COVID-19 first wave. AIM: To describe the management of an outbreak caused by a VIM-producing Enterobacter cloacae complex strain during the COVID-19 pandemic in an ICU and to show the importance of an integrated approach. METHODS: A multi-focal investigation was conducted including descriptive and molecular epidemiology, environmental screening, and assessment of infection prevention and control measures. FINDINGS: A total of 14 cases were identified in this outbreak with a high attributable mortality rate (85.7%). The outbreak management was coordinated by a crisis cell, and involved the implementation of multi-disciplinary actions such as: enhanced hygiene measures, microbiological and molecular analysis of patients and environmental E. cloacae complex strains, and simulation-based teaching. All 23 E. cloacae complex strains isolated from patients and environment samples belonged to multi-locus sequence type ST78 and carried bla-VIM4 gene. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, all but two isolates were also found to belong to a single cluster. Although the source of this outbreak could not be pinpointed, the spread of the strain was controlled thanks to this multi-focal approach and multi-disciplinary implementation. CONCLUSION: This investigation highlighted the usefulness of Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy in the rapid typing of outbreak strains as well as the importance of an integrated approach to successfully fight against multidrug-resistant micro-organism dissemination and healthcare-associated infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Enterobacteriaceae Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacterial Proteins , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Lactamases/genetics
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