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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847340

ABSTRACT

In this study, humidified air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was used to inactivate Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and bacteriophages in biofilms containing DNA, NaCl, carbohydrates, and proteins. The humidified DBD plasma was very effective in the inactivation of microbes in the (≤1.0 µm) biofilms. The number of surviving E. coli, S. aureus, and bacteriophages in the biofilms was strongly dependent on the constituent and thickness of the biofilms and was greatly reduced when the plasma treatment time increased from 5 s to 150 s. Our analysis shows that the UV irradiation was not responsible for the inactivation of microbes in biofilms. The short-lived RONS generated in the humidified air DBD plasma were not directly involved in the inactivation process; however, they recombined or reacted with other species to generate the long-lived RONS. Long-lived RONS diffused into the biofilms to generate very active species, such as ONOOH and OH. This study indicates that the geminated NO2 and OH pair formed due to the homolysis of ONOOH can cause the synergistic oxidation of various organic molecules in the aqueous solution. Proteins in the biofilm were highly resistant to the inactivation of microbes in biofilms, which is presumably due to the existence of the unstable functional groups in the proteins. The unsaturated fatty acids, cysteine-rich proteins, and sulfur-methyl thioether groups in the proteins were easily oxidized by the geminated NO2 and OH pair.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Escherichia coli Infections , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Biofilms , Escherichia coli/physiology , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide , Staphylococcus aureus/physiology
2.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810315

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) mainly causes severe diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets and poses a serious threat to pig farms. Currently, no effective reagents or vaccines are available to control PDCoV infection. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies can effectively inhibit virus infection and may be a potential therapeutic reagent for PDCoV treatment. In this study, a porcine phage display antibody library from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of piglets infected with PDCoV was constructed and used to select PDCoV-specific scFv. The library was screened with four rounds of biopanning using the PDCoV N protein, and the colony with the highest affinity to the PDCoV N protein was obtained (namely, N53). Then, the N53-scFv gene fragment was cloned into plasmid pFUSE-hIgG-Fc2 and expressed in HEK-293T cells. The scFv-Fc antibody N53 (namely, scFv N53) was purified using Protein A-sepharose. The reactive activity of the purified antibody with the PDCoV N protein was confirmed by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Finally, the antigenic epitopes that the scFv N53 recognized were identified by a series of truncated PDCoV N proteins. The amino acid residues 82GELPPNDTPATTRVT96 of the PDCoV N protein were verified as the minimal epitope that can be recognized by the scFv-Fc antibody N53. In addition, the interaction between the scFv-Fc antibody N53 and the PDCoV N protein was further analyzed by molecule docking. In conclusion, our research provides some references for the treatment and prevention of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Coronavirus Infections , Single-Chain Antibodies , Swine Diseases , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Deltacoronavirus , Epitopes , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics , Swine , Technology
3.
Nanoscale ; 14(16): 5942-5959, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778650

ABSTRACT

Filamentous bacteriophages are natural nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of structural proteins that have the capability of replication and infection. They are used as a highly efficient vaccine platform to enhance immunogenicity and effectively stimulate the innate and adaptive immune response. Compared with traditional vaccines, phage-based vaccines offer thermodynamic stability, biocompatibility, homogeneity, high carrying capacity, self-assembly, scalability, and low toxicity. This review summarizes recent research on phage-based vaccines in virus prevention. In addition, the expression systems of filamentous phage-based virus vaccines and their application principles are discussed. Moreover, the prospect of the prevention of emerging infectious diseases, such as coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Inovirus , Nanoparticles , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Inovirus/metabolism , Viral Vaccines/metabolism
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 712657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775961

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of listeriosis, a highly lethal disease initiated after the ingestion of Listeria-contaminated food. This species comprises different serovars, from which 4b, 1/2a, and 1/2b cause most of the infections. Among the different proteins involved in pathogenesis, the internalins A (InlA) and B (InlB) are the best characterized, since they play a major role in the enterocyte entry of Listeria cells during early infection. Due to their covalent attachment to the cell wall and location on the bacterial surface, along with their exclusive presence in the pathogenic L. monocytogenes, these proteins are also used as detection targets for this species. Even though huge advancements were achieved in the enrichment steps for subsequent Listeria detection, few studies have focused on the improvement of the antibodies for immunodetection. In the present study, recombinant InlA and InlB produced in Escherichia coli were used as targets to generate antibodies via phage display using the human naïve antibody libraries HAL9 and HAL10. A set of five recombinant antibodies (four against InlA, and one against InlB) were produced in scFv-Fc format and tested in indirect ELISA against a panel of 19 Listeria strains (17 species; including the three main serovars of L. monocytogenes) and 16 non-Listeria species. All five antibodies were able to recognize L. monocytogenes with 100% sensitivity (CI 29.24-100.0) and specificity (CI 88.78-100.0) in all three analyzed antibody concentrations. These findings show that phage display-derived antibodies can improve the biological tools to develop better immunodiagnostics for L. monocytogenes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Bacterial Proteins , Listeria monocytogenes , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/immunology , Bacteriophages , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Humans , Listeria monocytogenes/isolation & purification
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5424, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768856

ABSTRACT

The development of mouse models of human disease and synthetic biology research by targeted transgenesis of large DNA constructs represent a significant genetic engineering hurdle. We developed an efficient, precise, single-copy integration of large transgenes directly into zygotes using multiple mouse genetic backgrounds. We used in vivo Bxb1 mediated recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) with a transgene "landing pad" composed of dual heterologous Bxb1 attachment (att) sites in cis, within the Gt(ROSA)26Sor safe harbor locus. RMCE of donor was achieved by microinjection of vector DNA carrying cognate attachment sites flanking the donor transgene with Bxb1-integrase mRNA. This approach achieves perfect vector-free integration of donor constructs at efficiencies > 40% with up to ~ 43 kb transgenes. Coupled with a nanopore-based Cas9-targeted sequencing (nCATS), complete verification of precise insertion sequence was achieved. As a proof-of-concept we describe the development of C57BL/6J and NSG Krt18-ACE2 models for SARS-CoV2 research with verified heterozygous N1 animals within ~ 4 months. Additionally, we created a series of mice with diverse backgrounds carrying a single att site including FVB/NJ, PWK/PhJ, NOD/ShiLtJ, CAST/EiJ and DBA/2J allowing for rapid transgene insertion. Combined, this system enables predictable, rapid development with simplified characterization of precisely targeted transgenic animals across multiple genetic backgrounds.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Animals , Bacteriophages/genetics , DNA , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Background , Integrases/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , Mice, Inbred NOD , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The reprocessing of medical devices has become more complex due to increasing hygiene requirements. Previous studies showed satisfactory bactericidal disinfection effects of UV-C light in rigid and flexible endoscopes. Especially in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, virucidal properties are of high importance. In the present study, the virucidal efficacy of UV-C light surface disinfection was analyzed. METHODS: MS-2 bacteriophages were applied to the test samples and irradiated by UV-C light using the UV Smart D25 device; unirradiated test samples were used as controls. A dilution series of the samples was mixed with 1 × 108 Escherichia coli and assayed. RESULTS: 8.6 × 1012 pfu could be harvested from the unprocessed test samples. In the control group without UV-C exposure, a remaining contamination of 1.2 × 1012 pfu was detected, resulting in a procedural baseline reduction rate with a LOG10 reduction factor of 0.72. The LOG10 reduction factor was found to be 3.0 after 25 s of UV-C light exposure. After 50 and 75 s of UV-C radiation LOG10 reduction factors 4.2 and 5.9, respectively, were found, with all reductions being statistically significantly different to baseline. CONCLUSIONS: The tested UV system seems to provide a significant virucidal effect after a relatively short irradiation time.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Ultraviolet Rays
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 88(7): e0255221, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741573

ABSTRACT

The persistence of Phi6 (Φ6) bacteriophage on surfaces commonly encountered in consumer-facing environments was evaluated. Φ6 has been utilized as a surrogate for enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2-the causative agent of COVID-19-due to structural similarities, biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) status, and ease of use. Φ6 persistence on fomites was evaluated by characterizing the impact of the inoculum matrix (artificial saliva, phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], tripartite), inoculum level (low and high), and surface type (nonporous-aluminum, stainless steel, plastic, touchscreen, vinyl; porous-wood). Φ6 was inoculated onto surfaces at low and high inoculum levels for each inoculum matrix and incubated (20.54 ± 0.48°C) for up to 168 h. Φ6 was eluted from the surface and quantified via the double agar overlay assay to determine virus survival over time. For nonporous surfaces inoculated with artificial saliva and PBS, significantly higher D values were observed with high inoculum application according to the 95% confidence intervals. In artificial saliva, D values ranged from 1.00 to 1.35 h at a low inoculum and 4.44 to 7.05 h at a high inoculum across inoculation matrices and surfaces. D values for Φ6, regardless of the inoculum level, were significantly higher in tripartite than in artificial saliva and PBS for nonporous surfaces. In contrast with artificial saliva or PBS, D values in tripartite at low inoculum (D values ranging from 45.8 to 72.8 h) were greater than those at high inoculum (D values ranging from 26.4 to 45.5 h) on nonporous surfaces. This study characterized the impact of the inoculum matrix, inoculum level, and surface type on Φ6 survival on various surfaces relevant to fomite transmission in public settings. IMPORTANCE An important consideration in virus contact transmission is the transfer rate between hands and surfaces, which is driven by several factors, including virus persistence on inanimate surfaces. This research characterized Φ6 persistence on surfaces commonly encountered in public settings based on various factors. The inoculum matrix, which simulates the route of transmission, can impact virus persistence, and three separate matrices were evaluated in this study to determine the impact on Φ6 persistence over time. The number of microorganisms has also been suggested to impact persistence, which was evaluated here to simulate real-world contamination scenarios on six surface types. Results from this study will guide future research utilizing Φ6 or other surrogates for enveloped viruses of public health concern.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Viruses , Fomites , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva, Artificial
8.
Microb Pathog ; 164: 105442, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701213

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the world faced a serious health challenge, the rapid spreading of a life-threatening viral pneumonia, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of January 2022 WHO statistics shows more than 5.6 million death and about 350 million infection by SARS-CoV-2. One of the life threatening aspects of COVID-19 is secondary infections and reduced efficacy of antibiotics against them. Since the beginning of COVID-19 many researches have been done on identification, treatment, and vaccine development. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) could offer novel approaches to detect, treat and control COVID-19. Phage therapy and in particular using phage cocktails can be used to control or eliminate the bacterial pathogen as an alternative or complementary therapeutic agent. At the same time, phage interaction with the host immune system can regulate the inflammatory response. In addition, phage display and engineered synthetic phages can be utilized to develop new vaccines and antibodies, stimulate the immune system, and elicit a rapid and well-appropriate defense response. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 new variants like delta and omicron has proved the urgent need for precise, efficient and novel approaches for vaccine development and virus detection techniques in which bacteriophages may be one of the plausible solutions. Therefore, phages with similar morphology and/or genetic content to that of coronaviruses can be used for ecological and epidemiological modeling of SARS-CoV-2 behavior and future generations of coronavirus, and in general new viral pathogens. This article is a comprehensive review/perspective of potential applications of bacteriophages in the fight against the present pandemic and the post-COVID era.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687052

ABSTRACT

The evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by the emergence of new heavily mutated viral variants with increased infectivity and/or resistance to detection by the human immune system. To respond to the urgent need for advanced methods and materials to empower a better understanding of the mechanisms of virus's adaptation to human host cells and to the immuno-resistant human population, we suggested using recombinant filamentous bacteriophages, displaying on their surface foreign peptides termed "mimotopes", which mimic the structure of viral receptor-binding sites on the viral spike protein and can serve as molecular probes in the evaluation of molecular mechanisms of virus infectivity. In opposition to spike-binding antibodies that are commonly used in studying the interaction of the ACE2 receptor with SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro, phage spike mimotopes targeted to other cellular receptors would allow discovery of their role in viral infection in vivo using cell culture, tissue, organs, or the whole organism. Phage mimotopes of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike S1 protein have been developed using a combination of phage display and molecular mimicry concepts, termed here "phage mimicry", supported by bioinformatics methods. The key elements of the phage mimicry concept include: (1) preparation of a collection of p8-type (landscape) phages, which interact with authentic active receptors of live human cells, presumably mimicking the binding interactions of human coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and its variants; (2) discovery of closely related amino acid clusters with similar 3D structural motifs on the surface of natural ligands (FGF1 and NRP1), of the model receptor of interest FGFR and the S1 spike protein; and (3) an ELISA analysis of the interaction between candidate phage mimotopes with FGFR3 (a potential alternative receptor) in comparison with ACE2 (the authentic receptor).


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/genetics , Cell Surface Display Techniques/methods , Molecular Mimicry , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Bacteriophages/metabolism , Binding Sites , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment
10.
ACS Synth Biol ; 11(2): 528-537, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655460

ABSTRACT

Over the past decades, there have been numerous outbreaks, including parasitic, fungal, bacterial, and viral infections, worldwide. The rate at which infectious diseases are emerging is disproportionate to the rate of development for new strategies that could combat them. Therefore, there is an increasing demand to develop novel, specific, sensitive, and effective methods for infectious disease diagnosis and treatment. Designed synthetic systems and devices are becoming powerful tools to treat human diseases. The advancement in synthetic biology offers efficient, accurate, and cost-effective platforms for detecting and preventing infectious diseases. Herein we focus on the latest state of living theranostics and its implications.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Synthetic Biology , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Bacteriophages/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Precision Medicine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Indoor Air ; 32(1): e12969, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570729

ABSTRACT

Resuspension of dust from flooring is a major source of human exposure to microbial contaminants, but the persistence of viruses on dust and carpet and the contribution to human exposure are often unknown. The goal of this work is to determine viability of MS2 and Phi6 bacteriophages on cut carpet, looped carpet, and house dust both over time and after cleaning. Bacteriophages were nebulized onto carpet or dust in artificial saliva. Viability was measured at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 24, and 48 h and after cleaning by vacuum, steam, hot water extraction, and disinfection. MS2 bacteriophages showed slower viability decay rates in dust (-0.11 hr-1 ), cut carpet (-0.20 hr-1 ), and looped carpet (-0.09 hr-1 ) compared to Phi6 (-3.36 hr-1 , -1.57 hr-1 , and -0.20 hr-1 , respectively). Viable viral concentrations were reduced to below the detection limit for steam and disinfection for both MS2 and Phi6 (p < 0.05), while vacuuming and hot water extraction showed no significant changes in concentration from uncleaned carpet (p > 0.05). These results demonstrate that MS2 and Phi6 bacteriophages can remain viable in carpet and dust for several hours to days, and cleaning with heat and disinfectants may be more effective than standard vacuuming.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Bacteriophages , Allergens , Dust , Floors and Floorcoverings , Humans
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(24): 9047-9067, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530288

ABSTRACT

The rise in multi-drug resistant bacteria and the inability to develop novel antibacterial agents limits our arsenal against infectious diseases. Antibiotic resistance is a global issue requiring an immediate solution, including the development of new antibiotic molecules and other alternative modes of therapy. This article highlights the mechanism of bacteriophage treatment that makes it a real solution for multidrug-resistant infectious diseases. Several case reports identified phage therapy as a potential solution to the emerging challenge of multi-drug resistance. Bacteriophages, unlike antibiotics, have special features, such as host specificity and do not impact other commensals. A new outlook has also arisen with recent advancements in the understanding of phage immunobiology, where phages are repurposed against both bacterial and viral infections. Thus, the potential possibility of phages in COVID-19 patients with secondary bacterial infections has been briefly elucidated. However, significant obstacles that need to be addressed are to design better clinical studies that may contribute to the widespread use of bacteriophage therapy against multi-drug resistant pathogens. In conclusion, antibacterial agents can be used with bacteriophages, i.e. bacteriophage-antibiotic combination therapy, or they can be administered alone in cases when antibiotics are ineffective.Key points• AMR, a consequence of antibiotic generated menace globally, has led to the resurgence of phage therapy as an effective and sustainable solution without any side effects and high specificity against refractory MDR bacterial infections.• Bacteriophages have fewer adverse reactions and can thus be used as monotherapy as well as in conjunction with antibiotics.• In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, phage therapy may be a viable option.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(3): 374-381, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483138

ABSTRACT

Multimodal measurements of single-cell profiles are proving increasingly useful for characterizing cell states and regulatory mechanisms. In the present study, we developed PHAGE-ATAC (Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin), a massively parallel droplet-based method that uses phage displaying, engineered, camelid single-domain antibodies ('nanobodies') for simultaneous single-cell measurements of protein levels and chromatin accessibility profiles, and mitochondrial DNA-based clonal tracing. We use PHAGE-ATAC for multimodal analysis in primary human immune cells, sample multiplexing, intracellular protein analysis and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in human cell populations. Finally, we construct a synthetic high-complexity phage library for selection of antigen-specific nanobodies that bind cells of particular molecular profiles, opening an avenue for protein detection, cell characterization and screening with single-cell genomics.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Bacteriophages/genetics , Chromatin/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Anal Chem ; 93(38): 12938-12943, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467032

ABSTRACT

We use the Φ6 bacteriophage previously exploited as a BSL-1 surrogate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus to obtain the first high-resolution gas phase mobility spectra of an enveloped virus. The relative full width at half-maximum found for the viral mobility distribution (FWHMZ < 3.7%) is substantially narrower than that reported by prior mobility or microscopy studies with other enveloped viruses. It is nevertheless not as narrow as that recently found for several non-enveloped viruses (FWHMZ ≈ 2%), presumably due to particle to particle variability of enveloped viruses. This 3.7% is an upper bound to the actual width. Nevertheless, the well-defined mobility peaks obtained indicate that gas phase mobility analysis is a more discriminating methodology than that previously demonstrated for physically based non-genetic viral diagnostic of enveloped viruses. These results are obtained by analysis of the original cell culture medium containing the virus, purified only by passage through a 0.22 µm filter and by dialysis into a 10 mM aqueous ammonium acetate buffer. We confirmed that this buffer exchange preserves infectivity. Therefore, the 63.7 nm mobility diameter found, although smaller than the 75 nm previously inferred by microscopy, corresponds to the full particle including the envelope.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viruses , Renal Dialysis
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(41): 48469-48477, 2021 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461961

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of developing surfaces and coatings with antiviral activity. Here, we present, for the first time, peptide-based assemblies that can kill viruses. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the assemblies is in the range tens of micrograms per milliliter. This value is 2 orders of magnitude smaller than the MIC of metal nanoparticles. When applied on a surface, by drop casting, the peptide spherical assemblies adhere to the surface and form an antiviral coating against both RNA- and DNA-based viruses including coronavirus. Our results show that the coating reduced the number of T4 bacteriophages (DNA-based virus) by 3 log, compared with an untreated surface and 6 log, when compared with a stock solution. Importantly, we showed that this coating completely inactivated canine coronavirus (RNA-based virus). This peptide-based coating can be useful wherever sterile surfaces are needed to reduce the risk of viral transmission.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteriophages/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dihydroxyphenylalanine/chemistry , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Dog Diseases/virology , Dogs , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
16.
J Water Health ; 20(1): 83-91, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448641

ABSTRACT

The reported persistence of SARS-CoV-2 virions in aquatic environments highlights the need to better understand potential mechanisms that may prolong its dissemination. We evaluated the possibility that amoebae might serve as transport hosts by studying the interaction of the enveloped bacteriophage Phi6, as a potential surrogated along with one of the most common amoebae in engineered aquatic environments, Vermamoeba vermiformis. Using microscopy, imaging flow cytometry and bacteriophage cell culture, our results imply that the SARS-CoV-2 surrogate triggers amoebic mitochondria and induced apoptosis to promote viral persistence in trophozoites. Furthermore, virus-infected amoebae were still infectious after 2 months within FLA cysts. These results suggest that amoebae could contribute to the environmental persistence of SARS-CoV-2, including disinfection processes. In addition, amoebae could be a successful model system for understanding respiratory virus-eukaryotic biology at the cellular and molecular levels.


Subject(s)
Amoeba , Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 2): 150722, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447139

ABSTRACT

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation is one of the conventional methods for virus concentration. This technique has been used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in wastewater. The procedures and seeded surrogate viruses were different among implementers; thus, the reported whole process recovery efficiencies considerably varied among studies. The present study compared five PEG precipitation procedures, with different operational parameters, for the RT-qPCR-based whole process recovery efficiency of murine hepatitis virus (MHV), bacteriophage phi6, and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and molecular process recovery efficiency of murine norovirus using 34 raw wastewater samples collected in Japan. The five procedures yielded significantly different whole process recovery efficiency of MHV (0.070%-2.6%) and phi6 (0.071%-0.51%). The observed concentration of indigenous PMMoV ranged from 8.9 to 9.7 log (8.2 × 108 to 5.6 × 109) copies/L. Interestingly, PEG precipitation with 2-h incubation outperformed that with overnight incubation partially due to the difference in molecular process recovery efficiency. The recovery load of MHV exhibited a positive correlation (r = 0.70) with that of PMMoV, suggesting that PMMoV is the potential indicator of the recovery efficiency of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we reviewed 13 published studies and found considerable variability between different studies in the whole process recovery efficiency of enveloped viruses by PEG precipitation. This was due to the differences in operational parameters and surrogate viruses as well as the differences in wastewater quality and bias in the measurement of the seeded load of surrogate viruses, resulting from the use of different analytes and RNA extraction methods. Overall, the operational parameters (e.g., incubation time and pretreatment) should be optimized for PEG precipitation. Co-quantification of PMMoV may allow for the normalization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentration by correcting for the differences in whole process recovery efficiency and fecal load among samples.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , Humans , Mice , Polyethylene Glycols , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Tobamovirus , Waste Water
18.
J Virol Methods ; 299: 114307, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446919

ABSTRACT

Phi 6 (Φ6) bacteriophage is a proposed surrogate to study pathogenic enveloped viruses including SARS-CoV-2-the causative agent of COVID-19-based on structural similarities, BSL-1 status, and ease of use. To determine the role of virus-contaminated hands in disease transmission, an enhanced understanding of buffer and method performance for Φ6 recovery needs to be determined. Four buffer types and three methodologies were investigated for the recovery of Φ6 from human fingerpads over a 30 min duration. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), PBS + 0.1 % Tween, 0.1 M glycine + 3% beef extract, and viral transport medium were evaluated as buffers for recovery of Φ6 via a dish, modified glove juice, and vigorous swabbing method. Φ6 concentrations on fingerpads were determined at 0-, 5-, 10-, and 30-min post-inoculation. While there were observed differences in virus recovery across buffer and method types depending on the time point, log PFU recovery based on buffer type or methodology was not significantly different at any time point (P > 0.05). The results presented in this study will allow for future work on Φ6 persistence, transfer between hands and surfaces, and efficacy of hand hygiene methods to be performed using a well-characterized and validated recovery method.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(2): 1489-1495, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365083

ABSTRACT

AIM: The air indoors has profound health implications as it can expose us to pathogens, allergens and particulates either directly or via contaminated surfaces. There is, therefore, an upsurge in marketing of air decontamination technologies, but with no proper validation of their claims. We addressed the gap through the construction and use of a versatile room-sized (25 m3 ) chamber to study airborne pathogen survival and inactivation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report on the quantitative recovery and detection of an enveloped (Phi6) and a non-enveloped bacteriophage (MS2). The two phages, respectively, acted as surrogates for airborne human pathogenic enveloped (e.g., influenza, Ebola and coronavirus SARS-CoV-2) and non-enveloped (e.g., norovirus) viruses from indoor air deposited directly on the lawns of their respective host bacteria using a programmable slit-to-agar air sampler. Using this technique, two different devices based on HEPA filtration and UV light were tested for their ability to decontaminate indoor air. This safe, relatively simple and inexpensive procedure augments the use of phages as surrogates for the study of airborne human and animal pathogenic viruses. CONCLUSIONS: This simple, safe and relatively inexpensive method of direct recovery and quantitative detection of viable airborne phage particles can greatly enhance their applicattion as surrogates for the study of vertebrate virus survival in indoor air and assessment of technologies for their decontamination. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The safe, economical and simple technique reported here can be applied widely to investigate the role of indoor air for virus survival and transmission and also to assess the potential of air decontaminating technologies.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Viruses , Air Microbiology , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vertebrates
20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 635597, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362322

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is exuberantly becoming a deleterious health problem world-wide. Seeking innovative approaches is necessary in order to circumvent such a hazard. An unconventional fill-in to antibiotics is bacteriophage. Bacteriophages are viruses capable of pervading bacterial cells and disrupting their natural activity, ultimately resulting in their defeat. In this article, we will run-through the historical record of bacteriophage and its correlation with bacteria. We will also delineate the potential of bacteriophage as a therapeutic antibacterial agent, its supremacy over antibiotics in multiple aspects and the challenges that could arise on the way to its utilization in reality. Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and genetic engineering of bacteriophages and its proteins will be briefly discussed as well. In addition, we will highlight some of the in-use applications of bacteriophages, and set an outlook for their future ones. We will also overview some of the miscellaneous abilities of these tiny viruses in several fields other than the clinical one. This is an attempt to encourage tackling a long-forgotten hive. Perhaps, one day, the smallest of the creatures would be of the greatest help.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Bacteriophages , Phage Therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Humans
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