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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19274, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118834

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic, genome sequencing is essential to monitor viral mutations over time and by territory. This need for complete genetic information is further reinforced by the rapid spread of variants of concern. In this paper, we assess the ability of the hybridization technique, Capture-Seq, to detect the SARS-CoV-2 genome, either partially or in its integrity on patients samples. We studied 20 patient nasal swab samples broken down into five series of four samples of equivalent viral load from CT25 to CT36+ . For this, we tested 3 multi-virus panel as well as 2 SARS-CoV-2 only panels. The panels were chosen based on their specificity, global or specific, as well as their technological difference in the composition of the probes: ssRNA, ssDNA and dsDNA. The multi-virus panels are able to capture high-abundance targets but fail to capture the lowest-abundance targets, with a high percentage of off-target reads corresponding to the abundance of the host sequences. Both SARS-CoV-2-only panels were very effective, with high percentage of reads corresponding to the target. Overall, capture followed by sequencing is very effective for the study of SARS-CoV-2 in low-abundance patient samples and is suitable for samples with CT values up to 35.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Base Sequence , Genome, Viral
2.
Euro Surveill ; 27(45)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117835

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern Omicron was first detected in Italy in November 2021.AimTo comprehensively describe Omicron spread in Italy in the 2 subsequent months and its impact on the overall SARS-CoV-2 circulation at population level.MethodsWe analyse data from four genomic surveys conducted across the country between December 2021 and January 2022. Combining genomic sequencing results with epidemiological records collated by the National Integrated Surveillance System, the Omicron reproductive number and exponential growth rate are estimated, as well as SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility.ResultsOmicron became dominant in Italy less than 1 month after its first detection, representing on 3 January 76.9-80.2% of notified SARS-CoV-2 infections, with a doubling time of 2.7-3.3 days. As of 17 January 2022, Delta variant represented < 6% of cases. During the Omicron expansion in December 2021, the estimated mean net reproduction numbers respectively rose from 1.15 to a maximum of 1.83 for symptomatic cases and from 1.14 to 1.36 for hospitalised cases, while remaining relatively stable, between 0.93 and 1.21, for cases needing intensive care. Despite a reduction in relative proportion, Delta infections increased in absolute terms throughout December contributing to an increase in hospitalisations. A significant reproduction numbers' decline was found after mid-January, with average estimates dropping below 1 between 10 and 16 January 2022.ConclusionEstimates suggest a marked growth advantage of Omicron compared with Delta variant, but lower disease severity at population level possibly due to residual immunity against severe outcomes acquired from vaccination and prior infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination , Base Sequence
3.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1772-1789, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062767

ABSTRACT

It was noticed that the mortality rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection experienced a significant declination in the early stage of the epidemic. We suspect that the sharp deterioration of virus toxicity is related to the deletion of the untranslated region (UTR) of the virus genome. It was found that the genome length of SARS-CoV-2 engaged a significant truncation due to UTR deletion after a mega-sequence analysis. Sequence similarity analysis further indicated that short UTR strains originated from its long UTR ancestors after an irreversible deletion. A good correlation was discovered between genome length and mortality, which demonstrated that the deletion of the virus UTR significantly affected the toxicity of the virus. This correlation was further confirmed in a significance analysis of the genetic influence on the clinical outcomes. The viral genome length of hospitalized patients was significantly more extensive than that of asymptomatic patients. In contrast, the viral genome length of asymptomatic was considerably longer than that of ordinary patients with symptoms. A genome-level mutation scanning was performed to systematically evaluate the influence of mutations at each position on virulence. The results indicated that UTR deletion was the primary driving force in alternating virus virulence in the early evolution. In the end, we proposed a mathematical model to explain why this UTR deletion was not continuous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , Genome, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Deletion , Untranslated Regions
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054357

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has many variants capable of rapid transmission causing serious illness. Timely surveillance of new variants is essential for an effective public health response. Ensuring availability and access to diagnostic and molecular testing is key to this type of surveillance. This study utilized reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and whole genome sequencing results from COVID-19-positive patient samples obtained through a collaboration between Aegis Sciences Corporation and Walgreens Pharmacy that has conducted more than 8.5 million COVID-19 tests at ~5,200 locations across the United States and Puerto Rico. Viral evolution of SARS-CoV-2 can lead to mutations in the S-gene that cause reduced or failed S-gene amplification in diagnostic PCR tests. These anomalies, labeled reduced S-gene target performance (rSGTP) and S-gene target failure (SGTF), are characteristic of variants carrying the del69-70 mutation, such as Alpha and Omicron (B.1.1.529, BA.1, and BA.1.1) lineages. This observation has been validated by whole genome sequencing and can provide presumptive lineage data following completion of diagnostic PCR testing in 24-48 hours from collection. Active surveillance of trends in PCR and sequencing results is key to the identification of changes in viral transmission and emerging variants. This study shows that rSGTP and SGTF can be utilized for near real-time tracking and surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variants, and is superior to the use of SGTF alone due to the significant proportion of Alpha and Omicron (B.1.1.529, BA.1, and BA.1.1) lineages known to carry the del69-70 mutation and observed to have S-gene amplification. Adopting new tools and techniques to both diagnose acute infections and expedite identification of emerging variants is critical to supporting public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Genes Genomics ; 44(11): 1399-1404, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The question of whether the coronavirus genome contain as-yetununderstood genetic component. PURPOSE (OBJECTIVE): Elucidate the novel functions of the discovered tRNA-like base sequence and lead to the development of novel therapeutic agents. METHODS: A novel tRNA-like base sequence was found in the sequences complementary to the genomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-CoV. By comparing mutations in the tRNA-like base sequences of these two viruses, it was found that base pairing in the cloverleaf model of SARS-CoV-2 was more robust than that of SARS-CoV. RESULTS: The results of homology search between a short sequence of the coronavirus tRNA-like base sequence and human genes suggest that the molecule produced by this novel tRNA-like sequence may be involved in the splicing of human messenger RNA. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental molecular evidence of the tRNA-like base sequence discovered in this study is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA, Messenger , RNA, Transfer/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 536: 6-11, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) by genomic sequencing is time-consuming. The rapid screening of VOCs is necessary for clinical laboratories. In this study, we developed a rapid screening method based on multiplex RT-PCR by extended S-gene target failure (eSGTF), a false negative result caused by S-gene mutations. METHODS: Three S-gene target (SGT) regions (SGT1, codons 65-72; SGT2, codons 152-159; and SGT3, codons 370-377) and an N-gene region (for internal control) were detected in single-tube. Four types of VOC (Alpha, Delta, Omicron BA.1, and Omicron BA.2) are classified by positive/negative patterns of 3 S-gene regions (eSGTF pattern). RESULTS: The eSGTF patterns of VOCs were as follows (SGT1, SGT2, SGT3; P, positive; N, negative): Alpha, NPP; Delta, PNP; Omicron BA.1, NPN pattern; and Omicron BA.2, PPN. As compared with the S-gene sequencing, eSGTF patterns were identical to the specific VOCs (concordance rate = 96.7%, N = 206/213). Seven samples with discordant results had a minor mutation in the probe binding region. The epidemics of VOCs estimated by eSGTF patterns were similar to those in Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex RT-PCR and eSGTF patterns enable high-throughput screening of VOCs. It will be useful for the rapid determination of VOCs in clinical laboratories.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
J Comput Biol ; 29(9): 1001-1021, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017640

ABSTRACT

The comparison of DNA sequences is of great significance in genomics analysis. Although the traditional multiple sequence alignment (MSA) method is popularly used for evolutionary analysis, optimally aligning k sequences becomes computationally intractable when k increases due to the intrinsic computational complexity of MSA. Despite numerous k-mer alignment-free methods being proposed, the existing k-mer alignment-free methods may not truly capture the contextual structures of the sequences. In this study, we present a novel k-mer contextual alignment-free method (called kmer2vec), in which the sequence k-mers are semantically embedded to word2vec vectors, an essential technique in natural language processing. Consequently, the method converts each DNA/RNA sequence into a point in the word2vec high-dimensional space and compares DNA sequences in the space. Because the word2vec vectors are trained from the contextual relationship of k-mers in the genomes, the method may extract valuable structural information from the sequences and reflect the relationship among them properly. The proposed method is optimized on the parameters from word2vec training and verified in the phylogenetic analysis of large whole genomes, including coronavirus and bacterial genomes. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method on phylogenetic tree construction and species clustering. The method running speed is much faster than that of the MSA method, especially the phylogenetic relationships constructed by the kmer2vec method are more accurate than the conventional k-mer alignment-free method. Therefore, this approach can provide new perspectives for phylogeny and evolution and make it possible to analyze large genomes. In addition, we discuss special parameterization in the k-mer word2vec embedding construction. An effective tool for rapid SARS-CoV-2 typing can also be derived when combining kmer2vec with clustering methods.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19 , Base Sequence , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods
8.
FEBS Open Bio ; 12(9): 1562-1563, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013286

ABSTRACT

It is hard to overestimate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on scientific research in the last two and a half years. Within a few weeks after the first cases of the disease were reported, the causative agent, now known as SARS-CoV-2, was identified, its genome was sequenced, individual proteins were expressed and purified, and structural work commenced. The originally described SARS-CoV-2 isolate (GenBank: MN908947.3) has a positive-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA genome consisting of 29,903 bases. The genome encodes 29 proteins falling into structural and nonstructural categories, expressed as polyproteins that have to be cleaved into the final products by two virally encoded cysteine proteases. This "In the Limelight" special issue of FEBS Open Bio includes three review articles, focused on different aspects of the structure and other properties of selected examples of SARS-CoV-2 proteins: (a) the properties of the Nsp14 and Nsp15 ribonucleases; (b) the current state of knowledge of the molecular mechanisms for the translation of both viral transcripts and cellular messenger RNAs, with a focus on the properties of the Nsp1 protein; and (c) the structural properties and evolution of the spike proteins in SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses. These three reviews describe very different aspects of work that ultimately should lead to the development of more vaccines, antibodies, and small molecule drugs, necessary to combat this pandemic, as well as to counter future variants of this coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1987978

ABSTRACT

Viruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to exploit the molecular machinery of their host cells, including the broad spectrum of host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). However, the RBP interactomes of most viruses are largely unknown. To shed light on the interaction landscape of RNA viruses with human host cell RBPs, we have analysed 197 single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viral genome sequences and found that the majority of ssRNA virus genomes are significantly enriched or depleted in motifs for specific human RBPs, suggesting selection pressure on these interactions. To facilitate tailored investigations and the analysis of genomes sequenced in future, we have released our methodology as a fast and user-friendly computational toolbox named SMEAGOL. Our resources will contribute to future studies of specific ssRNA virus-host cell interactions and support the identification of antiviral drug targets.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Viruses , Base Sequence , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA , RNA Viruses/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Viruses/genetics
10.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271970, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974324

ABSTRACT

We formulate and apply a novel paradigm for characterization of genome data quality, which quantifies the effects of intentional degradation of quality. The rationale is that the higher the initial quality, the more fragile the genome and the greater the effects of degradation. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is ubiquitous, and that quantified measures of degradation can be used for multiple purposes, illustrated by outlier detection. We focus on identifying outliers that may be problematic with respect to data quality, but might also be true anomalies or even attempts to subvert the database.


Subject(s)
Genome , Base Sequence , Databases, Factual
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4500, 2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972602

ABSTRACT

Rapid transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has led to record-breaking case incidence rates around the world. Since May 2020, the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study tracked the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection in England through RT-PCR of self-administered throat and nose swabs from randomly-selected participants aged 5 years and over. In January 2022, we found an overall weighted prevalence of 4.41% (n = 102,174), three-fold higher than in November to December 2021; we sequenced 2,374 (99.2%) Omicron infections (19 BA.2), and only 19 (0.79%) Delta, with a growth rate advantage for BA.2 compared to BA.1 or BA.1.1. Prevalence was decreasing overall (reproduction number R = 0.95, 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.93, 0.97), but increasing in children aged 5 to 17 years (R = 1.13, 95% CrI, 1.09, 1.18). In England during January 2022, we observed unprecedented levels of SARS-CoV-2 infection, especially among children, driven by almost complete replacement of Delta by Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , England/epidemiology , Humans , Specimen Handling
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3408-e3415, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968198

ABSTRACT

Although the major SARS-CoV-2 omicron lineages share over 30 non-synonymous substitutions in the spike glycoprotein, they show several unique mutations that were acquired after their ancestral split. One of the most intriguing mutations associated with BA.1 is the presence of the inserted tripeptide Glu-Pro-Glu within the N-terminal domain, at a site that had previously independently acquired short insertions in several other SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Although the functional implications of the small nucleotide sequences found at this insertion hotspot, named RIR1, are still unclear, we have previously hypothesized that they may play a compensatory role in counterbalancing minor fitness deficits associated with other co-occurring spike non-synonymous mutations. Here, we show that similar insertion events have independently occurred at RIR1 at least 20 times in early 2022 within the BA.2 lineage, being occasionally associated with significant community transmission. One of these omicron sublineages, characterized by a Ser-Gly-Arg insertion in position 212, has been responsible for over 4000 documented COVID-19 cases worldwide between January and July 2022, for the most part concentrated in Denmark, where it reached a national prevalence close to 4% (10% in the Nordjylland region) in mid-May. Although the concurrent spread of the BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 lineages led to the rapid decline of this BA.2 sublineage, the independent acquisition of several other RIR1 insertions on a BA.2 genomic background suggests that these events may provide a slight fitness advantage. Therefore, they should be carefully monitored in the upcoming months in other emerging omicron-related lineages, including BA.5.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Base Sequence , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4284, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956403

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 frameshifting element (FSE), a highly conserved mRNA region required for correct translation of viral polyproteins, defines an excellent therapeutic target against Covid-19. As discovered by our prior graph-theory analysis with SHAPE experiments, the FSE adopts a heterogeneous, length-dependent conformational landscape consisting of an assumed 3-stem H-type pseudoknot (graph motif 3_6), and two alternative motifs (3_3 and 3_5). Here, for the first time, we build and simulate, by microsecond molecular dynamics, 30 models for all three motifs plus motif-stabilizing mutants at different lengths. Our 3_6 pseudoknot systems, which agree with experimental structures, reveal interconvertible L and linear conformations likely related to ribosomal pausing and frameshifting. The 3_6 mutant inhibits this transformation and could hamper frameshifting. Our 3_3 systems exhibit length-dependent stem interactions that point to a potential transition pathway connecting the three motifs during ribosomal elongation. Together, our observations provide new insights into frameshifting mechanisms and anti-viral strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frameshifting, Ribosomal , Base Sequence , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(14): 8080-8092, 2022 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948397

ABSTRACT

Translation of SARS-CoV-2-encoded mRNAs by the host ribosomes is essential for its propagation. Following infection, the early expressed viral protein NSP1 binds the ribosome, represses translation, and induces mRNA degradation, while the host elicits an anti-viral response. The mechanisms enabling viral mRNAs to escape this multifaceted repression remain obscure. Here we show that expression of NSP1 leads to destabilization of multi-exon cellular mRNAs, while intron-less transcripts, such as viral mRNAs and anti-viral interferon genes, remain relatively stable. We identified a conserved and precisely located cap-proximal RNA element devoid of guanosines that confers resistance to NSP1-mediated translation inhibition. Importantly, the primary sequence rather than the secondary structure is critical for protection. We further show that the genomic 5'UTR of SARS-CoV-2 drives cap-independent translation and promotes expression of NSP1 in an eIF4E-independent and Torin1-resistant manner. Upon expression, NSP1 further enhances cap-independent translation. However, the sub-genomic 5'UTRs are highly sensitive to eIF4E availability, rendering viral propagation partially sensitive to Torin1. We conclude that the combined NSP1-mediated degradation of spliced mRNAs and translation inhibition of single-exon genes, along with the unique features present in the viral 5'UTRs, ensure robust expression of viral mRNAs. These features can be exploited as potential therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , 5' Untranslated Regions , Base Sequence , COVID-19/virology , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4E/genetics , Humans , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics
15.
Arch Virol ; 167(8): 1693-1699, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930431

ABSTRACT

Lumpy skin disease continues to pose a threat to countries in the East and Asia-Pacific regions. Although only occasional LSDV outbreaks have been reported recently in Russia, these have been mainly restricted to the Far East region of the country. An increase in the number of outbreaks in South East Asia has been attributed to recombinant vaccine-like LSDV strains. In this scenario, it is epidemiologically important to perform phylogenetic analysis to track the distribution of LSDV worldwide at the genetic level to understand routes of migration and molecular evolution patterns. In this study, we investigated the RPO30 and GPCR gene regions of LSDV isolates associated with outbreaks in 2019-2021 in Siberia and the Far East region of Russia. The inferred phylogeny confirms the recombinant origin of these sequenced isolates. Based on sequences of these selected loci, the isolates from 2019 differed from isolates detected in Russia in the past and from isolates from Asian countries, while the isolates from 2020 and 2021 exhibited a high degree of similarity to the Asian isolates. These findings indicate that recombinant LSDV strains continue to persist and additionally point to the establishment of a specific lineage of recombinant isolates in the region. Full genome sequencing is still needed to gain more information about how the circulating isolates are related to each other.


Subject(s)
Lumpy Skin Disease , Lumpy skin disease virus , Animals , Base Sequence , Cattle , Disease Outbreaks , Phylogeny , Russia/epidemiology
16.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911651

ABSTRACT

Some of the lineages of SARS-CoV-2, the new coronavirus responsible for COVID-19, exhibit higher transmissibility or partial resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization and were designated by WHO as Variants of Interests (VOIs) or Concern (VOCs). The aim of this study was to monitor the dissemination of VOIs and VOCs in Venezuela from March 2021 to February 2022. A 614 nt genomic fragment was sequenced for the detection of some relevant mutations of these variants. Their presence was confirmed by complete genome sequencing, with a correlation higher than 99% between both methodologies. After the introduction of the Gamma VOC since the beginning of the year 2021, the variants Alpha VOC and Lambda VOI were detected as early as March 2021, at a very low frequency. In contrast, the Mu VOI, detected in May 2021, was able to circulate throughout the country. After the detection of the Delta VOC in June 2021, it became the predominant circulating variant. With the arrival of the Omicron VOC in December, this variant was able to displace the Delta one in less than one month.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Base Sequence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Venezuela/epidemiology
17.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911621

ABSTRACT

The clinical presentation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection varies from asymptomatic to severe meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis. The TBEV subtype has been suggested as one of the most important risk factors for disease severity, but TBEV genetic characterization is difficult. Infection is usually diagnosed in the post-viremic phase, and so relevant clinical samples of TBEV are extremely rare and, when present, are associated with low viral loads. To date, only two complete TBEV genomes sequenced directly from patient clinical samples are publicly available. The aim of this study was to develop novel protocols for the direct sequencing of the TBEV genome, enabling studies of viral genetic determinants that influence disease severity. We developed a novel oligonucleotide primer scheme for amplification of the complete TBEV genome. The primer set was tested on 21 clinical samples with various viral loads and collected over a 15-year period using the two most common sequencing platforms. The amplicon-based strategy was compared to direct shotgun sequencing. Using the novel primer set, we successfully obtained nearly complete TBEV genomes (>90% of genome) from all clinical samples, including those with extremely low viral loads. Comparison of consensus sequences of the TBEV genome generated using the novel amplicon-based strategy and shotgun sequencing showed no difference. We conclude that the novel primer set is a powerful tool for future studies on genetic determinants of TBEV that influence disease severity and will lead to a better understanding of TBE pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne , Base Sequence , Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/genetics , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/diagnosis , Genes, Viral , Humans , Whole Genome Sequencing
18.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(11): 6067-6083, 2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878813

ABSTRACT

Box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a conserved class of RNA known for their role in guiding ribosomal RNA 2'-O-ribose methylation. Recently, C/D snoRNAs were also implicated in regulating the expression of non-ribosomal genes through different modes of binding. Large scale RNA-RNA interaction datasets detect many snoRNAs binding messenger RNA, but are limited by specific experimental conditions. To enable a more comprehensive study of C/D snoRNA interactions, we created snoGloBe, a human C/D snoRNA interaction predictor based on a gradient boosting classifier. SnoGloBe considers the target type, position and sequence of the interactions, enabling it to outperform existing predictors. Interestingly, for specific snoRNAs, snoGloBe identifies strong enrichment of interactions near gene expression regulatory elements including splice sites. Abundance and splicing of predicted targets were altered upon the knockdown of their associated snoRNA. Strikingly, the predicted snoRNA interactions often overlap with the binding sites of functionally related RNA binding proteins, reinforcing their role in gene expression regulation. SnoGloBe is also an excellent tool for discovering viral RNA targets, as shown by its capacity to identify snoRNAs targeting the heavily methylated SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Overall, snoGloBe is capable of identifying experimentally validated binding sites and predicting novel sites with shared regulatory function.


Subject(s)
RNA, Small Nucleolar , Software , Base Sequence , Humans , RNA, Ribosomal/metabolism , RNA, Small Nucleolar/metabolism , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2453: 379-421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872265

ABSTRACT

Single-cell adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (scAIRR-seq) offers the possibility to access the nucleotide sequences of paired receptor chains from T-cell receptors (TCR) or B-cell receptors (BCR ). Here we describe two protocols and the downstream bioinformatic approaches that facilitate the integrated analysis of paired T-cell receptor (TR ) alpha/beta (TRA /TRB ) AIRR-seq, RNA sequencing (RNAseq), immunophenotyping, and antigen-binding information. To illustrate the methodologies with a use case, we describe how to identify, characterize, and track SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells over multiple time points following infection with the virus. The first method allows the analysis of pools of memory CD8+ cells, identifying expansions and contractions of clones of interest. The second method allows the study of rare or antigen-specific cells and allows studying their changes over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Cell Analysis , Base Sequence , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Transcriptome
20.
Dis Markers ; 2022: 6780710, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868808

ABSTRACT

Background: To date (14 January 2022), the incidence and related mortality rate of COVID-19 in America, Europe, and Asia despite administrated of billions doses of many approved vaccines are still higher than in Egypt. Epigenetic alterations mediate the effects of environmental factors on the regulation of genetic material causing many diseases. Objective: We aimed to explore the methylation status of HeyL promoter, a downstream transcription factor in Notch signal, an important regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation blood, pulmonary epithelial, and nerves cells. Methods: Our objective was achieved by DNA sequencing of the product from methyl-specific PCR of HeyL promoter after bisulfite modification of DNA extracted from the blood samples of 30 COVID-19 patients and 20 control health subjects and studying its association with clinical-pathological biomarkers. Results: We found that the HeyL promoter was partial-methylated in Egyptian COVID-19 patients and control healthy subjects compared to full methylated one that was published in GenBank. We identified unmethylated CpG (TG) flanking the response elements within HeyL promoter in Egyptian COVID-19 patients and control healthy subjects vs. methylated CpG (CG) in reference sequence (GenBank). Also, we observed that the frequency of partial-methylated HeyL promoter was higher in COVID-19 patients and associated with aging, fever, severe pneumonia, ageusia/anosmia, and dry cough compared to control healthy subjects. Conclusion: We concluded that hypomethylated HeyL promoter in Egyptian population may facilitate the binding of transcription factors to their binding sites, thus enhancing its regulatory action on the blood, pulmonary epithelium, and nerves cells in contrast to full methylated one that was published in GenBank; thus, addition of demethylating agents to the treatment protocol of COVID-19 may improve the clinical outcomes. Administration of therapy must be based on determination of methylation status of HeyL, a novel prognostic marker for severe illness in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors , COVID-19 , Repressor Proteins , Base Sequence , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation , Egypt/epidemiology , Humans , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Repressor Proteins/genetics
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