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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 204: 356-363, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670549

ABSTRACT

Infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 have brought great harm to human health. After transmission for over two years, SARS-CoV-2 has diverged greatly and formed dozens of different lineages. Understanding the trend of its genome evolution could help foresee difficulties in controlling transmission of the virus. In this study, we conducted an extensive monthly survey and in-depth analysis on variations of nucleotide, amino acid and codon numbers in 311,260 virus samples collected till January 2022. The results demonstrate that the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 is toward increasing U-content and reducing genome-size. C, G and A to U mutations have all contributed to this U-content increase. Mutations of C, G and A at codon position 1, 2 or 3 have no significant difference in most SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Current viruses are more cryptic and more efficient in replication, and are thus less virulent yet more infectious. Delta and Omicron variants have high mutability over other lineages, bringing new threat to human health. This trend of genome evolution may provide a clue for tracing the origin of SARS-CoV-2, because ancestral viruses should have lower U-content and probably bigger genome-size.


Subject(s)
Base Composition/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , China , Codon/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Genome/genetics , Genome Size/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Uracil/metabolism
2.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(11)2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523931

ABSTRACT

India experienced a tragic second wave after the end of March 2021, which was far more massive than the first wave and was driven by the emergence of the novel delta variant (B.1.617.2) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this study, we explored the local and national landscape of the viral variants in the period immediately preceding the second wave to gain insight into the mechanism of emergence of the delta variant and thus improve our understanding of the causation of the second wave. We randomly selected 20 SARS-CoV-2 positive samples diagnosed in our lab between 3 February and 8 March 2021 and subjected them to whole genome sequencing. Nine of the 20 sequenced genomes were classified as kappa variant (B.1.617.1). The phylogenetic analysis of pan-India SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences also suggested the gradual replacement of the α variant with the kappa variant during this period. This relative consolidation of the kappa variant was significant, since it shared 3 of the 4 signature mutations (L452R, E484Q and P681R) observed in the spike protein of delta variant and thus was likely to be the precursor in its evolution. This study demonstrates the predominance of the kappa variant in the period immediately prior to the second wave and underscores its role as the "bridging variant" between the α and delta variants that drove the first and second waves of COVID-19 in India, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0252846, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468153

ABSTRACT

Cassava plantations in an area of 458 hectares spanning five provinces along the Thailand-Cambodia border were surveyed from October 2018 to July 2019 to determine the prevalence of cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) in the region. CMD prevalence was 40% in the whole area and 80% in Prachinburi, 43% in Sakaeo, 37% in Burium, 25% in Surin, and 19% in Sisaket provinces. Disease incidence of CMD was highest 43.08% in Sakaeo, followed by 26.78% in Prachinburi, 7% in Burium, 2.58% in Surin, and 1.25% in Sisaket provinces. Disease severity of CMD symptoms was mild chlorosis to moderate mosaic (2-3). The greatest disease severity was recorded in Prachinburi and Sakaeo provinces. Asymptomatic plants were identified in Surin (12%), Prachinburi (5%), Sakaeo (0.2%), and Buriram (0.1%) by PCR analysis. Cassava cultivars CMR-89 and Huai Bong 80 were susceptible to CMD. In 95% of cases, the infection was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), which were abundant in Sakaeo, Buriram, and Prachinburi but were sparse in Surin; their densities were highest in May and June 2019. Nucleotide sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (mtCO1) gene of whiteflies in Thailand revealed that it was similar to the mtCO1 gene of Asia II 1 whitefly. Furthermore, the AV1 gene of SLCMV-which encodes the capsid protein-showed 90% nucleotide identity with SLCMV. Phylogenetic analysis of completed nucleotide sequences of DNA-A and DNA-B components of the SLCMV genome determined by rolling circle amplification (RCA) indicated that they were similar to the nucleotide sequence of SLCMV isolates from Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia. These results provide important insights into the distribution, impact, and spread of CMD and SLCMV in Thailand.


Subject(s)
Begomovirus/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence/genetics , Cambodia , DNA, Viral/genetics , Hemiptera/virology , Plant Diseases/virology , Plants/virology , Thailand , Vietnam
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441884

ABSTRACT

Bats have been identified as natural reservoirs of a variety of coronaviruses. They harbor at least 19 of the 33 defined species of alpha- and betacoronaviruses. Previously, the bat coronavirus HKU10 was found in two bat species of different suborders, Rousettus leschenaultia and Hipposideros pomona, in south China. However, its geographic distribution and evolution history are not fully investigated. Here, we screened this viral species by a nested reverse transcriptase PCR in our archived samples collected over 10 years from 25 provinces of China and one province of Laos. From 8004 bat fecal samples, 26 were found to be positive for bat coronavirus HKU10 (BtCoV HKU10). New habitats of BtCoV HKU10 were found in the Yunnan, Guangxi, and Hainan Provinces of China, and Louang Namtha Province in Laos. In addition to H. pomona, BtCoV HKU10 variants were found circulating in Aselliscus stoliczkanus and Hipposideros larvatus. We sequenced full-length genomes of 17 newly discovered BtCoV HKU10 strains and compared them with previously published sequences. Our results revealed a much higher genetic diversity of BtCoV HKU10, particularly in spike genes and accessory genes. Besides the two previously reported lineages, we found six novel lineages in their new habitats, three of which were located in Yunnan province. The genotypes of these viruses are closely related to sampling locations based on polyproteins, and correlated to bat species based on spike genes. Combining phylogenetic analysis, selective pressure, and molecular-clock calculation, we demonstrated that Yunnan bats harbor a gene pool of BtCoV HKU10, with H. pomona as a natural reservoir. The cell tropism test using spike-pseudotyped lentivirus system showed that BtCoV HKU10 could enter cells from human and bat, suggesting a potential interspecies spillover. Continuous studies on these bat coronaviruses will expand our understanding of the evolution and genetic diversity of coronaviruses, and provide a prewarning of potential zoonotic diseases from bats.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Base Sequence/genetics , Biological Evolution , China , Chiroptera/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genotype , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Viral Proteins/genetics
5.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1518-1524, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402106

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the first to apply whole-genome sequencing near to real time, with over 2 million severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) whole-genome sequences generated and shared through the GISAID platform. This genomic resource informed public health decision-making throughout the pandemic; it also allowed detection of mutations that might affect virulence, pathogenesis, host range or immune escape as well as the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics and therapeutics. However, genotype-to-phenotype predictions cannot be performed at the rapid pace of genomic sequencing. To prepare for the next phase of the pandemic, a systematic approach is needed to link global genomic surveillance and timely assessment of the phenotypic characteristics of novel variants, which will support the development and updating of diagnostics, vaccines, therapeutics and nonpharmaceutical interventions. This Review summarizes the current knowledge on key viral mutations and variants and looks to the next phase of surveillance of the evolving pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Genome, Viral/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , Clinical Decision-Making , Databases, Genetic , Humans , Public Health , Whole Genome Sequencing
6.
Cell ; 184(20): 5179-5188.e8, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401294

ABSTRACT

We present evidence for multiple independent origins of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 viruses sampled from late 2020 and early 2021 in the United Kingdom. Their genomes carry single-nucleotide polymorphisms and deletions that are characteristic of the B.1.1.7 variant of concern but lack the full complement of lineage-defining mutations. Instead, the remainder of their genomes share contiguous genetic variation with non-B.1.1.7 viruses circulating in the same geographic area at the same time as the recombinants. In four instances, there was evidence for onward transmission of a recombinant-origin virus, including one transmission cluster of 45 sequenced cases over the course of 2 months. The inferred genomic locations of recombination breakpoints suggest that every community-transmitted recombinant virus inherited its spike region from a B.1.1.7 parental virus, consistent with a transmission advantage for B.1.1.7's set of mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Pandemics , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Gene Frequency , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4382-4391, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263102

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread around the globe very rapidly. Previously, the evolution pattern and similarity among the COVID-19 causative organism severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and causative organisms of other similar infections have been determined using a single type of genetic marker in different studies. Herein, the SARS-CoV-2 and related ß coronaviruses Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV,  bat coronavirus (BAT-CoV) were comprehensively analyzed using a custom-built pipeline that employed phylogenetic approaches based on multiple types of genetic markers including the whole genome sequences, mutations in nucleotide sequences, mutations in protein sequences, and microsatellites. The whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny revealed that the strains of SARS-CoV-2 are more similar to the BAT-CoV strains. The mutational analysis showed that on average MERS-CoV and BAT-CoV genomes differed at 134.21 and 136.72 sites, respectively, whereas the SARS-CoV genome differed at 26.64 sites from the reference genome of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the microsatellite analysis highlighted a relatively higher number of average microsatellites for MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (106.8 and 107, respectively), and a lower number for SARS-CoV and BAT-CoV (95.8 and 98.5, respectively). Collectively, the analysis of multiple genetic markers of selected ß viral genomes revealed that the newly born SARS-COV-2 is closely related to BAT-CoV, whereas, MERS-CoV is more distinct from the SARS-CoV-2 than BAT-CoV and SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genetic Markers/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
Int J Pharm ; 602: 120580, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174310

ABSTRACT

Counterfeiting has never been more challenging than during the COVID-19 pandemic as counterfeit test kits and therapeutics have been discovered in the market. Current anti-counterfeiting labels have weaknesses: they can either be duplicated easily, are expensive or ill-suited for the existing complex supply chains. While RFID tags provide for an excellent alternative to current anti-counterfeiting methods, they can prove to be expensive and other routes involving nanomaterials can be difficult to encrypt. A DNA based anticounterfeiting system has significant advantages such as relative ease of synthesis and vast data storage abilities, along with great potential in encryption. Although DNA is equipped with such beneficial properties, major challenges that limit its real-world anti-counterfeiting applications include protection in harsh environments, rapid inexpensive sequence determination, and its attachment to products. This review elaborates the current progress of DNA based anti-counterfeiting systems and identifies technological gaps that need to be filled for its practical application. Progress made on addressing the primary challenges associated with the use of DNA, and potential solutions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence/genetics , Counterfeit Drugs , Nanostructures/analysis , Pandemics , Radio Frequency Identification Device , COVID-19 , Consumer Product Safety , DNA , Fraud/prevention & control , Humans , Nanotechnology/methods , Quality Assurance, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4382-4391, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156882

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread around the globe very rapidly. Previously, the evolution pattern and similarity among the COVID-19 causative organism severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and causative organisms of other similar infections have been determined using a single type of genetic marker in different studies. Herein, the SARS-CoV-2 and related ß coronaviruses Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV,  bat coronavirus (BAT-CoV) were comprehensively analyzed using a custom-built pipeline that employed phylogenetic approaches based on multiple types of genetic markers including the whole genome sequences, mutations in nucleotide sequences, mutations in protein sequences, and microsatellites. The whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny revealed that the strains of SARS-CoV-2 are more similar to the BAT-CoV strains. The mutational analysis showed that on average MERS-CoV and BAT-CoV genomes differed at 134.21 and 136.72 sites, respectively, whereas the SARS-CoV genome differed at 26.64 sites from the reference genome of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, the microsatellite analysis highlighted a relatively higher number of average microsatellites for MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (106.8 and 107, respectively), and a lower number for SARS-CoV and BAT-CoV (95.8 and 98.5, respectively). Collectively, the analysis of multiple genetic markers of selected ß viral genomes revealed that the newly born SARS-COV-2 is closely related to BAT-CoV, whereas, MERS-CoV is more distinct from the SARS-CoV-2 than BAT-CoV and SARS-CoV.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence/genetics , Chiroptera/virology , DNA Mutational Analysis , Genetic Markers/genetics , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Whole Genome Sequencing
10.
Microb Pathog ; 153: 104741, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus (COVID-19) was introduced into society in late 2019 and has now reached over 88 million cases and 1.9 million deaths. The Middle East has a death toll of ~80,000 and over 35000 of these are in Iran, which has over 1.2 million confirmed cases. We expect that Iranian cases caused outbreaks in the neighbouring countries and that variant mapping and phylogenetic analysis can be used to prove this. We also aim to analyse the variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS -CoV-2) to characterise the common genome variants and provide useful data in the global effort to prevent further spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The approach uses bioinformatics approaches including multiple sequence alignment, variant calling and annotation and phylogenetic analysis to identify the genomic variants found in the region. The approach uses 122 samples from the 13 countries of the Middle East sourced from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). FINDINGS: We identified 2200 distinct genome variants including 129 downstream gene variants, 298 frame shift variants, 789 missense variants, 1 start lost, 13 start gained, 1 stop lost, 249 synonymous variants and 720 upstream gene variants. The most common, high impact variants were 10818delTinsG, 2772delCinsC, 14159delCinsC and 2789delAinsA. These high impact variant ultimately results in 36 number of mutations on spike glycoprotein. Variant alignment and phylogenetic tree generation indicates that samples from Iran likely introduced COVID-19 to the rest of the Middle East. INTERPRETATION: The phylogenetic and variant analysis provides unique insight into mutation types in genomes. Initial introduction of COVID-19 was most likely due to Iranian transmission. Some countries show evidence of novel mutations and unique strains. Increased time in small populations is likely to contribute to more unique genomes. This study provides more in depth analysis of the variants affecting in the region than any other study.


Subject(s)
Genetic Variation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Middle East/epidemiology , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , Sequence Alignment
11.
Genome Res ; 30(10): 1434-1448, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963139

ABSTRACT

The human pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the major pandemic of the twenty-first century. We analyzed more than 4700 SARS-CoV-2 genomes and associated metadata retrieved from public repositories. SARS-CoV-2 sequences have a high sequence identity (>99.9%), which drops to >96% when compared to bat coronavirus genome. We built a mutation-annotated reference SARS-CoV-2 phylogeny with two main macro-haplogroups, A and B, both of Asian origin, and more than 160 sub-branches representing virus strains of variable geographical origins worldwide, revealing a rather uniform mutation occurrence along branches that could have implications for diagnostics and the design of future vaccines. Identification of the root of SARS-CoV-2 genomes is not without problems, owing to conflicting interpretations derived from either using the bat coronavirus genomes as an outgroup or relying on the sampling chronology of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and TMRCA estimates; however, the overall scenario favors haplogroup A as the ancestral node. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a TMRCA for SARS-CoV-2 genomes dating to November 12, 2019, thus matching epidemiological records. Sub-haplogroup A2 most likely originated in Europe from an Asian ancestor and gave rise to subclade A2a, which represents the major non-Asian outbreak, especially in Africa and Europe. Multiple founder effect episodes, most likely associated with super-spreader hosts, might explain COVID-19 pandemic to a large extent.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Asia/epidemiology , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Chromosome Mapping , Europe/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14004, 2020 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-724698

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel evolutionary divergent RNA virus, is responsible for the present devastating COVID-19 pandemic. To explore the genomic signatures, we comprehensively analyzed 2,492 complete and/or near-complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 strains reported from across the globe to the GISAID database up to 30 March 2020. Genome-wide annotations revealed 1,516 nucleotide-level variations at different positions throughout the entire genome of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, nucleotide (nt) deletion analysis found twelve deletion sites throughout the genome other than previously reported deletions at coding sequence of the ORF8 (open reading frame), spike, and ORF7a proteins, specifically in polyprotein ORF1ab (n = 9), ORF10 (n = 1), and 3´-UTR (n = 2). Evidence from the systematic gene-level mutational and protein profile analyses revealed a large number of amino acid (aa) substitutions (n = 744), demonstrating the viral proteins heterogeneous. Notably, residues of receptor-binding domain (RBD) showing crucial interactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and cross-reacting neutralizing antibody were found to be conserved among the analyzed virus strains, except for replacement of lysine with arginine at 378th position of the cryptic epitope of a Shanghai isolate, hCoV-19/Shanghai/SH0007/2020 (EPI_ISL_416320). Furthermore, our results of the preliminary epidemiological data on SARS-CoV-2 infections revealed that frequency of aa mutations were relatively higher in the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences of Europe (43.07%) followed by Asia (38.09%), and North America (29.64%) while case fatality rates remained higher in the European temperate countries, such as Italy, Spain, Netherlands, France, England and Belgium. Thus, the present method of genome annotation employed at this early pandemic stage could be a promising tool for monitoring and tracking the continuously evolving pandemic situation, the associated genetic variants, and their implications for the development of effective control and prophylaxis strategies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genetic Heterogeneity , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Amino Acid Sequence/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Base Pair Mismatch , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19 , Climate , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Open Reading Frames/genetics , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612518

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has motivated an intensive analysis of its molecular epidemiology following its worldwide spread. To understand the early evolutionary events following its emergence, a data set of 985 complete SARS-CoV-2 sequences was assembled. Variants showed a mean of 5.5 to 9.5 nucleotide differences from each other, consistent with a midrange coronavirus substitution rate of 3 × 10-4 substitutions/site/year. Almost one-half of sequence changes were C→U transitions, with an 8-fold base frequency normalized directional asymmetry between C→U and U→C substitutions. Elevated ratios were observed in other recently emerged coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome [MERS]-CoV), and decreasing ratios were observed in other human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, -OC43, -229E, and -HKU1) proportionate to their increasing divergence. C→U transitions underpinned almost one-half of the amino acid differences between SARS-CoV-2 variants and occurred preferentially in both 5' U/A and 3' U/A flanking sequence contexts comparable to favored motifs of human APOBEC3 proteins. Marked base asymmetries observed in nonpandemic human coronaviruses (U ≫ A > G ≫ C) and low G+C contents may represent long-term effects of prolonged C→U hypermutation in their hosts. The evidence that much of sequence change in SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses may be driven by a host APOBEC-like editing process has profound implications for understanding their short- and long-term evolution. Repeated cycles of mutation and reversion in favored mutational hot spots and the widespread occurrence of amino acid changes with no adaptive value for the virus represent a quite different paradigm of virus sequence change from neutral and Darwinian evolutionary frameworks and are not incorporated by standard models used in molecular epidemiology investigations.IMPORTANCE The wealth of accurately curated sequence data for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), its long genome, and its low substitution rate provides a relatively blank canvas with which to investigate effects of mutational and editing processes imposed by the host cell. The finding that a large proportion of sequence change in SARS-CoV-2 in the initial months of the pandemic comprised C→U mutations in a host APOBEC-like context provides evidence for a potent host-driven antiviral editing mechanism against coronaviruses more often associated with antiretroviral defense. In evolutionary terms, the contribution of biased, convergent, and context-dependent mutations to sequence change in SARS-CoV-2 is substantial, and these processes are not incorporated by standard models used in molecular epidemiology investigations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cytosine/analysis , Genome, Viral/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , Uracil/analysis , APOBEC Deaminases , Base Composition/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Sci Adv ; 6(25): eabb5813, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619103

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has become a global health risk, and understanding the response of the host to the SARS-CoV-2 virus will help to combat the disease. RNA editing by host deaminases is an innate restriction process to counter virus infection, but it is not yet known whether this process operates against coronaviruses. Here, we analyze RNA sequences from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids obtained from coronavirus-infected patients. We identify nucleotide changes that may be signatures of RNA editing: adenosine-to-inosine changes from ADAR deaminases and cytosine-to-uracil changes from APOBEC deaminases. Mutational analysis of genomes from different strains of Coronaviridae from human hosts reveals mutational patterns consistent with those observed in the transcriptomic data. However, the reduced ADAR signature in these data raises the possibility that ADARs might be more effective than APOBECs in restricting viral propagation. Our results thus suggest that both APOBECs and ADARs are involved in coronavirus genome editing, a process that may shape the fate of both virus and patient.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , RNA Editing/genetics , Transcriptome , APOBEC Deaminases/genetics , APOBEC Deaminases/metabolism , Adenosine Deaminase/genetics , Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Base Sequence/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Mutation Rate , Nucleotides/genetics , Nucleotides/metabolism , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication/genetics
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