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2.
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 111, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) is critical in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and is one of the pillars of the WHO COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan 2020. We conducted an Intra-Action Review (IAR) of IPC response efforts to the COVID-19 pandemic in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, to identify best practices, challenges, and recommendations for improvement of the current and future responses. METHODS: We conducted two meetings with 54 participants purposively selected from different organizations and agencies involved in the frontline implementation of IPC in Cox's Bazar district, Bangladesh. We used the IPC trigger questions from the WHO country COVID-19 IAR: trigger question database to guide the discussions. Meeting notes and transcripts were then analyzed manually using content analysis, and results were presented in text and quotes. RESULTS: Best practices included: assessments, a response plan, a working group, trainings, early case identification and isolation, hand hygiene in Health Facilities (HFs), monitoring and feedback, general masking in HFs, supportive supervision, design, infrastructure and environmental controls in Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Isolation and Treatment Centers (SARI ITCs) and HFs and waste management. Challenges included: frequent breakdown of incinerators, limited PPE supply, inconsistent adherence to IPC, lack of availability of uniforms for health workers, in particular cultural and gender appropriate uniforms and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Recommendations from the IAR were: (1) to promote the institutionalization of IPC, programs in HFs (2) establishment of IPC monitoring mechanisms in all HCFs, (3) strengthening IPC education and training in health care facilities, and (4) strengthen public health and social measures in communities. CONCLUSION: Establishing IPC programmes that include monitoring and continuous training are critical in promoting consistent and adaptive IPC practices. Response to a pandemic crisis combined with concurrent emergencies, such as protracted displacement of populations with many diverse actors, can only be successful with highly coordinated planning, leadership, resource mobilization, and close supervision.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refugees , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Bangladesh , Refugee Camps , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control
3.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286322, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mpox (monkeypox) infection has become a global concern for healthcare authorities after spreading in multiple non-endemic countries. Following the sudden multi-country outbreak of Mpox, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a public health emergency of international concern. We do not have any vaccines approved for the prevention of Mpox infection. Therefore, international healthcare authorities endorsed smallpox vaccines for the prevention of Mpox disease. Here we intended to perform this cross-sectional study among the adult males in Bangladesh to assess the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. METHODS: We conducted this web-based survey among the adult males in Bangladesh from September 1, 2022, to November 30, 2022, using Google Forms. We assessed the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. We performed a chi-square test to compare vaccine perception and vaccination intention levels. Also, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between the study parameters and the sociodemographic profile of the participants. RESULTS: According to the present study, the Mpox vaccine perception was high among 60.54% of the respondents. Also, 60.05% of respondents showed medium vaccination intention. Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention were strongly associated with the sociodemographic profiles of the participants. Furthermore, we discovered a significant association between the level of education and vaccination intention among the respondents. Also, age and marital status played a role in the Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed a significant association between sociodemographic characteristics and the Mpox vaccine perception/vaccination intention. Along with the country's long experience in mass immunization, campaigns about Covid-19 vaccines and high vaccination rates might play a role in Mpox vaccine perception and vaccination intention. We recommend more social awareness and educational communications or seminars for the target population to bring more positive changes in their attitude towards Mpox prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monkeypox , Smallpox Vaccine , Vaccines , Male , Adult , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Intention , Bangladesh , Vaccination , Perception
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 523, 2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has created unprecedented havoc among health care workers, resulting in significant psychological strains like insomnia. This study aimed to analyze insomnia prevalence and job stressors among Bangladeshi health care workers in COVID-19 units. METHODOLOGY: We conducted this cross-sectional study to assess insomnia severity from January to March 2021 among 454 health care workers working in multiple hospitals in Dhaka city with active COVID-dedicated units. We selected 25 hospitals conveniently. We used a structured questionnaire for face-to-face interviews containing sociodemographic variables and job stressors. The severity of insomnia was measured by the Insomnia Severity Scale (ISS). The scale has seven items to evaluate the rate of insomnia, which was categorized as the absence of Insomnia (0-7); sub-threshold Insomnia (8-14); moderate clinical Insomnia (15-21); and severe clinical Insomnia (22-28). To identify clinical insomnia, a cut-off value of 15 was decided primarily. A cut-off score of 15 was initially proposed for identifying clinical insomnia. We performed a chi-square test and adjusted logistic regression to explore the association of different independent variables with clinically significant insomnia using the software SPSS version 25.0. RESULTS: 61.5% of our study participants were females. 44.9% were doctors, 33.9% were nurses, and 21.1% were other health care workers. Insomnia was more dominant among doctors and nurses (16.2% and 13.6%, respectively) than others (4.2%). We found clinically significant insomnia was associated with several job stressors (p < 0.05). In binary logistic regression, having sick leave (OR = 0.248, 95% CI = 0.116, 0.532) and being entitled to risk allowance (OR = 0.367, 95% CI = 0.124.1.081) showed lower odds of developing Insomnia. Previously diagnosed with COVID-19-positive health care workers had an OR of 2.596 (95% CI = 1.248, 5.399), pointing at negative experiences influencing insomnia. In addition, we observed that any training on risk and hazard increased the chances of suffering from Insomnia (OR = 1.923, 95% CI = 0.934, 3.958). CONCLUSION: It is evident from the findings that the volatile existence and ambiguity of COVID-19 have induced significant adverse psychological effects and subsequently directed our HCWs toward disturbed sleep and insomnia. The study recommends the imperativeness to formulate and implement collaborative interventions to help HCWs cope with this crisis and mitigate the mental stresses they experience during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Female , Humans , Male , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel
5.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241674

ABSTRACT

Dengue virus (DENV) infections have unpredictable clinical outcomes, ranging from asymptomatic or minor febrile illness to severe and fatal disease. The severity of dengue infection is at least partly related to the replacement of circulating DENV serotypes and/or genotypes. To describe clinical profiles of patients and the viral sequence diversity corresponding to non-severe and severe cases, we collected patient samples from 2018 to 2022 at Evercare Hospital Dhaka, Bangladesh. Serotyping of 495 cases and sequencing of 179 cases showed that the dominant serotype of DENV shifted from DENV2 in 2017 and 2018 to DENV3 in 2019. DENV3 persisted as the only representative serotype until 2022. Co-circulation of clades B and C of the DENV2 cosmopolitan genotype in 2017 was replaced by circulation of clade C alone in 2018 with all clones disappearing thereafter. DENV3 genotype I was first detected in 2017 and was the only genotype in circulation until 2022. We observed a high incidence of severe cases in 2019 when the DENV3 genotype I became the only virus in circulation. Phylogenetic analysis revealed clusters of severe cases in several different subclades of DENV3 genotype I. Thus, these serotype and genotype changes in DENV may explain the large dengue outbreaks and increased severity of the disease in 2019.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus , Dengue , Humans , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Serogroup , Genotype
6.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283452, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328116

ABSTRACT

In this study, we attempt to anticipate annual rice production in Bangladesh (1961-2020) using both the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and the eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) methods and compare their respective performances. On the basis of the lowest Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) values, a significant ARIMA (0, 1, 1) model with drift was chosen based on the findings. The drift parameter value shows that the production of rice positively trends upward. Thus, the ARIMA (0, 1, 1) model with drift was found to be significant. On the other hand, the XGBoost model for time series data was developed by changing the tunning parameters frequently with the greatest result. The four prominent error measures, such as mean absolute error (MAE), mean percentage error (MPE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), were used to assess the predictive performance of each model. We found that the error measures of the XGBoost model in the test set were comparatively lower than those of the ARIMA model. Comparatively, the MAPE value of the test set of the XGBoost model (5.38%) was lower than that of the ARIMA model (7.23%), indicating that XGBoost performs better than ARIMA at predicting the annual rice production in Bangladesh. Hence, the XGBoost model performs better than the ARIMA model in predicting the annual rice production in Bangladesh. Therefore, based on the better performance, the study forecasted the annual rice production for the next 10 years using the XGBoost model. According to our predictions, the annual rice production in Bangladesh will vary from 57,850,318 tons in 2021 to 82,256,944 tons in 2030. The forecast indicated that the amount of rice produced annually in Bangladesh will increase in the years to come.


Subject(s)
Oryza , Bangladesh , Neural Networks, Computer , Incidence , Forecasting , Machine Learning , Models, Statistical
7.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1152366, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322020

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health challenges have emerged worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. University students experienced changes in their lifestyles, academic life, family relationships, earning capacity, and support systems. This study explores the common mental health challenges in university students and their coping strategies using social support in the first wave of lockdowns in Dhaka city in 2020. By learning from young people's impacts and coping responses, we can help build an improved strategy for future events of this magnitude. Methods: A qualitative study design was employed to conduct 20 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions with students from purposively selected three public and three private universities in Dhaka city and five key informant interviews with different stakeholders. We used inductive reflexive thematic analysis and applied six phases of the thematic analysis. Codes retrieved from two differently prepared codebooks were merged and compared to identify themes for a fair interpretation of the underlying data. Data were manually indexed, summarized, and interpreted to categorize codes into sub-themes leading to themes. Results: Financial constraints, academic pressure, learning resources shortages, losing confidence, relationship breakup, excessive internet dependency, and traumatic experiences challenged the mental health conditions of the students unevenly across universities during the COVID-19 pandemic. Expressed mental health well-being impacts ranged from anxiety, stress, and depression to self-harm and suicidal ideation. Family bonding and social networking appeared as robust social support mechanisms to allow students to cope with anxiety, stress, and depression. Partial financial subsidies, soft loans to purchase electronic resources, faculty members' counseling, and sessional health counseling contributed to minimizing the mental health impacts of COVID-19. Conclusion: Mental health is still not a resourced area of health and well-being in Bangladesh. Concentration on developing strong social support and improving increased financial subsidies, including learning resources, can be effective in assisting students in coping with the common mental health burdens during pandemic periods. A national intervention plan should be immediately designed and implemented by engaging different stakeholders including healthcare professionals and establishing effective mental healthcare support centers at universities to avoid immediate and prolonged negative mental health impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Humans , Adolescent , Pandemics , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Adaptation, Psychological
8.
Pediatrics ; 151(Suppl 2)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319689

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In 2019, >71 million children aged <5 had spent their entire lives in conflict-affected settings. Compounding adversities including violence, poverty, and displacement have immediate and long-term effects on early childhood development, health, behavior, and well-being. In response, adaptations of Reach Up have been implemented in conflict and crisis settings. METHODS: This article uses exploratory multiple case study methodology, drawing from implementation and qualitative data from 3 interventions: a mobile phone-based intervention promoting nurturing care among Rohingya and crisis-affected host communities in Bangladesh; Reach Up amid acute violence and displacement in Northeast Syria; and Reach Up group sessions and home visits integrated with health services for an indigenous population in Venezuela. RESULTS: In Bangladesh, tailoring interactive voice response messages improved responsiveness to the developmental needs of young children, yet complementary in-person services were identified as a key program enhancement. In Syria, rapid adaptations of Reach Up addressed the needs of families in acute crisis, including social-emotional learning games for school-aged children. In Venezuela, Reach Up, coupled with complementary lactation counseling, yielded high rates of uptake and satisfaction, and children's language development was highlighted as a key area of growth. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations to promote early childhood development in crisis and conflict settings include: (1) cultural adaptation based on a holistic understanding of children and caregivers' needs; (2) the integration of child and family safety and linkages with complementary services on the basis of community needs and priorities, and (3) the importance of designing for scale through blended models and costing analyses.


Subject(s)
Child Development , Learning , Child , Female , Child, Preschool , Humans , Caregivers , Bangladesh , Syria
9.
Elife ; 122023 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316749

ABSTRACT

It is quite well documented that the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted cancer screening services in all countries, irrespective of their resources and healthcare settings. While quantitative estimates on reduction in volume of screening tests or diagnostic evaluation are readily available from the high-income countries, very little data are available from the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). From the CanScreen5 global cancer screening data repository we identified six LMICs through purposive sampling based on the availability of cancer screening data at least for the years 2019 and 2020. These countries represented those in high human development index (HDI) categories (Argentina, Colombia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) and medium HDI categories (Bangladesh and Morocco). No data were available from low HDI countries to perform similar analysis. The reduction in the volume of tests in 2020 compared to the previous year ranged from 14.1% in Bangladesh to 72.9% in Argentina (regional programme) for cervical screening, from 14.2% in Bangladesh to 49.4% in Morocco for breast cancer screening and 30.7% in Thailand for colorectal cancer screening. Number of colposcopies was reduced in 2020 compared to previous year by 88.9% in Argentina, 38.2% in Colombia, 27.4% in Bangladesh, and 52.2% in Morocco. The reduction in detection rates of CIN 2 or worse lesions ranged from 20.7% in Morocco to 45.4% in Argentina. Reduction of breast cancer detection by 19.1% was reported from Morocco. No association of the impact of pandemic could be seen with HDI categories. Quantifying the impact of service disruptions in screening and diagnostic tests will allow the programmes to strategize how to ramp up services to clear the backlogs in screening and more crucially in further evaluation of screen positives. The data can be used to estimate the impact on stage distribution and avoidable mortality from these common cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Thailand , Early Detection of Cancer , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , Bangladesh , Sri Lanka , Argentina , Colombia/epidemiology , Morocco/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries
10.
Vaccine ; 41(26): 3885-3890, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316609

ABSTRACT

Pregnant and lactating women's vaccine decision-making process is influenced by many factors. Pregnant women were at increased risk for severe disease and poor health outcomes from COVID-19 at various time points during the pandemic. COVID-19 vaccines have been found to be safe and protective during pregnancy and while breastfeeding. In this study, we sought to examine key factors that informed the decision-making process among pregnant and lactating women in Bangladesh. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews, with 12 pregnant and 12 lactating women. These women were from three communities in Bangladesh: one urban community, and two rural communities. We used a grounded theory approach to identify emerging themes and organized emerging themes using a socio-ecological model. The socio-ecological model suggests that individuals are influenced by many levels, including individual-level influences, interpersonal-level influences, health care system-level influences, and policy-level influences. We found key factors at each socio-ecological level that influenced the decision-making process of pregnant and lactating women, including perceived benefits of vaccines and vaccine safety (individual-level), the influence of husbands and peers (interpersonal-level), health care provider recommendations and vaccine eligibility (health care system-level), and vaccine mandates (policy-level). As vaccination can reduce the effect of COVID-19 disease in mothers, infants, and unborn children, targeting critical factors that inform the decision-making process is paramount for improving vaccine acceptance. We hope the results of this study will inform vaccine acceptance efforts to ensure that pregnant and lactating women take advantage of this life-saving intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Infant , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Lactation , Bangladesh , Pregnant Women , Vaccination
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(9)2023 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315832

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Globally, the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses fundamental challenges in everyday life. Various controlling measures, including nationwide lockdowns, movement restrictions, travel bans, social distancing, and improved hygiene practices, have been widely introduced to curtail transmission of the disease. Notably, these measures have affected the execution of population health research that typically involves face-to-face data collection. This paper details a subjective reflective account of the challenges and mitigating strategies in conducting a nationwide study during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Challenges and strategies: The research team faced a wide range of challenges in conducting this study. The major categories of challenges were defined as follows: (i) challenges relating to the COVID-19 pandemic, such as insufficient access to field sites; (ii) challenges related to contextual factors, such as cultural and gender sensitivity and extreme weather events; and (iii) challenges related to data quality and validity. The key mitigating strategies to overcoming these challenges included engaging a local-level field supervisor, hiring data collectors from respective study sites, incorporating team members' reviews of literature and experts' views to develop research instruments, modifying original research instruments, organizing regular meetings and debriefing, adjusting field operation plans, building gender-sensitive teams, understanding local norms and adopting culturally appropriate dress codes, and conducting interviews in local languages. Conclusions: This paper concludes that despite several COVID-19-related challenges coupled with contextual factors, data were successfully collected through timely and successful adaptations of several mitigating strategies. The strategies adopted in this study may be useful for overcoming unforeseeable challenges in planning and conducting future population-based health research in similar circumstances elsewhere.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health , Humans , Pandemics , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control
12.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06014, 2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315591

ABSTRACT

Background: The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) covers Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. We conducted a comparative analysis of the trade-off between the health policies for the prevention of COVID-19 spread and the impact of these policies on the economies and livelihoods of the South Asia populations. Methods: We analyzed COVID-19 data on epidemiology, public health and health policy, health system capacity, and macroeconomic indicators from January 2020 to March 2021 to determine temporal trends by conducting joinpoint regression analysis using average weekly percent change (AWPC). Results: Bangladesh had the highest statistically significant AWPC for new COVID-19 cases (17.0; 95% CI = 7.7-27.1, P < 0.001), followed by the Maldives (12.9; 95% CI = 5.3-21.0, P < 0.001) and India (10.0; 95% CI = 8.4-11.5, P < 0.001). The AWPC for COVID-19 deaths was significant for India (6.5; 95% CI = 4.3-8.9, P < 0.001) and Bangladesh (6.1; 95% CI = 3.7-8.5, P < 0.001). Nepal (55.79%), and India (34.91%) had the second- and third-highest increase in unemployment, while Afghanistan (6.83%) and Pakistan (16.83%) had the lowest. The rate of change of real GDP had the highest decrease for Maldives (557.51%), and India (297.03%); Pakistan (46.46%) and Bangladesh (70.80%), however, had the lowest decrease. The government response stringency index for Pakistan had a see-saw pattern with a sharp decline followed by an increase in the government health policy restrictions that approximated the test-positivity trend. Conclusions: Unlike developed economies, the South Asian developing countries experienced a trade-off between health policy and their economies during the COVID-19 pandemic. South Asian countries (Nepal and India), with extended periods of lockdowns and a mismatch between temporal trends of government response stringency index and the test-positivity or disease incidence, had higher adverse economic effects, unemployment, and burden of COVID-19. Pakistan demonstrated targeted lockdowns with a rapid see-saw pattern of government health policy response that approximated the test-positivity trend and resulted in lesser adverse economic effects, unemployment, and burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Asia, Southern , Communicable Disease Control , India/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Health Policy
13.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280157, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311249

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity has multiple negative effects on maternal and child health and nutritional outcomes. There is a dearth of up-to-date evidence on the prevalence of food insecurity in Bangladesh based on geographical variations. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity based on geographical variations and its associated factors. We pooled data from seven cross-sectional surveys conducted in 15,009 households from March 2015 to May 2018. This study was a part of the evaluation of the Maternal Infant Young Child Nutrition Phase 2 programme implemented by BRAC, one of the largest international non-governmental organizations located in Bangladesh that covered rural areas in 26 districts and two urban slums in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We used Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (a widely used scale to measure household food insecurity) to estimate the food insecurity status from the data collected through a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Hot spot analysis was conducted using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. The multiple logistic regression model was applied to explore the associated factors of food insecurity. The food insecurity hotspots were in the northwestern, central-southwestern, and coastal districts of Bangladesh. The overall prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity were 12.7%, 13.8%, and 3.5%, respectively. In the adjusted model, household heads and caregivers of children with five or more years of schooling had respectively 42% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 0.64) and 46% (AOR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.61) less likelihood to suffer from food insecurity. Households in the middle (AOR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.65) and rich (AOR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.36) wealth status had lower odds of food insecurity. Food insecurity is widely spread in rural districts of Bangladesh and the degree of vulnerability is higher among the households of the northwestern, central-southwestern, and coastal areas of Bangladesh. Comprehensive interventions including strategies for poverty reduction and education for all might be effective to reduce food insecurity at rural households in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Child , Infant , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0271867, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Midwifery-led care is a key factor in reducing maternal and new-born mortality globally. In Bangladesh, only a third of births are attended by professionals and almost 70% of births occur outside healthcare facilities. Midwifery is a relatively new profession in Bangladesh and a midwifery centre care model has only recently been introduced. This study aims to explore the willingness within the healthcare system to support a greater role for midwifery centres in maternity services. METHODS: Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews with 55 midwives, midwifery educators and final year midwifery students. Two of the midwifery educators were principals of nursing institutes involved in the government's midwifery leadership and considered as experts in the midwifery care system. The data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The transcribed interviews comprised 150 pages. The study received ethical approval from the Directorate General of Nursing and Midwifery in Bangladesh. RESULTS: One main category emerged from the study: "The foundations of a midwifery centre care model need to be strengthened for the sustainable implementation of midwifery centres in Bangladesh to continue". Five additional categories were identified: 1) The midwifery centre care model is inaccessible for communities, 2) Striving for acceptable standards of care within a midwifery centre care model is not a priority 3) Respectful, woman-centred care is weak, 4) Community engagement with the midwifery centre care model is insufficient, and 5) The midwifery centre care model is not integrated into the healthcare system. These categories were supported by the identification of 11 sub-categories. CONCLUSION: The willingness to commit to a midwifery centre care model is not yet in place in Bangladesh. Advocacy, information, and education about the benefits of normal birth assisted by professional midwives is needed at all levels of Bangladeshi society.


Subject(s)
Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Maternal Health Services , Midwifery , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Midwifery/education , Bangladesh , Students , Qualitative Research
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 722, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity indicates the difficulty of constantly obtaining adequate food because of limited economic resources. Food insecurity challenges the desired health outcomes. Although extensive literature has examined the associations between food security and health, low-wage informal sector workers have been less frequently addressed in this topic. The present study has focused on food insecurity among the workers working in the informal sector enterprises who experienced entrenched disadvantage during COVID-19 and examines the relationship between food insecurity and health status as measured by self-reported physical and mental health conditions. METHODS: This study has utilized cross-sectional data collected from workers working in informal manufacturing and business enterprises in Dhaka city of Bangladesh. The Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) with eight items is used to screen for food insecurity, and the Short Form 12v2 (SF12v2) scale with 12 questions, and validated for use with Bengali respondents, is used to measure the health status of the informal workers. A health production function has been constructed where the health status (both physical and mental) of workers is associated with food insecurity and other socio-economic and health care factors. Empirical analyses of the study have included descriptive statistics, mean score comparisons, and multivariate regression analyses to identify the predictive factors of the physical and mental health status of the workers. RESULTS: A moderate to severe food insecurity is found to be responsible for the poor health status (both physical and mental) of the selected working group population. Moreover, age over 40 years, having a large family, dissatisfaction with the work place, and the prevalence of occupational health risks are linked to lower physical health, while dissatisfaction with the work place and the incidence of severe diseases contribute to poor mental health status along with food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Extending social and economic protection towards health coverage and basic consumption is suggested as an immediate action to save lives and ensure productivity of the informal workers. Besides, an increase in income and ensuring decent working conditions are also recommended for the health, safety and satisfaction of workers working in informal sector enterprises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Informal Sector , Humans , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply , Food Insecurity , Outcome Assessment, Health Care
16.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0281395, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vaccination is the most powerful public health intervention proven to be safe and effective in the battle against the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of primer vaccine dosage regimens, public perceptions of COVID-19 vaccine booster dose (VBD) acceptance and hesitancy vary among various sub-group populations. This study investigates COVID-19 vaccine booster dose acceptance and compares the multi-dimensional potential factors influencing VBD acceptance and hesitancy among university teachers and the student community in Bangladesh. METHODS: This web-based cross-sectional study employed an anonymous, validated, and self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire items were adopted from a theoretical analysis of the recent relevant literature. The questionnaire was deployed in an on-line-enabled format (Google form) and conveniently distributed to 685 teachers and 990 students between 15th June, 2022 and 15th August, 2022 which resulted in the participation of 1250 (505 teachers vs.745 students) total respondents (response rate 73.72% vs. 75.25%) from various universities in Bangladesh. A non-parametric analytical tool (binary logistic regression) was applied to rationalize the study objectives and a Chi-squared test was performed to estimate the booster- hesitant risky group. RESULTS: The pooled COVID-19 vaccine booster dose acceptance rates were 84.6% (95% CI 81.5─87.7) and 67.2% (95% CI 63.8─70.6) for teachers and students in the university academic community, respectively. In employing a binary logistic regression, this study revealed that out of twelve (12)multi-dimensional key predictors, "equal safety", "risk-benefit ratio", and "variant control" had a significant positive association with VBD acceptance in both sets (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, and p = 0.005, respectively). Varied effects were found for several predictors; post-vaccination "side effects" had a significant negative association (p = 0.020) and "community protection" had significant positive association (p = 0.034) with vaccine booster dose acceptance in the teachers community while these variables were insignificant in the students cohort. "Trust" had a highly significant positive association (p = 0.000);"communication" and "academic attainment" had significant positive associations (p = 0.033 and 0.024, respectively) with VBD acceptance in the students cohort, while these predictors were insignificant in the teachers community. Women were more likely to receive a third dose of the vaccine (OR = 1.4 vs. 0.9 between teacher and student model); however, no significant association between gender and booster vaccine acceptance was found in a comparative Chi-squared model. Therefore, statistically, the booster vaccine-hesitant risky group was not found to implicate the massive booster vaccine drive among the university academic community. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 booster vaccine acceptability among the student cohort was slightly lower than pre-roll-out intent. The teacher community was more inclined to get booster vaccinated. Moreover, differences were found between the multi-dimensional potential factors associated with VBD acceptance among teachers and students in university settings. This study explicitly confirmed positive attitudes toward the safety, health benefits, and variants control of the COVID-19 VBD under any circumstances. Post-vaccination side effect concern was found to be a barrier to administering booster shots and a reason for booster skepticism. Tailored communication and health education interventions need to be adopted to improve the public awareness of booster vaccine consequences, and limit booster skepticism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Universities , Bangladesh , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination
17.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 155, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Universal screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia risk assessment is recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics to reduce related morbidity. In Bangladesh and in many low- and middle-income countries, there is no screening for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Furthermore, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may not be recognized as a medically significant condition by caregivers and community members. We aimed to evaluate the acceptability and operational feasibility of community health worker (CHW)-led, home-based, non-invasive neonatal hyperbilirubinemia screening using a transcutaneous bilimeter in Shakhipur, a rural subdistrict in Bangladesh. METHODS: We employed a two-step process. In the formative phase, we conducted eight focus group discussions with parents and grandparents of infants and eight key informant interviews with public and private healthcare providers and managers to explore their current knowledge, perceptions, practices, and challenges regarding identification and management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Next, we piloted a prenatal sensitization intervention and home-based screening by CHWs using transcutaneous bilimeters and evaluated the acceptability and operational feasibility of this approach through focus group discussions and key informant interviews with parents, grandparents and CHWs. RESULTS: Formative findings identified misconceptions regarding neonatal hyperbilirubinemia causes and health risks among caregivers in rural Bangladesh. CHWs were comfortable with adoption, maintenance and use of the device in routine home visits. Transcutaneous bilimeter-based screening was also widely accepted by caregivers and family members due to its noninvasive technique and immediate display of findings at home. Prenatal sensitization of caregivers and family members helped to create a supportive environment in the family and empowered mothers as primary caregivers. CONCLUSION: Adopting household neonatal hyperbilirubinemia screening in the postnatal period by CHWs using a transcutaneous bilimeter is an acceptable approach by both CHWs and families and may increase rates of screening to prevent morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Community Health Workers , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Child , Bangladesh , Feasibility Studies , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal/diagnosis , Neonatal Screening/methods , Mothers
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6255, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301551

ABSTRACT

The ten countries with the highest population during the pandemic were analyzed for clustering based on the quantitative numbers of COVID-19 and policy plans. The Fuzzy K-Means (FKM) and K-prototype algorithms were used for clustering, and various performance indices such as Partition Coefficient (PC), Partition Entropy (PE), Xie-Beni (XB), and Silhouette Fuzzy (SIL.F) were used for evaluating the clusters. The analysis included variables such as confirmed cases, tests, vaccines, school and workplace closures, event cancellations, gathering restrictions, transport closures, stay-at-home restrictions, international movement restrictions, testing policies, facial coverings, and vaccination policy statuses. PC, PE, XB, and SIL.F indices were used to analyze the performance indices of the clusters. The Elbow method was used to analyze the performance evaluations for the K-prototype. The K-prototype algorithm's performance evaluations were analyzed using the Elbow method, and the optimum number of clusters for both methods was found to be two. The first cluster included Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Bangladesh, US, Indonesia, Russia, and Pakistan, while the second cluster comprised India and China. The analysis also examined the relationship between population and confirmed tests and vaccines, and standardization was made for the country with the largest population for significant correlations. The results showed that the FKM method was superior to the K-prototype method in terms of clustering. In conclusion, it is crucial to accurately evaluate COVID-19 data for countries and develop appropriate policies. The clustering analysis using the FKM and K-prototype algorithms provides valuable insights into identifying groups of countries with similar COVID-19 data and policy plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fuzzy Logic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Algorithms , Cluster Analysis , Bangladesh
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 107(4): 845-849, 2022 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265832

ABSTRACT

Early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial to prevent its spread. This study aimed to document test sensitivity/specificity, correlation with cycle threshold value from polymerase chain reaction (PCR), fitness-for-use in different populations and settings, and user perspectives that could inform large-scale implementation. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a rapid antigen detection test, BD Veritor, and compared this (and another rapid test, Standard Q) against reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in terms of sensitivity and specificity in 130 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic adults. In addition, we evaluated the suitability and ease of use of the BD Veritor test in a subsample of study participants (n = 42) and implementers (n = 5). At 95% confidence interval, the sensitivity of the BD Veritor and Standard Q test were 70% and 63% in symptomatic and 87% and 73% in asymptomatic individuals, respectively, regarding positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR results. Overall, the BD Veritor test was 78% sensitive and 99.5% specific compared with RT-PCR irrespective of the cycle threshold. This warrants large field evaluation as well as use of the rapid antigen test for quick assessment of SARS-CoV-2 for containment of epidemics in the country.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antigens, Viral , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
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