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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 811: 152295, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616759

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic-borne wastes imposed a severe threat to human lives as well as the total environment. Improper handling of these wastes increases the possibility of future transmission. Therefore, immediate actions are required from both local and international authorities to mitigate the amount of waste generation and ensure proper disposal of these wastes, especially for low-income and developing countries where solid waste management is challenging. In this study, an attempt is made to estimate healthcare waste generated during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. This study includes infected, ICU, deceased, isolated and quarantined patients as the primary sources of medical waste. Results showed that COVID-19 medical waste from these patients was 658.08 tons in March 2020 and increased to 16,164.74 tons in April 2021. A top portion of these wastes was generated from infected and quarantined patients. Based on survey data, approximate daily usage of face masks and hand gloves is also determined. Probable waste generation from COVID-19 confirmatory tests and vaccination has been simulated. Finally, several guidelines are provided to ensure the country's proper disposal and management of COVID-related wastes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medical Waste Disposal , Medical Waste , Waste Management , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262141, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613361

ABSTRACT

The deadliest coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is taking thousands of lives worldwide and presents an extraordinary challenge to mental resilience. This study assesses mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated factors among informal waste workers in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in June 2020 among 176 informal waste workers selected from nine municipalities and one city corporation in Bangladesh. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to assess respondents' mental health. The study found that 80.6% of the individuals were suffering from psychological distress; 67.6% reported anxiety and depression, 92.6% reported social dysfunction, and 19.9% reported loss of confidence. The likelihood of psychological distress (Risk ratio [RR]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.48) was significantly higher for female than male. Multiple COVID-19 symptoms of the family members (RR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41), unawareness about COVID-19 infected neighbor (RR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.41), income reduction (RR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.06-2.41) and daily household meal reduction (RR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73) were also found to be associated with psychological distress. These identified factors should be considered in policy-making and support programs for the informal waste workers to manage the pandemic situation as well as combating COVID-19 related psychological challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Working Poor/psychology , Adult , Anxiety , Anxiety Disorders , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sanitary Engineering/methods , Sanitary Engineering/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612992

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Concerns have been raised about the potential for risk compensation in the context of mask mandates for mitigating the spread of COVID-19. However, the debate about the presence or absence of risk compensation for universal mandatory mask-wearing rules-especially in the context of COVID-19-is not settled yet. METHODS: Mobility is used as a proxy for risky behaviour before and after the mask mandates. Two sets of regressions are estimated to decipher (any) risk-compensating effect of mask mandate in Bangladesh. These include: (1) intervention regression analysis of daily activities at six types of locations, using pre-mask-mandate and post-mandate data; and (2) multiple regression analysis of daily new COVID-19 cases on daily mobility (lagged) to establish mobility as a valid proxy. RESULTS: (1) Statistically, mobility increased at all five non-residential locations, while home stays decreased after the mask mandate was issued; (2) daily mobility had a statistically significant association on daily new cases (with around 10 days of lag). Both significances were calculated at 95% confidence level. CONCLUSION: Community mobility had increased (and stay at home decreased) after the mandatory mask-wearing rule, and given mobility is associated with increases in new COVID-19 cases, there is evidence of risk compensation effect of the mask mandate-at least partially-in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of long COVID symptoms in a large cohort of people living with and affected by long COVID and identify any potential associated risk factors. METHODS: A prospective survey was undertaken of an inception cohort of confirmed people living with and affected by long COVID (aged 18-87 years). 14392 participants were recruited from 24 testing facilities across Bangladesh between June and November 2020. All participants had a previously confirmed positive COVID-19 diagnosis, and reported persistent symptoms and difficulties in performing daily activities. Participants who consented were contacted by face-to-face interview, and were interviewed regarding long COVID, and restriction of activities of daily living using post COVID-19 functional status scale. Cardiorespiratory parameters measured at rest (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation levels, maximal oxygen consumption, inspiratory and expiratory lung volume) were also measured. RESULTS: Among 2198 participants, the prevalence of long COVID symptoms at 12 weeks was 16.1%. Overall, eight long COVID symptoms were identified and in descending order of prominence are: fatigue, pain, dyspnoea, cough, anosmia, appetite loss, headache and chest pain. People living with and affected by long COVID experienced between 1 and 8 long COVID symptoms with an overall duration period of 21.8±5.2 weeks. Structural equation modelling predicted the length of long COVID to be related to younger age, female gender, rural residence, prior functional limitation and smoking. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, at 31 weeks post diagnosis, the prevalence of long COVID symptoms was 16.1%. The risk factors identified for presence and longer length of long COVID symptoms warrant further research and consideration to support public health initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e055126, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is still raging worldwide. While there is significant published evidence on the attributes of patients with COVID-19 from lower-income and middle-income countries, there is a dearth of original research published from Bangladesh, a low-income country in Southeast Asia. Based on a case series from a tertiary healthcare centre, this observational study has explored the epidemiology, clinical profile of patients with COVID-19 and short-term outcomes in Dhaka, Bangladesh. DESIGN AND SETTING: A total of 422 COVID-19-confirmed patients (via reverse transcription-PCR test) were enrolled in this study (male=271, female=150, 1 unreported). We have compiled medical records of the patients and descriptively reported their demographic, socioeconomic and clinical features, treatment history, health outcomes, and postdischarge complications. RESULT: Patients were predominantly male (64%), between 35 and 49 years (28%), with at least one comorbidity (52%), and had COVID-19 symptoms for 1 week before hospitalisation (66%). A significantly higher proportion (p<0.05) of male patients had diabetes, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, while female patients had asthma (p<0.05). The most common symptoms were fever (80%), cough (60%), dyspnoea (41%) and sore throat (21%). The majority of the patients received antibiotics (77%) and anticoagulant therapy (56%) and stayed in the hospital for an average of 12 days. Over 90% of patients were successfully weaned, while 3% died from COVID-19, and 41% reported complications after discharge. CONCLUSION: The diversity of clinical and epidemiological characteristics and health outcomes of patients with COVID-19 across age groups and gender is noteworthy. Our result will inform the clinicians and epidemiologists of Bangladesh of their COVID-19 mitigation effort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aftercare , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(8): 949-950, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573665

ABSTRACT

Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world struggling to prevent COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This study employed correlation, cluster analysis, and multiple linear regression analyses using district-wise COVID-19 infection and socioeconomic data. It is observed that there is a strong positive correlation (r = 0.876, P < .001) between population density and COVID-19, explaining a 60% variation in Bangladesh. The relationship between urbanization and COVID-19 is also positively strong (r = 0.802, P < .001). Urban settlements have a higher risk of spreading diseases due to the enormous population density. For future planning to prevent COVID-19 and other related infectious diseases, population density should be considered a risk factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Population Density , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211065628, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574616

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vaccination rollout against COVID-19 has started in developed countries in early December 2020. Mass immunization for poor or low-income countries is quite challenging before 2023. Being a lower-middle-income country, Bangladesh has begun a nationwide COVID-19 vaccination drive in early February 2021. Here, we aimed to assess the opinions, experiences, and adverse events of the COVID-19 vaccination in Bangladesh. METHODS: We conducted this online cross-sectional study from 10 February 2021, to 10 March 2021, in Bangladesh. A self-reported semi-structured survey questionnaire was used using Google forms. We recorded demographics, disease history, medication records, opinions and experiences of vaccination, and associated adverse events symptoms. RESULTS: We observed leading comorbid diseases were hypertension (25.9%), diabetes (21.1%), heart diseases (9.3%), and asthma (8.7%). The most frequently reported adverse events were injection site pain (34.3%), fever (32.6%), headache (20.2%), fatigue (16.6%), and cold feeling (15.4%). The chances of having adverse events were significantly higher in males than females (p = 0.039). However, 36.4% of respondents reported no adverse events. Adverse events usually appeared after 12 h and went way within 48 h of vaccination. Besides, 85.5% were happy with the overall vaccination management, while 88.0% of the respondents recommended the COVID-19 vaccine for others for early immunization. CONCLUSION: According to the present findings, reported adverse events after the doses of Covishield in Bangladesh were non-serious and temporary. In Bangladesh, the early vaccination against COVID-19 was possible due to its prudent vaccine deal, previous mass vaccination experience, and vaccine diplomacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Patient Satisfaction , Program Evaluation , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has seriously disrupted health services in many countries including Bangladesh. This research aimed to explore whether Rohingya (forcefully displaced Myanmar nationals) older adults in Bangladesh faced difficulties accessing medicines and routine medical care services amid this pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 416 Rohingya older adults aged 60 years and above residing in Rohingya refugee camps situated in the Cox's Bazar district of Bangladesh and was conducted in October 2020. A purposive sampling technique was followed, and participants' perceived difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care were noted through face-to-face interviews. Binary logistic regression models determined the association between outcome and explanatory variables. RESULTS: Overall, one-third of the participants reported difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care. Significant factors associated with facing difficulties accessing medicine included feelings of loneliness (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.54, 95% CI 1.93 to 6.48), perceptions that older adults were at the highest risk of COVID-19 (AOR 3.35, 95% CI 1.61 to 6.97) and required additional care during COVID-19 (AOR 6.89, 95% CI 3.62 to 13.13). Also, the notable factors associated with difficulties in receiving routine medical care included living more than 30 min walking distance from the health centre (AOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.95 to 6.56), feelings of loneliness (AOR 2.20, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.87), perception that older adults were at the highest risk of COVID-19 (AOR 2.85, 95% CI 1.36 to 5.99) and perception that they required additional care during the pandemic (AOR 4.55, 95% CI 2.48 to 8.35). CONCLUSION: Many Rohingya older adults faced difficulties in accessing medicines and routine medical care during this pandemic. This call for policy-makers and relevant stakeholders to re-assess emergency preparedness plans including strategies to provide continuing care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Myanmar/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3643-3657, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526427

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving profound pandemic, which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome and results in significant case fatality around the world including Bangladesh. We conducted this study to assess how COVID-19 cases clustered across districts in Bangladesh and whether the pattern and duration of clusters changed following the country's containment strategy using Geographic information system (GIS) software. We calculated the epidemiological measures including incidence, case fatality rate (CFR) and spatiotemporal pattern of COVID-19. We used inverse distance weighting (IDW), Geographically weighted regression (GWR), Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics for prediction, spatial autocorrelation and hotspot identification. We used retrospective space-time scan statistic to analyse clusters of COVID-19 cases. COVID-19 has a CFR of 1.4%. Over 50% of cases were reported among young adults (21-40 years age). The incidence varies from 0.03 - 0.95 at the end of March to 15.59-308.62 per 100,000, at the end of July. Global Moran's Index indicates a robust spatial autocorrelation of COVID-19 cases. Local Moran's I analysis stated a distinct High-High (HH) clustering of COVID-19 cases among Dhaka, Gazipur and Narayanganj districts. Twelve statistically significant high rated clusters were identified by space-time scan statistics using a discrete Poisson model. IDW predicted the cases at the undetermined area, and GWR showed a strong relationship between population density and case frequency, which was further established with Moran's I (0.734; p ≤ 0.01). Dhaka and its surrounding six districts were identified as the significant hotspot whereas Chattogram was an extended infected area, indicating the gradual spread of the virus to peripheral districts. This study provides novel insights into the geostatistical analysis of COVID-19 clusters and hotspots that might assist the policy planner to predict the spatiotemporal transmission dynamics and formulate imperative control strategies of SARS-CoV-2 in Bangladesh. The geospatial modeling tools can be used to prevent and control future epidemics and pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spatial Analysis
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2133167, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516697
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506746

ABSTRACT

Background: To develop an effective countermeasure and determine our susceptibilities to the outbreak of COVID-19 is challenging for a densely populated developing country like Bangladesh and a systematic review of the disease on a continuous basis is necessary. Methods: Publicly available and globally acclaimed datasets (4 March 2020-30 September 2020) from IEDCR, Bangladesh, JHU, and ECDC database are used for this study. Visual exploratory data analysis is used and we fitted a polynomial model for the number of deaths. A comparison of Bangladesh scenario over different time points as well as with global perspectives is made. Results: In Bangladesh, the number of active cases had decreased, after reaching a peak, with a constant pattern of death rate at from July to the end of September, 2020. Seventy-one percent of the cases and 77% of the deceased were males. People aged between 21 and 40 years were most vulnerable to the coronavirus and most of the fatalities (51.49%) were in the 60+ population. A strong positive correlation (0.93) between the number of tests and confirmed cases and a constant incidence rate (around 21%) from June 1 to August 31, 2020 was observed. The case fatality ratio was between 1 and 2. The number of cases and the number of deaths in Bangladesh were much lower compared to other countries. Conclusions: This study will help to understand the patterns of spread and transition in Bangladesh, possible measures, effectiveness of the preparedness, implementation gaps, and their consequences to gather vital information and prevent future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite acute respiratory infections (ARIs) being the single largest reason for antibiotic use in under-5 children in Bangladesh, the prevalence of antibiotic use in the community for an ARI episode and factors associated with antibiotic use in this age group are unknown. METHODS: We analysed nationally representative, population-based, household survey data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014 to determine the prevalence of antibiotic use in the community for ARI in under-5 children. Using a causal graph and multivariable logistical regression, we then identified and determined the sociodemographic and antibiotic source factors significantly associated with the use of antibiotics for an episode of ARI. RESULTS: We analysed data for 2 144 children aged <5 years with symptoms of ARI from 17 300 households. In our sample, 829 children (39%) received antibiotics for their ARI episode (95% CI 35.4% to 42.0%). Under-5 children from rural households were 60% (adjusted OR (aOR): 1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1) more likely to receive antibiotics compared with those from urban households, largely driven by prescriptions from unqualified or traditional practitioners. Private health facilities were 50% (aOR: 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.7) less likely to be sources of antibiotics compared with public health facilities and non-governmental organisations. Age of children, sex of children or household wealth had no impact on use of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: In this first nationally representative analysis of antibiotic use in under-5 children in Bangladesh, we found almost 40% of children received antibiotics for an ARI episode. The significant prevalence of antibiotic exposure in under-5 children supports the need for coordinated policy interventions and implementation of clinical practice guidelines at point of care to minimise the adverse effects attributed to antibiotic overuse.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Respiratory Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rural Population
17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(10): e1009360, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496326

ABSTRACT

The spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 presents many challenges to healthcare systems and infrastructures across the world, exacerbating inequalities and leaving the world's most vulnerable populations most affected. Given their density and available infrastructure, refugee and internally displaced person (IDP) settlements can be particularly susceptible to disease spread. In this paper we present an agent-based modeling approach to simulating the spread of disease in refugee and IDP settlements under various non-pharmaceutical intervention strategies. The model, based on the June open-source framework, is informed by data on geography, demographics, comorbidities, physical infrastructure and other parameters obtained from real-world observations and previous literature. The development and testing of this approach focuses on the Cox's Bazar refugee settlement in Bangladesh, although our model is designed to be generalizable to other informal settings. Our findings suggest the encouraging self-isolation at home of mild to severe symptomatic patients, as opposed to the isolation of all positive cases in purpose-built isolation and treatment centers, does not increase the risk of secondary infection meaning the centers can be used to provide hospital support to the most intense cases of COVID-19. Secondly we find that mask wearing in all indoor communal areas can be effective at dampening viral spread, even with low mask efficacy and compliance rates. Finally, we model the effects of reopening learning centers in the settlement under various mitigation strategies. For example, a combination of mask wearing in the classroom, halving attendance regularity to enable physical distancing, and better ventilation can almost completely mitigate the increased risk of infection which keeping the learning centers open may cause. These modeling efforts are being incorporated into decision making processes to inform future planning, and further exercises should be carried out in similar geographies to help protect those most vulnerable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemics , Refugees , SARS-CoV-2 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Comorbidity , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Data Visualization , Disease Progression , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Refugees/statistics & numerical data , Schools , Systems Analysis
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21342, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493216

ABSTRACT

Community-wide lockdowns in response to COVID-19 influenced many families, but the developmental cascade for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be especially detrimental. Our objective was to evaluate behavioral patterns of risk and resilience for children with ASD across parent-report assessments before (from November 2019 to February 2020), during (March 2020 to May 2020), and after (June 2020 to November 2020) an extended COVID-19 lockdown. In 2020, our study Mobile-based care for children with ASD using remote experience sampling method (mCARE) was inactive data collection before COVID-19 emerged as a health crisis in Bangladesh. Here we deployed "Cohort Studies", where we had in total 300 children with ASD (150 test group and 150 control group) to collect behavioral data. Our data collection continued through an extended COVID-19 lockdown and captured parent reports of 30 different behavioral parameters (e.g., self-injurious behaviors, aggression, sleep problems, daily living skills, and communication) across 150 children with ASD (test group). Based on the children's condition, 4-6 behavioral parameters were assessed through the study. A total of 56,290 behavioral data points was collected (an average of 152.19 per week) from parent cell phones using the mCARE platform. Children and their families were exposed to an extended COVID-19 lockdown. The main outcomes used for this study were generated from parent reports child behaviors within the mCARE platform. Behaviors included of child social skills, communication use, problematic behaviors, sensory sensitivities, daily living, and play. COVID-19 lockdowns for children with autism and their families are not universally negative but supports in the areas of "Problematic Behavior" could serve to mitigate future risk.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell Phone Use , Child Behavior/psychology , Child Care/methods , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Activities of Daily Living , Aggression , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Communication , Female , Humans , Male , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Sleep , Social Skills
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 738352, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477892

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, onset, and duration of COVID-19 associated symptoms, hospitalization, and recovery time from the infection in Bangladesh. Methods: A retrospective study was designed adopting the snowball sampling technique (n = 439). The association of gender, age, and comorbidity on COVID-19 associated complications was determined using chi-square and binary logistic regression analysis (p < 0.05). Result: Fever, exhaustion, cough, loss of taste, sore throat, body ache, and hair-loss were prevalent among more than 50% of the participants and developed within fourth days in above 90% of the patients. Shortness of breath was significantly higher in males (χ2 = 5.671; OR 1.641). Significant comorbidity association on the shortness of breath (χ2 = 40.119; OR 2.564), vomiting (χ2 = 4.422; OR 1.018), and loss of speech (χ2 = 17.299; OR 3.430) was observed. Patients (>40 years) exerted higher association in shortness of breath (χ2 = 24.083; OR 2.901). Age and comorbidity were significantly associated with COVID-19 associated hospitalization (χ2 = 16.890 and χ2 = 23.638, respectively) and recovery time (χ2 = 12.870 and χ2 = 26.924, respectively). Conclusion: The study suggests that the hospitalization rate increased for older (>40 years) and comorbid patients. Comorbid patients demonstrated higher susceptibility to have shortness of breath, vomiting, loss of speech, and confusion, whereas male patients showed significant increase in the prevalence of sore throat, loss of smell, and vomiting compared to female patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 7787624, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476885

ABSTRACT

The ascendancy of coronavirus has become widespread all around the world. For the prevention of viral transmission, the pattern of disease is explored. Epidemiological modeling is a vital component of the research. These models assist in studying various aspects of infectious diseases, such as death, recovery, and infection rates. Coronavirus trends across several countries may analyze sufficiently using SIR, SEIR, and SIQR models. Across this study, we propose two modified versions of the SEIRD method for evaluating the transmission of this infectious disease in the South Asian countries, more precisely, in the south Asian subcontinent. The SEIRD model is updated further by fusing some new factors, namely, isolation for the suspected people and recovery and death of the people who are not under the coverage of healthcare schemes or reluctant to receive treatment for various catastrophes. We will investigate the influences of those ingredients on public health-related issues. Finally, we will predict and display the infection scenario and relevant elements with the concluding remarks through the statistical analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Asia/epidemiology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Humans , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Public Health/statistics & numerical data
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