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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262141, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613361

ABSTRACT

The deadliest coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is taking thousands of lives worldwide and presents an extraordinary challenge to mental resilience. This study assesses mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated factors among informal waste workers in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in June 2020 among 176 informal waste workers selected from nine municipalities and one city corporation in Bangladesh. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to assess respondents' mental health. The study found that 80.6% of the individuals were suffering from psychological distress; 67.6% reported anxiety and depression, 92.6% reported social dysfunction, and 19.9% reported loss of confidence. The likelihood of psychological distress (Risk ratio [RR]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.48) was significantly higher for female than male. Multiple COVID-19 symptoms of the family members (RR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41), unawareness about COVID-19 infected neighbor (RR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.41), income reduction (RR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.06-2.41) and daily household meal reduction (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73) were also found to be associated with psychological distress. These identified factors should be considered in policy-making and support programs for the informal waste workers to manage the pandemic situation as well as combating COVID-19 related psychological challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Working Poor/psychology , Adult , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sanitary Engineering/methods , Sanitary Engineering/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612992

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Concerns have been raised about the potential for risk compensation in the context of mask mandates for mitigating the spread of COVID-19. However, the debate about the presence or absence of risk compensation for universal mandatory mask-wearing rules-especially in the context of COVID-19-is not settled yet. METHODS: Mobility is used as a proxy for risky behaviour before and after the mask mandates. Two sets of regressions are estimated to decipher (any) risk-compensating effect of mask mandate in Bangladesh. These include: (1) intervention regression analysis of daily activities at six types of locations, using pre-mask-mandate and post-mandate data; and (2) multiple regression analysis of daily new COVID-19 cases on daily mobility (lagged) to establish mobility as a valid proxy. RESULTS: (1) Statistically, mobility increased at all five non-residential locations, while home stays decreased after the mask mandate was issued; (2) daily mobility had a statistically significant association on daily new cases (with around 10 days of lag). Both significances were calculated at 95% confidence level. CONCLUSION: Community mobility had increased (and stay at home decreased) after the mandatory mask-wearing rule, and given mobility is associated with increases in new COVID-19 cases, there is evidence of risk compensation effect of the mask mandate-at least partially-in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597647

ABSTRACT

Rice market efficiency is important for food security in countries where rice is a staple. We assess the impact of rice quality on rice prices, food security, and environmental sustainability in Bangladesh. We find that while price varies as expected for most quality attributes, it is unaffected by a broken percentage below 24.9 percent. This reveals a potential inefficiency, considering the average 5 percent broken rate observed in the market. An increase in the broken rate of milled rice within the limits supported by our findings can, ceteris paribus, increase rice rations by 4.66 million a year, or conversely, yield the current number of rice rations using 170.79 thousand fewer hectares and cutting emissions by 1.48 million metric tons of CO2 equivalent. Thus, producing rice based on quality assessment can improve food security and its sustainability.


Subject(s)
Food Security , Oryza/physiology , Sustainable Development , Bangladesh , Commerce , Food Security/economics , Models, Economic , Statistics as Topic
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of long COVID symptoms in a large cohort of people living with and affected by long COVID and identify any potential associated risk factors. METHODS: A prospective survey was undertaken of an inception cohort of confirmed people living with and affected by long COVID (aged 18-87 years). 14392 participants were recruited from 24 testing facilities across Bangladesh between June and November 2020. All participants had a previously confirmed positive COVID-19 diagnosis, and reported persistent symptoms and difficulties in performing daily activities. Participants who consented were contacted by face-to-face interview, and were interviewed regarding long COVID, and restriction of activities of daily living using post COVID-19 functional status scale. Cardiorespiratory parameters measured at rest (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation levels, maximal oxygen consumption, inspiratory and expiratory lung volume) were also measured. RESULTS: Among 2198 participants, the prevalence of long COVID symptoms at 12 weeks was 16.1%. Overall, eight long COVID symptoms were identified and in descending order of prominence are: fatigue, pain, dyspnoea, cough, anosmia, appetite loss, headache and chest pain. People living with and affected by long COVID experienced between 1 and 8 long COVID symptoms with an overall duration period of 21.8±5.2 weeks. Structural equation modelling predicted the length of long COVID to be related to younger age, female gender, rural residence, prior functional limitation and smoking. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, at 31 weeks post diagnosis, the prevalence of long COVID symptoms was 16.1%. The risk factors identified for presence and longer length of long COVID symptoms warrant further research and consideration to support public health initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e055126, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is still raging worldwide. While there is significant published evidence on the attributes of patients with COVID-19 from lower-income and middle-income countries, there is a dearth of original research published from Bangladesh, a low-income country in Southeast Asia. Based on a case series from a tertiary healthcare centre, this observational study has explored the epidemiology, clinical profile of patients with COVID-19 and short-term outcomes in Dhaka, Bangladesh. DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 422 COVID-19-confirmed patients (via reverse transcription-PCR test) were enrolled in this study (male=271, female=150, 1 unreported). We have compiled medical records of the patients and descriptively reported their demographic, socioeconomic and clinical features, treatment history, health outcomes, and postdischarge complications. RESULT: Patients were predominantly male (64%), between 35 and 49 years (28%), with at least one comorbidity (52%), and had COVID-19 symptoms for 1 week before hospitalisation (66%). A significantly higher proportion (p<0.05) of male patients had diabetes, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, while female patients had asthma (p<0.05). The most common symptoms were fever (80%), cough (60%), dyspnoea (41%) and sore throat (21%). The majority of the patients received antibiotics (77%) and anticoagulant therapy (56%) and stayed in the hospital for an average of 12 days. Over 90% of patients were successfully weaned, while 3% died from COVID-19, and 41% reported complications after discharge. CONCLUSION: The diversity of clinical and epidemiological characteristics and health outcomes of patients with COVID-19 across age groups and gender is noteworthy. Our result will inform the clinicians and epidemiologists of Bangladesh of their COVID-19 mitigation effort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aftercare , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(8): 949-950, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573665

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world struggling to prevent COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This study employed correlation, cluster analysis, and multiple linear regression analyses using district-wise COVID-19 infection and socioeconomic data. It is observed that there is a strong positive correlation (r = 0.876, P < .001) between population density and COVID-19, explaining a 60% variation in Bangladesh. The relationship between urbanization and COVID-19 is also positively strong (r = 0.802, P < .001). Urban settlements have a higher risk of spreading diseases due to the enormous population density. For future planning to prevent COVID-19 and other related infectious diseases, population density should be considered a risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Population Density , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211065628, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccination rollout against COVID-19 has started in developed countries in early December 2020. Mass immunization for poor or low-income countries is quite challenging before 2023. Being a lower-middle-income country, Bangladesh has begun a nationwide COVID-19 vaccination drive in early February 2021. Here, we aimed to assess the opinions, experiences, and adverse events of the COVID-19 vaccination in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted this online cross-sectional study from 10 February 2021, to 10 March 2021, in Bangladesh. A self-reported semi-structured survey questionnaire was used using Google forms. We recorded demographics, disease history, medication records, opinions and experiences of vaccination, and associated adverse events symptoms. RESULTS: We observed leading comorbid diseases were hypertension (25.9%), diabetes (21.1%), heart diseases (9.3%), and asthma (8.7%). The most frequently reported adverse events were injection site pain (34.3%), fever (32.6%), headache (20.2%), fatigue (16.6%), and cold feeling (15.4%). The chances of having adverse events were significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.039). However, 36.4% of respondents reported no adverse events. Adverse events usually appeared after 12 h and went way within 48 h of vaccination. Besides, 85.5% were happy with the overall vaccination management, while 88.0% of the respondents recommended the COVID-19 vaccine for others for early immunization. CONCLUSION: According to the present findings, reported adverse events after the doses of Covishield in Bangladesh were non-serious and temporary. In Bangladesh, the early vaccination against COVID-19 was possible due to its prudent vaccine deal, previous mass vaccination experience, and vaccine diplomacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Program Evaluation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has seriously disrupted health services in many countries including Bangladesh. This research aimed to explore whether Rohingya (forcefully displaced Myanmar nationals) older adults in Bangladesh faced difficulties accessing medicines and routine medical care services amid this pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 416 Rohingya older adults aged 60 years and above residing in Rohingya refugee camps situated in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh and was conducted in October 2020. A purposive sampling technique was followed, and participants' perceived difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care were noted through face-to-face interviews. Binary logistic regression models determined the association between outcome and explanatory variables. RESULTS: Overall, one-third of the participants reported difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care. Significant factors associated with facing difficulties accessing medicine included feelings of loneliness (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.54, 95% CI 1.93 to 6.48), perceptions that older adults were at the highest risk of COVID-19 (AOR 3.35, 95% CI 1.61 to 6.97) and required additional care during COVID-19 (AOR 6.89, 95% CI 3.62 to 13.13). Also, the notable factors associated with difficulties in receiving routine medical care included living more than 30 min walking distance from the health centre (AOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.95 to 6.56), feelings of loneliness (AOR 2.20, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.87), perception that older adults were at the highest risk of COVID-19 (AOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.36 to 5.99) and perception that they required additional care during the pandemic (AOR 4.55, 95% CI 2.48 to 8.35). CONCLUSION: Many Rohingya older adults faced difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care during this pandemic. This call for policy-makers and relevant stakeholders to re-assess emergency preparedness plans including strategies to provide continuing care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261368, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571994

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health crisis that is now impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Little is known how COVID-19 risks influence people to consume antibiotics, particularly in contexts like Bangladesh where these pharmaceuticals can be purchased without a prescription. This paper identifies the social drivers of antibiotics use among home-based patients who have tested positive with SARS-CoV-2 or have COVID-19-like symptoms. Using qualitative telephone interviews, the research was conducted in two Bangladesh cities with 40 participants who reported that they had tested positive for coronavirus (n = 20) or had COVID-19-like symptoms (n = 20). Our analysis identified five themes in antibiotic use narratives: antibiotics as 'big' medicine; managing anxiety; dealing with social repercussions of COVID-19 infection; lack of access to COVID-19 testing and healthcare services; and informal sources of treatment advice. Antibiotics were seen to solve physical and social aspects of COVID-19 infection, with urgent ramifications for AMR in Bangladesh and more general implications for global efforts to mitigate AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Adult , Bangladesh , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Social Factors
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3643-3657, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526427

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving profound pandemic, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and results in significant case fatality around the world including Bangladesh. We conducted this study to assess how COVID-19 cases clustered across districts in Bangladesh and whether the pattern and duration of clusters changed following the country's containment strategy using Geographic information system (GIS) software. We calculated the epidemiological measures including incidence, case fatality rate (CFR) and spatiotemporal pattern of COVID-19. We used inverse distance weighting (IDW), Geographically weighted regression (GWR), Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics for prediction, spatial autocorrelation and hotspot identification. We used retrospective space-time scan statistic to analyse clusters of COVID-19 cases. COVID-19 has a CFR of 1.4%. Over 50% of cases were reported among young adults (21-40 years age). The incidence varies from 0.03 - 0.95 at the end of March to 15.59-308.62 per 100,000, at the end of July. Global Moran's Index indicates a robust spatial autocorrelation of COVID-19 cases. Local Moran's I analysis stated a distinct High-High (HH) clustering of COVID-19 cases among Dhaka, Gazipur and Narayanganj districts. Twelve statistically significant high rated clusters were identified by space-time scan statistics using a discrete Poisson model. IDW predicted the cases at the undetermined area, and GWR showed a strong relationship between population density and case frequency, which was further established with Moran's I (0.734; p ≤ 0.01). Dhaka and its surrounding six districts were identified as the significant hotspot whereas Chattogram was an extended infected area, indicating the gradual spread of the virus to peripheral districts. This study provides novel insights into the geostatistical analysis of COVID-19 clusters and hotspots that might assist the policy planner to predict the spatiotemporal transmission dynamics and formulate imperative control strategies of SARS-CoV-2 in Bangladesh. The geospatial modeling tools can be used to prevent and control future epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(10): 1388-1395, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518654

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunization, as a process of fighting against the COVID-19, has gained important research appeal, but very limited endeavor has been paid for vaccine behavioral studies in underdeveloped and developing countries. This study explores the vaccine demand, hesitancy, and nationalism as well as vaccine acceptance and domestic vaccine preference among young adults in Bangladesh. METHODOLOGY: This quantitative study followed the snowball sampling technique and collected responses from 1,018 individuals from various social media platforms. The analysis covered both descriptive and inferential statistics including chi-square, F-statistic, and logistic regression. RESULTS: The findings of the fully-adjusted regression model suggest that the individuals who had more vaccine demand were 3.29 times (95% confidence interval = 2.39-4.54; p < 0.001) higher to accept vaccine compared to those who had no vaccine demand. Conversely, vaccine hesitancy was negatively associated with vaccine acceptance. Here, the odds ratio was found 0.70 (95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.80; p < 0.001), which means that those who had higher vaccine hesitancy were about 30% less likely to accept vaccines than those who had no hesitancy. In addition, the persons who had vaccine nationalism were 1.75 times (95% confidence interval = 1.62-1.88; p < 0.001) more prone to prefer domestic vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that policymakers may take initiatives for making people aware and knowledgeable about the severity and vulnerability to specific health threats. In this concern, perception and efficacy-increasing programs may take part in increasing protection motivation behaviors like vaccine acceptance and (domestic) vaccine preference.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Motivation , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination/psychology , Adolescent , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Young Adult
17.
Health Syst Reform ; 7(1): e1991550, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517762

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an extraordinary threat to the health, safety, and freedom of temporary foreign workers (TFWs). Highly effective vaccines against COVID-19 may hold an outsized benefit for TFWs, particularly those living in congregate settings where protective measures such as social distancing are not possible. While some studies of migrant destination countries have included migrants, no study to date has sought to understand variations in vaccine hesitancy among individuals in a single migrant source population across different destinations. Such a design is critical for understanding how the context of immigration affects levels of hesitancy among migrants from similar conditions of origin. This observational study leverages longitudinal data from an ongoing monthly rapid-response survey of TFWs from Bangladesh (n = 360). Overall vaccine hesitancy was 25%, with significant variation by host country. Multivariate analyses confirmed that immigration system factors and threat perception are the strongest predictors of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy for TFWs. The predicted probability of hesitancy for an undocumented TFW was 0.405, while the predicted probability for those with valid visas was 0.207 (p < .01). The probability of being hesitant for TFWs who were worried about getting COVID-19 was 0.129 compared to 0.305 (p < .01) for those who were not worried. Results reveal low vaccine hesitancy among TFWs from Bangladesh with differences in location, undocumented status, COVID-19 threat perception, and level of worry about side effects. There could be relatively high returns for targeting vaccine access and distribution to TFWs because of their high levels of vaccine acceptance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Bangladesh , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2133167, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516697
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2132777, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516694

ABSTRACT

Importance: A slow or incomplete civil registry makes it impossible to determine excess mortality due to COVID-19 and difficult to inform policy. Objective: To quantify the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with excess mortality and household income in rural Bangladesh in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This repeated survey study is based on an in-person census followed by 2 rounds of telephone calls. Data were collected from a sample of 135 villages within a densely populated 350-km2 rural area of Bangladesh. Household data were obtained first in person and subsequently over the telephone. For the analysis, mortality data were stratified by month, age, sex, and household education. Mortality rates were modeled by bayesian multilevel regression, and the strata were aggregated to the population by poststratification. Data analysis was performed from February to April 2021. Exposures: Date and cause of any changes in household composition, as well as changes in income and food availability. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality rates were compared for 2019 and 2020, both without adjustment and after adjustment for nonresponse and differences in demographic variables between surveys. Income and food availability reported for January, May, and November 2020 were also compared. Results: Enumerators collected data from an initial 16 054 households in January 2020; 14 551 households (91%) responded when contacted again by telephone in May 2020, and 11 933 households (74%)responded when reached again over the telephone in November 2020, for a total of 58 806 individuals (29 726 female participants [50.5%]; mean [SD] age, 26.4 [19.8] years). A total of 276 deaths were reported between February and the end of October 2020 for the subset of the population that could be contacted twice over the telephone, slightly below the 289 deaths reported for the same population over the same period in 2019. After adjustment for survey nonresponse and poststratification, 2020 mortality changed by -8% (95% CI, -21% to 7%) compared with an annualized mortality of 6.1 deaths per 1000 individuals in 2019. However, in May 2020, salaried primary income earners reported a 40% decrease in monthly income (from 17 485 to 10 835 Bangladeshi Taka), and self-employed earners reported a 60% decrease in monthly income (23 083 to 8521 Bangladeshi Taka), with only a small recovery observed by November 2020. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of households in rural Bangladesh, all-cause mortality was lower in 2020 compared with 2019. Restrictions imposed by the government may have limited the scale of the COVID-19 pandemic in rural areas, although economic data suggest that these restrictions need to be accompanied by expanded welfare programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Family Characteristics , Income , Pandemics , Rural Population , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Educational Status , Employment , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506746

ABSTRACT

Background: To develop an effective countermeasure and determine our susceptibilities to the outbreak of COVID-19 is challenging for a densely populated developing country like Bangladesh and a systematic review of the disease on a continuous basis is necessary. Methods: Publicly available and globally acclaimed datasets (4 March 2020-30 September 2020) from IEDCR, Bangladesh, JHU, and ECDC database are used for this study. Visual exploratory data analysis is used and we fitted a polynomial model for the number of deaths. A comparison of Bangladesh scenario over different time points as well as with global perspectives is made. Results: In Bangladesh, the number of active cases had decreased, after reaching a peak, with a constant pattern of death rate at from July to the end of September, 2020. Seventy-one percent of the cases and 77% of the deceased were males. People aged between 21 and 40 years were most vulnerable to the coronavirus and most of the fatalities (51.49%) were in the 60+ population. A strong positive correlation (0.93) between the number of tests and confirmed cases and a constant incidence rate (around 21%) from June 1 to August 31, 2020 was observed. The case fatality ratio was between 1 and 2. The number of cases and the number of deaths in Bangladesh were much lower compared to other countries. Conclusions: This study will help to understand the patterns of spread and transition in Bangladesh, possible measures, effectiveness of the preparedness, implementation gaps, and their consequences to gather vital information and prevent future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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