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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480866

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Early postoperative recovery after surgery is a key point for patients' safety and comfort. Moreover, operating room turnover depends on recovery time. Our aim was to assess which method of remifentanil administration, manual (MI) or target-controlled infusion (TCI), could reduce patient time in recovery room. In this study, patients' recovery times were registered and compared among the groups. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 31 morbidly obese patients in this prospective study. All of them had undergone bariatric surgery at the Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kauno Klinikos in 2020. Sevoflurane/remifentanil anaesthesia was performed for all patients. The patients were randomly assigned to the manual infusion (MI) (control group) or target-controlled infusion (TCI) group for the method of the administration of remifentanil. While the patients were waking up after the surgery, we recorded spontaneous breathing and airway reflexes recovery time, time of extubation, eye opening, recovery of orientation and beginning of the following oral command. For the TCI group, we also documented remifentanil concentrations in the blood (automatic infusion pump). Results: Patients did not differ in demographic values and duration of remifentanil infusion. We found that remifentanil consumption in the TCI group was lower, p = 0.02. Despite lower remifentanil consumption in the TCI group patients, they demonstrated longer total recovery time than the control group patiens: 14 (12-20) vs. 10 (6-16), p = 0.001. Conclusions: The study showed that, upon comparing the TCI method with MI, manual infusion produced better results in postoperative patient recovery. Additionally, higher doses of remifentanil were consumed using MI. In conclusion, the dosage recommended by highly qualified anaesthesiologists is favourable for morbidly obesity patients when compared to the TCI method.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Obesity, Morbid , Propofol , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Piperidines , Prospective Studies , Remifentanil
2.
Endoscopy ; 52(7): 537-547, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454843

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a known risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's esophagus (BE), and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Obese patients routinely undergo preoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) before bariatric procedures. We aimed to assess the prevalence of BE in this patient population. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature search ending in March 2019. Search results were imported into covidence.org and screened by two independent reviewers. Heterogeneity was assessed using I 2 and Q statistics and publication bias using funnel plots and the Orwin fail-safe test. Random-effects modeling was used in all analyses. RESULTS : Of 4087 citations, 77 were reviewed in full text and 29 were included in the final analysis based on our predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. A total of 13 434 patients underwent pre-bariatric surgery EGD. The pooled prevalence of BE using random-effects modeling was 0.9 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.7 % - 1.3 %); P < 0.001; I 2 = 58 %, Q = 67). In meta-regression analyses, controlling for sex and GERD, we found a positive association between mean body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of BE (ß = 0.15 [95 %CI 0.02 - 0.28]; P = 0.03). A linear relationship between the prevalence of BE and the prevalence of GERD was also noted (ß = 3.9 [95 %CI 0.4 - 7.5]; P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS : Obesity has been postulated as a major risk factor for BE, yet we found that the prevalence of BE in morbidly obese patients undergoing preoperative EGD was very low. Therefore, obesity alone may not be a major risk factor for BE.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Barrett Esophagus , Esophageal Neoplasms , Obesity, Morbid , Barrett Esophagus/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Prevalence
3.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(12): 1977-1983, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Obesity independently increases the risk of hospitalization due to viral respiratory infections, including influenza virus and, more recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. As an independent risk factor, obesity impairs the immune response to viral infections and decreases the effectiveness of immunizations. OBJECTIVES: Using influenza as a proxy, we aimed to determine the impact of bariatric surgery (BaS) on the risk of hospitalization due to viral respiratory infections. SETTING: Academic hospital, United States. METHODS: National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample data collected from 2010 to 2015 were examined. Patients were classified as treatment and control groups. Treatment subjects were defined as patients with a history of BaS and control subjects as patients with a body mass index ≥35 kg/m2 and without a history of BaS. Any hospitalization with influenza as a primary diagnosis was identified. Univariate analysis and multivariate regression models were performed to assess the differences between groups. RESULTS: A total of 2,300,845 subjects were reviewed, of which 2,004,804 were control subjects and 296,041 were treated patients. Univariate analysis showed that the hospitalization rate in the treatment group was significantly lower than in the control group (.007% versus .019%, P < .0001), which was confirmed after adjusting for covariables (control versus treatment: odds ratio = 2.21, P = .0010). CONCLUSIONS: BaS may decrease the risk of hospitalization due to influenza, but further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. We also suggest that these results should be translated into the development of similar studies to determine the impact of BaS on the incidence and severity of the coronavirus disease 2019.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Virus Diseases , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
4.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430928

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota has emerged as a major metabolically active organ with critical functions in both health and disease. The trillions of microorganisms hosted by the gastrointestinal tract are involved in numerous physiological and metabolic processes including modulation of appetite and regulation of energy in the host spanning from periphery to the brain. Indeed, bacteria and their metabolic byproducts are working in concert with the host chemosensory signaling pathways to affect both short- and long-term ingestive behavior. Sensing of nutrients and taste by specialized G protein-coupled receptor cells is important in transmitting food-related signals, optimizing nutrition as well as in prevention and treatment of several diseases, notably obesity, diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. Further, bacteria metabolites interact with specialized receptors cells expressed by gut epithelium leading to taste and appetite response changes to nutrients. This review describes recent advances on the role of gut bacteria in taste perception and functions. It further discusses how intestinal dysbiosis characteristic of several pathological conditions may alter and modulate taste preference and food consumption via changes in taste receptor expression.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , Taste Perception , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diet , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Feeding Behavior , Hormones/metabolism , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Taste , Taste Buds/physiology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
5.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 67(4): 20-35, 2021 08 02.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417341

ABSTRACT

Obesity affects over 700 million people worldwide and its prevalence keeps growing steadily. The problem is particularly relevant due to the increased risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality in obese patients. Obesity prevalence increase is often associated with the influence of environmental and behavioural factors, leading to stigmatization of people with obesity due to beliefs that their problems are caused by poor lifestyle choices. However, hereditary predisposition to obesity has been established, likely polygenic in nature. Morbid obesity can result from rare mutations having a significant effect on energy metabolism and fat deposition, but the majority of patients does not present with monogenic forms. Microbiome low diversity significantly correlates with metabolic disorders (inflammation, insulin resistance), and the success of weight loss (bariatric) surgery. However, data on the long-term consequences of bariatric surgery and changes in the microbiome composition and genetic diversity before and after surgery are currently lacking. In this review, we summarize the results of studies of the genetic characteristics of obesity patients, molecular mechanisms of obesity, contributing to the unfavourable course of coronavirus infection, and the evolution of their microbiome during bariatric surgery, elucidating the mechanisms of disease development and creating opportunities to identify potential new treatment targets and design effective personalized approaches for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of obesity.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Microbiota , Obesity, Morbid , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Obes Surg ; 31(12): 5376-5382, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391984

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increased morbimortality in patients with COVID-19 infection who had undergone surgery has raised concerns about bariatric surgery safety during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, there is scarce literature on safety outcomes after bariatric surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk of symptomatic COVID-19 infection and associated complications during the first 30 days after bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study including all patients who consecutively underwent primary bariatric surgery between August and December 2020. RESULTS: A total of 189 patients were included. Median age and BMI were 36 (17-70) years and 38 (35-41) kg/m2, respectively. Forty percent of patients were women (n = 76), 59.3% (n = 112) underwent sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and 40.7% (n = 77) underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). All surgeries were performed laparoscopically. The median length of postoperative stay was 2 (0-5) days. Postoperative COVID-19 infection was detected in two patients (1.1%): one patient was readmitted without the need of intermediate or ICU care, and the other was managed as an outpatient. Major complications occurred in three patients (1.6%); none of them was COVID-19 related. Two patients required an unplanned reoperation. No patient required intermediate or ICU care, no severe COVID-19 complications were observed, and no mortality was reported. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery can be safely performed during the ongoing pandemic, albeit a low risk of COVID-19 symptomatic infection. Rigorous perioperative COVID-19 institutional protocols are required to perform bariatric surgery safely during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Gastric Bypass , Obesity, Morbid , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Female , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Gastric Bypass/adverse effects , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
7.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(12): e55-e56, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386624
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376921

ABSTRACT

Bariatric surgery is the most efficacious treatment for obesity, though it is not free from complications. Preoperative conditioning has proved beneficial in various clinical contexts, but the evidence is scarce on the role of prehabilitation in bariatric surgery. We describe the protocol and pilot study of a randomized (ratio 1:1), parallel, controlled trial assessing the effect of a physical conditioning and respiratory muscle training programme, added to a standard 8-week group intervention based on therapeutical education and cognitive-behavioural therapy, in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. The primary outcome is preoperative weight-loss. Secondary outcomes include associated comorbidity, eating behaviour, physical activity, quality of life, and short-term postoperative complications. A pilot sample of 15 participants has been randomized to the intervention or control groups and their baseline features and results are described. Only 5 patients completed the group programme and returned for assessment. Measures to improve adherence will be implemented and once the COVID-19 pandemic allows, the clinical trial will start. This is the first randomized, clinical trial assessing the effect of physical and respiratory prehabilitation, added to standard group education and cognitive-behavioural intervention in obese patients on the waiting list for bariatric surgery. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT0404636.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Preoperative Care/methods , Preoperative Exercise , Adult , Breathing Exercises/methods , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Education as Topic , Pilot Projects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Treatment Outcome , Weight Loss
10.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(11): 1897-1904, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People living with obesity have been among those most disproportionately impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the urgent need for increased provision of bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the possible clinical and economic benefits of BMS compared with nonsurgical treatment options in the UK, considering the broader impact that COVID-19 has on people living with obesity. SETTING: Single-payer healthcare system (National Health Service, England). METHODS: A Markov model compared lifetime costs and outcomes of BMS and conventional treatment among patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 40 kg/m2, BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 with obesity-related co-morbidities (Group A), or BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 with type 2 diabetes (T2D; Group B). Inputs were sourced from clinical audit data and literature sources; direct and indirect costs were considered. Model outputs included costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Scenario analyses whereby patients experienced COVID-19 infection, BMS was delayed by five years, and BMS patients underwent endoscopy were conducted. RESULTS: In both groups, BMS was dominant versus conventional treatment, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £25,000/QALY. When COVID-19 infections were considered, BMS remained dominant and, across 1000 patients, prevented 117 deaths, 124 hospitalizations, and 161 intensive care unit admissions in Group A, and 64 deaths, 65 hospitalizations, and 90 intensive care unit admissions in Group B. Delaying BMS by 5 years resulted in higher costs and lower QALYs in both groups compared with not delaying treatment. CONCLUSION: Increased provision of BMS would be expected to reduce COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality, as well as obesity-related co-morbidities, ultimately reducing the clinical and economic burden of obesity.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , United Kingdom
11.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(12): 2091-2096, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366681

ABSTRACT

Obesity has rapidly become a significant public health issue. As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, so does its economic burden as a result of both direct and indirect costs. Likewise, since 2019, the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic with rising infection rates carrying significant economic costs associated with treatment of the disease and the reduction in economic activity due to government regulations. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a detrimental impact on obesity, not only creating an increasingly obesogenic environment but also reducing access to bariatric care and treatment of obesity-related diseases. In this article, we form a compelling argument for the resumption of bariatric services as soon as it is safe to do so because bariatric surgery brings significant additional medical and economic benefits. Medically, obesity is a risk factor for increased severity of COVID-19 infections, and therefore, treatment of obesity should be a priority in the current pandemic. Additionally, bariatric surgery has been shown to be a cost-saving procedure in the long term and thus has significant economic benefit in reducing the costs of obesity in the future as we recover from the economic collapse following the global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Health Care Costs , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Obes Surg ; 31(11): 4926-4932, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366404

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments for patients with severe and complex obesity. Lifestyle modifications in diet and exercise habits have long been important adjunct to the long-term success after bariatric surgery. The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the postoperative bariatric patient is not well understood. We sought to evaluate the impact the COVID-19 pandemic on postoperative weight loss at 1 year in a bariatric cohort. METHODS: All patients who underwent bariatric surgery from January 1, 2020, to March 12, 2020, were included. Patients who underwent bariatric surgery during the same period of the two preceding years (2018 and 2019) were included as control groups. Primary end point was %EBMIL at 1 year. A telephone survey was administered to all patients from 2020 to assess for their perception on the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on weight loss. RESULTS: A total of 596 patients were included: 181 from 2020, 199 from 2019, and 216 from 2018. The response rate was 97% and 53.4% of patients reported that the lockdown affected their ability to lose weight. The %EBMIL at 1 year was 64.1%, 63.7%, and 68.1% for 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively. There was no difference in weight loss at 1 year (p = 0.77) despite a decrease in exercise activity in those who had surgery just before the pandemic. CONCLUSION: There was no difference in target weight loss at 1 year in a cohort who underwent bariatric surgery before the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Loss
14.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(11): 1840-1845, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with novel COVID-19 virus have a spectrum of illnesses ranging from asymptomatic to death. Data have shown that age, sex, and obesity are strongly correlated with poor outcomes in COVID-19-positive patients. Bariatric surgery is the only treatment that provides significant, sustained weight loss in the severely obese. OBJECTIVES: Examine if prior bariatric surgery correlates with increased risk of hospitalization and outcome severity after COVID-19 infection. SETTING: University hospital METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a COVID-19 database from a single, New York City-based, academic institution was conducted. A cohort of COVID-19-positive patients with a history of bariatric surgery (n = 124) were matched in a 1:4 ratio to a control cohort of COVID-19-positive patients who were eligible for bariatric surgery (BMI ≥40 kg/m2 or BMI >35 kg/m2 with a co-morbidity at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis) (n = 496). A comparison of outcomes, including mechanical ventilation requirements and deceased at discharge, was done between cohorts using χ2 test or Fisher's exact test. Additionally, overall length of stay and duration of time in intensive care unit (ICU) were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Conditional logistic regression analyses were done to determine both unadjusted (UOR) and adjusted odds ratios (AOR). RESULTS: A total of 620 COVID-19-positive patients were included in this analysis. The categorization of bariatric surgeries included 36% Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB, n = 45), 36% laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB, n = 44), and 28% laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, n = 35). The body mass index (BMI) for the bariatric group was 36.1 kg/m2 (SD = 8.3), which was significantly lower than the control group, 41.4 kg/m2 (SD = 6.5, P < .0001). There was also less burden of diabetes in the bariatric group (32%) compared with the control group (48%) (P = .0019). Patients with a history of bariatric surgery were less likely to be admitted through the emergency room (UOR = .39, P = .0001), less likely to require a ventilator during the admission (UOR=.42, P = .028), had a shorter length of stay in both the ICU (P = .033) and overall (UOR = .44, P = .0002), and were less likely to be deceased at discharge compared with the control group (OR = .42, P = .028). CONCLUSION: A history of bariatric surgery significantly decreases the risk of emergency room admission, mechanical ventilation, prolonged ICU stay, and death in patients with COVID-19. Even when adjusted for BMI and the co-morbidities associated with obesity, patients with a history of bariatric surgery still have a significant decrease in the risk of emergency room admission.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Gastric Bypass , Laparoscopy , Obesity, Morbid , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gastrectomy , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Obes Surg ; 31(10): 4452-4460, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345185

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To estimate the association of emotional distress with both consumption of energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods (EDF) and body mass index (BMI) and the association between EDF consumption and change in BMI, during COVID-19 pandemic in patients with prior bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study applied an online structured questionnaire to 75 postoperative bariatric patients during the first Portuguese lockdown. Emotional distress was assessed trough the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and dietary intake was evaluated by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). Self-reported BMI prior to and at the end of confinement was used to compute BMI change. Pre-surgery BMI was computed from measured height and weight from clinical records. RESULTS: After adjustment for education, sex, time since surgery, pre-surgery BMI, and exercise practice, moderate/severe scores in HADS were significantly positively associated with consumption of EDF (ẞ = 0.799; 95% CI: 0.051, 1.546), but not with BMI. Daily EDF consumption significantly increased the odds of maintaining/increasing BMI (OR = 3.34; 95% CI: 1.18, 9.45), instead of decreasing it (reference). Sweets consumption was the only subcategory of EDF significantly positively associated with the odds of a worse outcome in BMI change (OR = 4.01; 95% CI: 1.13, 14.22). CONCLUSIONS: Among postoperative bariatric patients, higher reported levels of emotional distress during confinement are associated with increased EDF consumption. Increased EDF consumption during confinement, particularly sweets, is associated with higher odds of bariatric patients not decreasing their BMI. Additional effort is needed to address inadequate lifestyle behaviors among these patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Psychological Distress , Body Mass Index , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Obes Surg ; 31(10): 4272-4288, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are data on the safety of cancer surgery and the efficacy of preventive strategies on the prevention of postoperative symptomatic COVID-19 in these patients. But there is little such data for any elective surgery. The main objectives of this study were to examine the safety of bariatric surgery (BS) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and to determine the efficacy of perioperative COVID-19 protective strategies on postoperative symptomatic COVID-19 rates. METHODS: We conducted an international cohort study to determine all-cause and COVID-19-specific 30-day morbidity and mortality of BS performed between 01/05/2020 and 31/10/2020. RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-nine surgeons from 185 centres in 42 countries provided data on 7704 patients. Elective primary BS (n = 7084) was associated with a 30-day morbidity of 6.76% (n = 479) and a 30-day mortality of 0.14% (n = 10). Emergency BS, revisional BS, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, and untreated obstructive sleep apnoea were associated with increased complications on multivariable analysis. Forty-three patients developed symptomatic COVID-19 postoperatively, with a higher risk in non-whites. Preoperative self-isolation, preoperative testing for SARS-CoV-2, and surgery in institutions not concurrently treating COVID-19 patients did not reduce the incidence of postoperative COVID-19. Postoperative symptomatic COVID-19 was more likely if the surgery was performed during a COVID-19 peak in that country. CONCLUSIONS: BS can be performed safely during the COVID-19 pandemic with appropriate perioperative protocols. There was no relationship between preoperative testing for COVID-19 and self-isolation with symptomatic postoperative COVID-19. The risk of postoperative COVID-19 risk was greater in non-whites or if BS was performed during a local peak.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Obesity, Morbid , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Humans , Incidence , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(10): 1780-1786, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333752

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) disease causes significant morbidity and mortality through increased inflammation and thrombosis. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are states of chronic inflammation and indicate advanced metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to characterize the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 in patients with NAFLD/NASH and evaluate the mitigating effect of various metabolic treatments. SETTING: Retrospective analysis of electronic medical record data of 26,896 adults from a 12-hospital Midwest healthcare system with a positive COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test from March 1, 2020, to January 26, 2021. METHODS: Variable selection was guided by the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) method, and multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Multivariable logistic regression and competing risk models were used to assess the odds of being hospitalized within 45 days of a COVID-19 diagnosis. Analysis assessed the risk of hospitalization among patients with a prescription for metformin and statin use within the 3 months prior to the COVID-19 PCR result, history of home glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) use, and history of metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS). Interactions were assessed by sex and race. RESULTS: A history of NAFLD/NASH was associated with increased odds of admission for COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.57-2.26; P < .001) and mortality (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.45-2.67; P < .001). Each additional year of having NAFLD/NASH was associated with a significant increased risk of being hospitalized for COVID-19 (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14-1.35; P < .001). NAFLD/NASH increased the risk of hospitalization in men, but not women, and increased the risk of hospitalization in all multiracial/multiethnic subgroups. Medication treatments for metabolic syndrome were associated with significantly reduced risk of admission (OR, .81; 95% CI, .67-.99; P < .001 for home metformin use; OR, .71; 95% CI, .65-.83; P < .001 for home statin use). MBS was associated with a significant decreased risk of admission (OR, .48; 95% CI, .33-.69; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD/NASH is a significant risk factor for hospitalization for COVID-19 and appears to account for risk attributed to obesity. Other significant risks include factors associated with socioeconomic status and other co-morbidities, such as history of venous thromboembolism. Treatments for metabolic disease mitigated risks from NAFLD/NASH. More research is needed to confirm the risk associated with visceral adiposity, and patients should be screened for and informed of treatments for metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 17(11): 1884-1889, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331233

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies of patients who have undergone surgery while infected with COVID-19 have shown increased risks for adverse outcomes in both pulmonary complications and mortality. It has become clear that the risk of complications from perioperative COVID-19 infection must be weighed against the risk from delayed surgical treatment. Studies have also shown that prior bariatric surgery conveys protection against mortality from COVID-19 and that obesity is the biggest risk factor for mortality from COVID-19 infection in adults under 45 years of age. Studies in patients who have fully recovered from COVID-19 and underwent elective surgery have not become widely available yet. OBJECTIVES: This multi-institutional case series is presented to highlight patients who developed COVID-19, fully recovered, and subsequently underwent elective bariatric surgery with 30-day outcomes available. SETTING: Nine bariatric surgery centers located across the United States. METHODS: This multicenter case series is a retrospective chart review of patients who developed COVID-19, recovered, and subsequently underwent bariatric surgery. Fifty-three patients are included, and 30-day morbidity and mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-day complications included esophageal spasm, dehydration, and ileus. There were no cardiovascular, venous thromboembolism (VTE) or respiratory events reported. There were no 30- day mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: Bariatric surgery has been safely performed in patients who made a full recovery from COVID-19 without increased complications due to cardiovascular, pulmonary, venous thromboembolism, or increased mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Humans , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325734

ABSTRACT

Background: the COVID-19 pandemic and the implemented restrictions have changed the functioning of healthcare systems worldwide. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of the present epidemiological situation on patients' decisions about undergoing weight loss surgery. Methods: data were collected from 906 bariatric patients by the means of a national online survey, the majority of whom were women (87.9%). The survey started on 9 April 2020 and was open until 28 April 2020. The questionnaire included multiple choice and open questions, divided into three chapters: general information about the patient, life during the COVID-19 pandemic, and bariatric care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: despite the pandemic and the associated risk of COVID-19 infection, 443 responders (48.9%) would have decided to undergo bariatric surgery. Awareness of the negative impact of obesity on the course of COVID-19 illness had only marginable impact on patients' decision-making (76.6% vs. 75.3%; p < 0.80). Contact with COVID-19 prior to the survey had a negative impact on the willingness to undergo bariatric surgery (3.0% vs. 4.4%; p < 0.55). There was a positive correlation between the BMI and preference for bariatric surgery in the time of the pandemic (37.4 ± 9.0 vs. 34.9 ± 8.7; p < 0.001). Conclusions: the level of awareness about the advantages of operative treatment of obesity is high among bariatric patients. The majority of patients awaiting bariatric surgery at the moment of the survey were positive about undergoing bariatric surgery despite the increased risk of a serious course of COVID-19 infection. Therefore, a large proportion of patients was determined to have bariatric treatment even during the pandemic, being aware of the increased risk of worse pace of COVID-19 disease in case of obesity and related diseases.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23 Suppl 1: 3-16, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324985

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a chronic multisystem disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of obesity makes it a major healthcare challenge across both developed and developing countries. Traditional measures such as body mass index do not always identify individuals at increased risk of comorbidities, yet continue to be used in deciding who qualifies for weight loss treatment. A better understanding of how obesity is associated with comorbidities, in particular non-metabolic conditions, is needed to identify individuals at risk in order to prioritize treatment. For metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), weight loss can prevent T2D in individuals with prediabetes. It can improve and reverse T2D if weight loss is achieved early in the course of the disease. However, access to effective weight loss treatments is a significant barrier to improved health for people with obesity. In the present paper, we review the rising prevalence of obesity and why it should be classed as a multisystem disease. We will discuss potential mechanisms underlying its association with various comorbidities and how these respond to treatment, with a particular focus on cardiometabolic disease, malignancy and mental health.


Subject(s)
Bariatric Surgery , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Weight Loss
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