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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12 Suppl 2): S749-S753, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2189126

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is entering from low-income to lower-middle-income status in 2020, and this will be completed in the next 5 years. With gross national income growing, vaccines will need to be procured through private market for the Expanded Program on Immunization. A cost-benefit analysis is needed to evaluate vaccine demand in different socioeconomic groups in the country, to inform this procurement. Moreover, disease burden studies and awareness of importance of specific vaccines are needed as we move forward. A life-course approach to vaccination may enable whole society to realize the full potential of vaccination and address most significant threats to its success over time.


Subject(s)
Cholera Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cholera/prevention & control , Sustainable Development , Vaccination , Bangladesh , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization Programs
2.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0273809, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic, the major focus of healthcare organizations shifted towards preparing healthcare systems to handle the inevitable COVID-19 burden at different phases and levels. A series of in-person training programs were operated in collaboration with government and partner organizations for the healthcare workers (HCW) of Bangladesh. This study aimed to assess the knowledge of HCWs regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection, their case management, infection prevention and control to fight against the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: As a part of the National Preparedness and Response Plan for COVID-19 in Bangladesh, the training program was conducted at four district-level hospitals and one specialized hospital in Bangladesh from July 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021. A total of 755 HCWs participated in the training sessions. Among them, 357 (47%) were enrolled for the evaluation upon completion of the data, collected from one district hospital (Feni) and one specialized hospital (National Institute of Mental Health). RESULTS: The mean percentage of pre-test and post-test scores of all the participants were found to be 57% (95% CI 8.34-8.91; p 0.01) and 65% (95% CI 9.56-10.15; p <0.001) respectively. The difference of score (mean) between the groups was significant (p<0.001). After categorizing participants' knowledge levels as poor, average and fair, doctors' group has shown to have significant enhancement from level of average to fair compared to that of the nurses. Factors associated with knowledge augmentation of doctors were working in primary health care centers (aOR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.80, 9.88), job experience less than 5 years (aOR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 16.63) and experience in caring of family member with COVID-19 morbidity (aOR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.10), after adjusting for relevant covariates such as age, sex and prior COVID-19 illness. CONCLUSION: Considering the series of waves of COVID-19 pandemic with newer variants, the present paper underscores the importance of implementing the structured in-person training program on case management, infection prevention and control for the HCWs that may help for successful readiness prior to future pandemics that may further help to minimize the pandemic related fatal consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case Management , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277875, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140667

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers had a high workload and were exposed to multiple psychosocial stressors. However, a knowledge gap exists about the levels of burnout among Bangladeshi frontline doctors during this COVID-19 pandemic. The study investigated burnout syndrome (BOS) among frontline doctors in two public secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Chattogram, Bangladesh. MATERIALS & METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved frontline doctors working at two hospitals treating COVID-19 and non-COVID patients from June to August 2020. A self-administered questionnaire that included Maslach Burnout Inventory for Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) was used to capture demographic and workplace environment information. ANOVA and t-test were used to determine the statistical differences in the mean values of the three dimensions of MBI-HSS. Scores for three domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment (PA) were calculated. Post-hoc analysis was done to identify the significant pair-wise differences when the ANOVA test result was significant. Multiple logistic regression was performed to determine the influence of factors associated with BOS. RESULTS: A total of 185 frontline doctors were invited to participate by convenience sampling, and 168 responded. The response rate was 90.81%. The overall prevalence of BOS was 55.4% (93/168) (95% CI: 47.5% to 63.0%). Moderate to high levels of EE was found in 95.8% of the participants. High DP and reduced PA were observed in 98.2% and 97% of participants. Younger age (25-29 years), being female, and working as a medical officer were independently associated with high levels of burnout in all three domains. EE was significantly higher in females (P = 0.011). DP was significantly higher in medical officers, those at earlier job periods, and those working more than 8 hours per day. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 outbreak, BOS was common among Bangladeshi frontline doctors. Females, medical officers, and younger doctors tended to be more susceptible to BOS. Less BOS was experienced when working in the non-COVID ward than in the mixed ward.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Pandemics , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 737, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in serious mental health conditions, particularly among older adults. This research explored the prevalence of COVID-19-related anxiety and its associated factors among older adults residing in Bangladesh. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,045 older Bangladeshi adults aged ≥ 60 years through telephone interviews in September 2021. A semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect data on participants' characteristics and COVID-19-related anxiety. The anxiety level was measured using the Bengali version of the five-point Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS). A linear regression model explored the factors associated with COVID-19-related anxiety. RESULTS: Overall, the prevalence of COVID-19-related anxiety was 23.2%. The regression analysis revealed that the average COVID-19-related anxiety score was significantly higher among females (ß: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.81), and among those who faced difficulty getting medicine (ß: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.97), felt isolated (ß: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.95), and felt requiring additional care during the pandemic (ß: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.91). Alternatively, the average COVID-19-related anxiety score was significantly lower among those who were widowed (ß: -0.46, 95% CI: -0.87 to -0.04) and living distant from the health centre (ß: -0.48, 95% CI: -0.79 to -0.17). CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study suggest providing immediate psychosocial support package to the older adults, particularly females and those who are vulnerable to receive health and social care support during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology
5.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e066653, 2022 11 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137793

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence, the fraction of asymptomatic infections, and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infections among the Forcibly Displaced Myanmar Nationals (FDMNs). DESIGN: It was a population-based two-stage cross-sectional study at the level of households. SETTING: The study was conducted in December 2020 among household members of the FDMN population living in the 34 camps of Ukhia and Teknaf Upazila of Cox's Bazar district in Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: Among 860 697 FDMNs residing in 187 517 households, 3446 were recruited for the study. One individual aged 1 year or older was randomly selected from each targeted household. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood samples from respondents were tested for total antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 using Wantai ELISA kits, and later positive samples were validated by Kantaro kits. RESULTS: More than half (55.3%) of the respondents were females, aged 23 median (IQR 14-35) years and more than half (58.4%) had no formal education. Overall, 2090 of 3446 study participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibody. The weighted and test adjusted seroprevalence (95% CI) was 48.3% (45.3% to 51.4%), which did not differ by the sexes. Children (aged 1-17 years) had a significantly lower seroprevalence 38.6% (95% CI 33.8% to 43.4%) compared with adults (58.1%, 95% CI 55.2% to 61.1%). Almost half (45.7%, 95% CI 41.9% to 49.5%) of seropositive individuals reported no relevant symptoms since March 2020. Antibody seroprevalence was higher in those with any comorbidity (57.8%, 95% CI 50.4% to 64.5%) than those without (47.2%, 95% CI 43.9% to 50.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of all subjects identified increasing age and education as risk factors for seropositivity. In children (≤17 years), only age was significantly associated with the infection. CONCLUSIONS: In December 2020, about half of the FDMNs had antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, including those who reported no history of symptoms. Periodic serosurveys are necessary to recommend appropriate public health measures to limit transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Myanmar/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277790, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may cause severe life-threatening diseases called acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) owing to cytokine storms. The mortality rate of COVID-19-related ARDS is as high as 40% to 50%. However, effective treatment for the extensive release of acute inflammatory mediators induced by hyperactive and inappropriate immune responses is very limited. Many anti-inflammatory drugs with variable efficacies have been investigated. Colchicine inhibits interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and its subsequent inflammatory cascade by primarily blocking pyrin and nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing receptor 3 (NLRP3) activation. Therefore, this cheap, widely available, oral drug might provide an added benefit in combating the cytokine storm in COVID-19. Here, we sought to determine whether adding colchicine to other standards of care could be beneficial for moderate COVID-19 pneumonia in terms of the requirement for advanced respiratory support and mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This blinded placebo-controlled drug trial was conducted at the Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 300 patients with moderate COVID-19 based on a positive RT-PCR result were enrolled based on strict selection criteria from June 2020 to November 2020. Patients were randomly assigned to either treatment group in a 1:1 ratio. Patients were administered 1.2 mg of colchicine on day 1 followed by daily treatment with 0.6 mg of colchicine for 13 days or placebo along with the standard of care. The primary outcome was the time to clinical deterioration from randomization to two or more points on a seven-category ordinal scale within the 14 days post-randomization. Clinical outcomes were also recorded on day 28. The primary endpoint was met by 9 (6.2%) patients in the placebo group and 4 (2.7%) patients in the colchicine group (P = 0.171), which corresponds to a hazard ratio (95% CI) of 0.44 (0.13-1.43). Additional analysis of the outcomes on day 28 revealed significantly lower clinical deterioration (defined as a decrease by two or more points) in the colchicine group, with a hazard ratio [95%CI] of 0.29 [0.098-0.917], (P = 0.035). Despite a 56% reduction in the need for mechanical ventilation and death with colchicine treatment on day 14, the reduction was not statistically significant. On day 28, colchicine significantly reduced clinical deterioration measured as the need for mechanical ventilation and all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Colchicine was not found to have a significant beneficial effect on reducing mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation. However, a delayed beneficial effect was observed. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to evaluate the late benefits of colchicine. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registration no: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04527562 https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=NCT04527562.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Deterioration , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Bangladesh , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Treatment Outcome , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
7.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277694, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119282

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to investigate the health-related quality of life and coping strategies among COVID-19 survivors in Bangladesh. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 2198 adult, COVID-19 survivors living in Bangladesh. Data were collected from previously diagnosed COVID-19 participants (confirmed by an RT-PCR test) via door-to-door interviews in the eight different divisions in Bangladesh. For data collection, Bengali-translated Brief COPE inventory and WHO Brief Quality of Life (WHO-QoLBREF) questionnaires were used. The data collection period was from October 2020 to March 2021. RESULTS: Males 72.38% (1591) were more affected by COVID-19 than females 27.62% (607). Age showed significant correlations (p<0.005) with physical, psychological and social relationships, whereas gender showed only a significant correlation with physical health (p<0.001). Marital status, occupation, living area, and co-morbidities showed significant co-relation with all four domains of QoL (p<0.001). Education and affected family members showed significant correlation with physical and social relationship (p<0.001). However, smoking habit showed a significant correlation with both social relationship and environment (p<0.001). Age and marital status showed a significant correlation with avoidant coping strategies (p<0.001); whereas gender and co-morbidities showed a significant correlation with problem-focused coping strategies (p<0.001). Educational qualification, occupation and living area showed significant correlation with all three coping strategies(p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Survivors of COVID-19 showed mixed types of coping strategies; however, the predominant coping strategy was avoidant coping, followed by problem-focused coping, with emotion-focused coping reported as the least prevalent. Marital status, occupation, living area and co-morbidities showed a greater effect on QoL in all participants. This study represents the real scenario of nationwide health-associated quality of life and coping strategies during and beyond the Delta pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Male , Female , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Survivors
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 230: 103759, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104226

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has globally affected almost every aspect of people's lives, especially, their physical and mental well-being. The degree of its impact, however, is different from place-to-place and person-to-person. Although there is a growing literature on the variable impact of the pandemic on the quality of sleep, loneliness, and mood across different populations (e.g., students, health-workers), little is known about how COVID-19-specific anxiety affects the loneliness feeling and sleep quality among students and employees, specifically, in a low-resource region like Bangladesh. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of COVID-related anxiety on the feeling of loneliness and sleep quality of students and professionals in Bangladesh. Additionally, we were interested in comparing the level of COVID-specific anxiety, loneliness, and quality of sleep between these two groups. In total, 211 Bangladeshi students and professionals participated in an online survey in August 2021 when the restriction was still in place. Measures of COVID-19 anxiety, loneliness, and sleep quality scales were used. Regression analysis indicated that overall loneliness and poor sleep quality were strongly predicted by COVID-specific anxiety regardless of being a student or professional. Almost half of the study population (48.3 %) felt severe loneliness and 70.01 % were bad sleepers. Mann-Whitney U test revealed that professionals felt more emotionally lonely, had a higher level of COVID-19-specific anxiety, and had poorer sleep quality than students. A better support structure should be implemented to help the population, particularly, the professionals to lessen their COVID-19-related anxiety and loneliness, and promote better sleep for alleviating stress and improved well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Sleep Quality , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
9.
WHO South East Asia J Public Health ; 11(1): 32-41, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100053

ABSTRACT

Context: Self-protective behavior (SPB) plays a significant role in controlling the spread of infection of a pandemic like coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Little research has been conducted to examine critical factors influencing SPB, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh. Aims: This study aimed to develop and test a theoretical model based on the extended information-motivation-behavior (IMB) skills model to investigate factors associated with SPB among Bangladeshi people. Methods: An online, cross-sectional survey was conducted on Bangladesh citizens (18 years and older) from June 1 and July 31, 2020. A total of 459 responses were used to assess the proposed model's overall fit and test the hypothesized relationships among the model constructs. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling to identify relationships among model variables. Results: Health information-seeking behavior, health motivation, self-efficacy, and health consciousness (HC) (P < 0.05) had a significant impact on SPB among Bangladeshi people. The results identified the consequences of various degrees of HC on SPB in the COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusions: This study confirms the IMB model's applicability for analyzing SPB among people in developing countries like Bangladesh. The findings of this study could guide policymakers to develop and implement targeted strategies to ensure timely and transparent information for motivating people to improve SPB during the COVID-19 and in case of a future outbreak of an epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Motivation
12.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 78: 103309, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085888

ABSTRACT

This paper highlights the current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic and adolescents' mental health in Bangladesh. It contains a thorough literature review that summarizes relevant articles and newspapers on the mental health of adolescents. In Bangladesh, the COVID-19 pandemic is worsening adolescent mental health issues. To maintain the safety and security of adolescents mental health issues are becoming increasingly frequent in Bangladesh as a result of lockdowns, financial stress, and livelihood scarcity; this trend cannot be ignored. This study will aid policymakers, government officials, and non-government officials in the development of more effective social safety net measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Adolescent , Humans , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082136

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to assess the changes in the prevalence and determinants of self-reported hypertension among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted on two successive occasions (October 2020 and September 2021), overlapping the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The survey was conducted through telephone interviews among Bangladeshi older adults aged 60 years and above. The prevalence of hypertension was measured by asking a question about whether a doctor or health professional told the participants that they have hypertension or high blood pressure and/or whether they are currently using medication to control it. We also collected information on the socio-economic characteristics of the participants, their cognitive ability, and their COVID-19-related attributes. A total of 2077 older adults with a mean age of 66.7 ± 6.4 years participated in the study. The samples were randomly selected on two successive occasions from a pre-established registry developed by the ARCED Foundation. Thus, the sample in the 2021-survey (round two; n = 1045) was not the same as that in the 2020-survey (round one; n = 1031) but both were drawn from the same population. The findings revealed that the prevalence of hypertension significantly increased across the two periods (43.7% versus 56.3%; p = 0.006). The odds of hypertension were 1.34 times more likely in round two than in the round one cohort (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70). We also found that having formal schooling, poorer memory or concentration, and having had received COVID-19 information were all associated with an increased risk of hypertension in both rounds (p < 0.05). The findings of the present study suggest providing immediate support to ensure proper screening, control, and treatment of hypertension among older adults in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Bangladesh/epidemiology
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 994236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055098

ABSTRACT

Background: Animal source foods, especially fish is the most commonly consumed and an important source of macro and micronutrients in the diet of the urban low-income residents. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the food environment in Bangladesh but little is known about how food access and food prices (affordability) have affected the purchase and consumption of fish. The objective of the study was to understand the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on urban food environment with a specific focus on fish consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 586 homogeneous adults (288 females and 298 males) from separate households from five informal settlements in Dhaka city, Bangladesh during October-November 2020. Data were collected on: (1) food access and affordably; and (2) food purchase and fish consumption. The associations between food access, price, food purchase, and fish consumption were evaluated using path analysis. Results: The majority of respondents reported that food access was more difficult, food prices increased, and food purchase decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID (84-89% of respondents). Fish and meat were more difficult to access, more expensive and purchased less compared to other foods (74-91% of respondents). Compared to pre-COVID period, households consumed less fish during the COVID-19 pandemic, and reported compromised the variety and quality of fish. In the path analysis, food access was associated with food purchase (b = 0.33, p < 0.001). Food purchase was associated with quantity, variety, and quality of fish consumed. Food price was inversely associated with the quality of fish consumed (b = -0.27, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected the food environment, particularly food access, price (affordability), purchase, and consumption, especially of fish. Limited food access negatively affected the quantity, variety and quality of fish consumed. An increase in food prices directly affected the quality of fish consumed. Policy actions are essential to ensure equal access to nutritious foods, such as fish. These policies need to focus on diversity and quality along with preventing increases in food prices during emergencies to mitigate future threats to the nutrition and health of the urban low-income residents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Micronutrients , Pandemics
15.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 464-473, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054022

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate stress levels among the health care workers (HCWs) of the radiation oncology community in Asian countries. METHODS: HCWs of the radiation oncology departments from 29 tertiary cancer care centers of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Nepal were studied from May 2020 to July 2020. A total of 758 eligible HCWs were identified. The 7-Item Generalized Anxiety Disorder, 9-Item Patient Health Questionnaire, and 22-Item Impact of Events Scale-Revised were used for assessing anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done to identify the causative factors affecting mental health. RESULTS: A total of 758 participants from 794 HCWs were analyzed. The median age was 31 years (IQR, 27-28). The incidence of moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress was 34.8%, 31.2%, and 18.2%, respectively. Severe personal concerns were noticed by 60.9% of the staff. On multivariate analysis, the presence of commonly reported symptoms of COVID-19 during the previous 2 weeks, contact history (harzard ratio [HR], 2.04; CI, 1.15 to 3.63), and compliance with precautionary measures (HR, 1.69; CI, 1.19 to 2.45) for COVID-19 significantly predicted for increasing anxiety (HR, 2.67; CI, 1.93 to 3.70), depression (HR, 3.38; CI 2.36 to 4.84), and stress (HR, 2.89; CI, 1.88 to 4.43) (P < .001). A significant regional variation was also noticed for anxiety, stress, and personal concerns. CONCLUSION: This survey conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic revealed that a significant proportion of HCWs in the radiation oncology community experiences moderate to severe levels of anxiety, depression, and stress. This trend is alarming and it is important to identify and intervene at the right time to improve the mental health of HCWs to avoid any long-term impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Radiation Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/prevention & control , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/prevention & control , Depression/psychology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Indonesia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , Radiation Oncology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
16.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 125, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection prevention and control (IPC) in healthcare settings is imperative for the safety of patients as well as healthcare providers. To measure current IPC activities, resources, and gaps at the facility level, WHO has developed the Infection Prevention and Control Assessment Framework (IPCAF). This study aimed to assess the existing IPC level of selected tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh during the COVID-19 pandemic using IPCAF to explore their strengths and deficits. METHODS: Between September and December 2020, we assessed 11 tertiary-care hospitals across Bangladesh. We collected the information from IPC focal person and/or hospital administrator from each hospital using the IPCAF assessment tool.. The score was calculated based on eight core components and was used to categorize the hospitals into four distinct IPC levels- Inadequate, Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced. Key performance metrics were summarized within and between hospitals. RESULTS: The overall median IPCAF score was 355.0 (IQR: 252.5-397.5) out of 800. The majority (73%) of hospitals scored as 'Basic' IPC level, while only 18% of hospitals were categorized as 'Intermediate'. Most hospitals had IPC guidelines as well as environments, materials and equipments. Although 64% of hospitals had IPC orientation and training program for new employees, only 30% of hospitals had regular IPC training program for the staff. None of the hospitals had an IPC surveillance system with standard surveillance case definitions to track HAIs. Around 90% of hospitals did not have an active IPC monitoring and audit system. Half of the hospitals had inadequate staffing considering the workload. Bed occupancy of one patient per bed in all units was found in 55% of hospitals. About 73% of hospitals had functional hand hygiene stations, but sufficient toilets were available in only 37% of hospitals. CONCLUSION: The majority of sampled tertiary care hospitals demonstrate inadequate IPC level to ensure the safety of healthcare workers, patients, and visitors. Quality improvement programs and feedback mechanisms should be implemented to strengthen all IPC core components, particularly IPC surveillance, monitoring, education, and training, to improve healthcare safety and resilience.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Infection Control , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers , World Health Organization
17.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(4): 1108-1114, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045555

ABSTRACT

It was previously reported that coronavirus caused myocardial injury in hospitalized patients. However, delayed cardiac involvement in symptomatic patient recovery from COVID-19 is not yet well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac involvement by using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in symptomatic post-COVID-19 recovered patients. Thirty (30) patients who recovered from COVID-19 and had recently reported cardiac symptoms were studied in a prospective observational study performed at Popular Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2021 to September 2021. They underwent CMR examinations. CMR scanning protocol included the following: black blood, cine sequence, both short-axis and long-axis, T2-weight short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequence, T2- weighted imaging (T2WI) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and quantitative mapping sequences-native T1/T2 mapping and post-contrast T1 mapping. Myocardial edema and late gadolinium enhancement were assessed in all patients. Quantitative evaluation of native T1/T2 and ECV value and cardiac function were evaluated. There were 30 people in all in this study. The average age of the participants in the study was 36.6 years. Fourteen (46.6%) of the patients had abnormal cardiac MRI results, while the remaining 15(53.3%) had negative CMR findings. Among positive findings patients, 8(57.1%) of 14 had increased T2 signal. Increased myocardial edema was found in the same no of patients, involving 53.2% (128 of 224) of LV segments. Only 2 cases (2 of 14) showed mid myocardial and subepicardial LGE, involving 18 of 224, 8.03% of myocardial segments. Global native T1, T2 and ECV values are significantly elevated in all CMR positive findings patients. Native T1 1231ms (IQR: 1281.25-1257.5 versus 1155.5 (IQR: 1137.25-1172.75), T2 40 (IQR: 34.5-43.25) versus 35.5 (IQR: 34-37), ECV 31 (29.75-33.25) versus 23.5 (21.25-24.0), p<0.001; p<0.011 and p<0.001 respectively. Reduced RV functional were found in positive as compared with negative CMR findings patients, EF, 32.05 (IQR: 25.25-39.0) versus 54.5 (IQR: 52.0-57.75) and EDV, 117.5 (IQR: 102.0-134.25) versus 95.0 (IQR: 71.75-99.75), p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively. In this study cardiac involvement was found in the post-COVID-19 recovered patient with cardiac symptoms. Cardiac MRI findings included myocardial edema, fibrosis and reduced right ventricular function. So attention should be paid to symptomatic post-COVID-19 recovered patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiomyopathies , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/adverse effects , Predictive Value of Tests , Tertiary Care Centers
18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to restrictions in social gatherings imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, physical and other daily activities were limited among the older adults. The present study aimed to estimate the change in osteoarthritis prevalence among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted through telephone interviews among older adults aged 60 years and above on two successive occasions (October 2020 and September 2021) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The prevalence of osteoarthritis was measured by asking the participants if they had osteoarthritis or joint pain problems. RESULTS: A total of 2077 participants (1032 in 2020-survey and 1045 in 2021-survey) participated in the study. The prevalence of self-reported joint pains or osteoarthritis significantly increased from 45.3% in 2020 to 54.7% in 2021 (P = 0.006), with an increasing odd in the adjusted analysis (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.04-1.54). We also found that osteoarthritis prevalence significantly increased among the participants from the Chattogram and Mymensingh divisions, aged 60-69 years, males, married, rural residents, and living with a family. A significant increase was also documented among those who received formal schooling, had a family income of 5000-10000 BDT, resided with a large family, were unemployed or retired, and lived away from a health facility. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reported a significant increased prevalence of osteoarthritis among older adults from 2020 to 2021 during this pandemic in Bangladesh. This study highlights the need for the development and implementation of initiatives for the screening and management of osteoarthritis through a primary health care approach during any public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Osteoarthritis , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Osteoarthritis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Self Report
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(8): 1252-1257, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030100

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Containment of the further spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and reducing fatality due to coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) represent a pressing challenge to global health services. Here, we present a management blueprint for both the containment of SARS-CoV-2 and treatment of COVID-19 through a comprehensive approach. METHODOLOGY: A cohort of 130 consecutive patients identified as positive for SARS-CoV-2 by testing of nasal swab by polymerase chain reaction were managed at a peripheral city of Bangladesh between 1 April and 31 May, 2020. Based on their clinical status, 64 of them were initially selected for isolation (Isolation Group) and 66 recommended for hospitalization (Hospital Group) as per the direction of the "Central COVID-19 Control" Center. Both groups of patients were allocated to receive standard of care management and oxygen inhalation, and intensive care unit management as and when necessary. Based on the conditions of the COVID-19 patients, there was an active system of patients being transferred from the "Isolation Group" to "Hospital Group" and vice versa. RESULTS: Twelve patients of the "Isolation Group" were transferred to the hospital, as they exhibited symptoms of deterioration. Four patients of the "Hospital Group" died during the observation period of two months in the intensive care unit. However, there has been no fatality among the patients of the "Isolation Group". CONCLUSIONS: The concept of "Isolation" and "Hospital Management" with the participation of the community seems to be an effective management strategy for COVID-19 in developing countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facilities , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274169, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029783

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wearing masks or personal protective equipment (PPE) has become an integral part of the occupational life of physicians due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Most physicians have been developing various health hazards related to the use of different protective gears. This study aimed to determine the burden and spectrum of various health hazards associated with using masks or PPE and their associated risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dhaka Medical College from March 01-May 30, 2021, among physicians from different public hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We analyzed the responses of 506 physicians who completed case record forms through Google forms or hard copies. FINDINGS: The mean (SD) age of the respondents was 35.4 [7.7], and 69.4% were men. Approximately 40% were using full PPE, and 55% were using N-95 masks. A total of 489 (96.6%) patients experienced at least one health hazard. The reported severe health hazards were syncope, severe dyspnea, severe chest pain, and anaphylaxis. Headache, dizziness, mood irritation, chest pain, excessive sweating, panic attack, and permanent facial disfigurement were the minor health hazards reported. Extended periods of work in the COVID-19-unit, reuse of masks, diabetes, obesity, and mental stress were risk factors for dyspnea. The risk factors for headaches were female sex, diabetes, and previous primary headaches. Furthermore, female sex and reusing masks for an extended period (> 6 h) were risk factors for facial disfigurement. The risk factors for excessive sweating were female sex and additional evening office practice for an extended period. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare workers experienced several occupational hazards after using masks and PPE. Therefore, an appropriate policy is required to reduce such risks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Exposure , Physicians , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chest Pain , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea , Female , Headache , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Masks/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment
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