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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(52)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594409

ABSTRACT

Although declines in intent to vaccinate had been identified in international surveys conducted between June and October 2020, including in the United States, some individuals in the United States who previously expressed reluctance said, in spring 2021, that they were willing to vaccinate. That change raised the following questions: What factors predicted an increased willingness to inoculate against COVID-19? And, to what extent was the change driven by COVID-specific factors, such as personal worry about the disease and COVID-specific misinformation, and to what extent by background (non-COVID-specific) factors, such as trust in medical authorities, accurate/inaccurate information about vaccination, vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance? This panel study of more than 8,000 individuals found that trust in health authorities anchored acceptance of vaccination and that knowledge about vaccination, flu vaccination history, and patterns of media reliance played a more prominent role in shifting individuals from vaccination hesitance to acceptance than COVID-specific factors. COVID-specific conspiracy beliefs did play a role, although a lesser one. These findings underscore the need to reinforce trust in health experts, facilitate community engagement with them, and preemptively communicate the benefits and safety record of authorized vaccines. The findings suggest, as well, the need to identify and deploy messaging able to undercut health-related conspiracy beliefs when they begin circulating.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior , Communication , Female , Humans , Influenza Vaccines , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , United States , Vaccination/ethics , Young Adult
2.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3502, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1533470

ABSTRACT

Objective: to verify the quality of life and eating habits of patients with obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: cross-sectional study with 68 outpatients, candidates for bariatric surgery, at university hospital in the Southern Brazil. Data collection was carried out by telephone, with questions about the profile of the participants and social distancing; questionnaires on quality of life and eating habits were also used. The data analysis, the logistic regression model, Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney U and Student t-tests were used for independent samples. Results: the general quality of life was 57.03 points and the eating habit with the highest score was cognitive restraint (61.11 points). Most patients (72.1%) were socially distancing themselves and 27.9% had not changed their routine. The chance of isolation was 3.16 times greater for patients who were married. There is a positive correlation between the domains of the Quality of Life questionnaire and cognitive restraint from the questionnaire about eating habits. Conclusion: we found that the participants tended to have a better quality of life as cognitive restraint increased.


Objetivo: evaluar la calidad de vida y la conducta alimentaria de los pacientes con obesidad durante la pandemia de COVID-19. Método: estudio transversal con 68 pacientes atendidos en un servicio ambulatorio de cirugía bariátrica de un hospital universitario del sur de Brasil. La recolección de datos se realizó por vía telefónica, con preguntas sobre el perfil de los participantes y el distanciamiento social; también se utilizaron cuestionarios sobre calidad de vida y conducta alimentaria. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó el modelo de regresión logística, la correlación de Spearman, las pruebas de la U de Mann-Whitney y la t de Student para muestras independientes. Resultados: la calidad de vida general fue de 57,03 puntos y la conducta alimentaria con mayor puntuación fue la restricción cognitiva (61,11 puntos). La mayoría de los pacientes (72,1%) mantenía el distanciamiento social y el 27,9% no habían cambiado la rutina. La probabilidad de adherir al aislamiento fue 3,16 veces mayor para los pacientes casados. Existe una correlación positiva entre los dominios del cuestionario de calidad de vida y la restricción cognitiva de las preguntas sobre la conducta asociada a los hábitos alimentarios. Conclusión: se verificó que los participantes tendían a tener una mejor calidad de vida a medida que aumentaba la restricción cognitiva.


Objetivo: verificar a qualidade de vida e o comportamento alimentar de pacientes com obesidade durante a pandemia por COVID-19. Método: estudo transversal com 68 pacientes atendidos em ambulatório de cirurgia bariátrica em hospital universitário do sul do Brasil. A coleta de dados foi realizada por telefone, com perguntas sobre o perfil dos participantes e o distanciamento social; também foram utilizados questionários de qualidade de vida e de comportamento alimentar. Para a análise de dados, foram utilizados o modelo de regressão logística, a correlação de Spearman e os testes U de Mann-Whitney e t de Student, para amostras independentes. Resultados: a qualidade de vida geral foi de 57,03 pontos e o comportamento alimentar que apresentou maior pontuação foi a restrição cognitiva (61,11 pontos). Grande parte dos pacientes (72,1%) estava fazendo distanciamento social e 27,9% não haviam mudado a rotina. A chance de fazer isolamento foi 3,16 vezes maior para os pacientes que estavam casados. Existe uma correlação positiva entre os domínios do questionário de qualidade de vida e a restrição cognitiva das perguntas sobre o comportamento associado ao hábito alimentar. Conclusão: verificou-se que os participantes apresentaram tendência em ter uma melhor qualidade de vida conforme a restrição cognitiva aumentava.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Outpatients , Patient Care Planning , Patient Isolation , Quality of Life , Behavior , Feeding Behavior , Physical Distancing , COVID-19 , Nursing Assessment , Obesity
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate nurses' behavioral intention toward caring for COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation, as well as the factors affecting their intention. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation have many care needs and pose more challenges for nurses, which might adversely affect nurses' intention toward caring behavior. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by using simple random sampling to recruit 598 nurses from five tertiary hospitals in Sichuan Province, China. The participants responded to an online questionnaire that included questions on demographic characteristics; the Attitude, Subjective Norms, and Behavioral Intention of Nurses toward Mechanically Ventilated Patients (ASIMP) questionnaire; the Nursing Professional Identity Scale (NPIS); and the Compassion Fatigue-Short Scale (CF-Short Scale). ANOVA, Spearman correlation analysis, and multiple linear regression were performed to analyze the data. RESULTS: The mean total behavioral intention score was 179.46 (± 14.83) out of a total score of 189.00, which represented a high level of intention toward caring for patients on mechanical ventilation. Multiple linear regression revealed that subjective norms (ß = 0.390, P<0.001), perceived behavioral control (ß = 0.149, P<0.001), professional identity (ß = 0.101, P = 0.009), and compassion fatigue (ß = 0.088 P = 0.024) were significant predictors of nurses' behavioral intention. CONCLUSIONS: Most nurses have a positive behavioral intention to care for COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. The findings in this study provide some insight for developing effective and tailored strategies to promote nurses' behavioral intention toward caring for ventilated patients under the pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/therapy , Nurses , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Adult , Behavior , China/epidemiology , Compassion Fatigue , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Job Satisfaction , Male , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Pandemics , Regression Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20987, 2021 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483149

ABSTRACT

Acid suppressants are widely-used classes of medications linked to increased risks of aerodigestive infections. Prior studies of these medications as potentially reversible risk factors for COVID-19 have been conflicting. We aimed to determine the impact of chronic acid suppression use on COVID-19 infection risk while simultaneously evaluating the influence of social determinants of health to validate known and discover novel risk factors. We assessed the association of chronic acid suppression with incident COVID-19 in a 1:1 case-control study of 900 patients tested across three academic medical centers in California, USA. Medical comorbidities and history of chronic acid suppression use were manually extracted from health records by physicians following a pre-specified protocol. Socio-behavioral factors by geomapping publicly-available data to patient zip codes were incorporated. We identified no evidence to support an association between chronic acid suppression and COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.92-1.17, P = 0.515). However, several medical and social features were positive (Latinx ethnicity, BMI ≥ 30, dementia, public transportation use, month of the pandemic) and negative (female sex, concurrent solid tumor, alcohol use disorder) predictors of new infection. These findings demonstrate the value of integrating publicly-available databases with medical data to identify critical features of communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Gastroesophageal Reflux/complications , Social Determinants of Health , Aged , Behavior , COVID-19/psychology , California , Case-Control Studies , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Factual , Female , Gastroenterology , Gastroesophageal Reflux/drug therapy , Geography , Histamine H2 Antagonists/pharmacology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Proton Pump Inhibitors/pharmacology , Risk Factors , Social Class
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19744, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454810

ABSTRACT

Infections produced by non-symptomatic (pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic) individuals have been identified as major drivers of COVID-19 transmission. Non-symptomatic individuals, unaware of the infection risk they pose to others, may perceive themselves-and be perceived by others-as not presenting a risk of infection. Yet, many epidemiological models currently in use do not include a behavioral component, and do not address the potential consequences of risk misperception. To study the impact of behavioral adaptations to the perceived infection risk, we use a mathematical model that incorporates the behavioral decisions of individuals, based on a projection of the system's future state over a finite planning horizon. We found that individuals' risk misperception in the presence of non-symptomatic individuals may increase or reduce the final epidemic size. Moreover, under behavioral response the impact of non-symptomatic infections is modulated by symptomatic individuals' behavior. Finally, we found that there is an optimal planning horizon that minimizes the final epidemic size.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Diseases/psychology , Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Perception , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19463, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447325

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, physical distancing behavior turned out to be key to mitigating the virus spread. Therefore, it is crucial that we understand how we can successfully alter our behavior and promote physical distancing. We present a framework to systematically assess the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to stimulate physical distancing. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of this framework in a large-scale natural experiment (N = 639) conducted during an art fair. In an experimental design, we varied interventions to evaluate the effect of face masks, walking directions, and immediate feedback on visitors' contacts. We represent visitors as nodes, and their contacts as links in a contact network. Subsequently, we used network modelling to test for differences in these contact networks. We find no evidence that face masks influence physical distancing, while unidirectional walking directions and buzzer feedback do positively impact physical distancing. This study offers a feasible way to optimize physical distancing interventions through scientific research. As such, the presented framework provides society with the means to directly evaluate interventions, so that policy can be based on evidence rather than conjecture.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Physical Distancing , Adult , Feedback , Female , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Public Policy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19241, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442800

ABSTRACT

Behavioral gender differences have been found for a wide range of human activities including the way people communicate, move, provision themselves, or organize leisure activities. Using mobile phone data from 1.2 million devices in Austria (15% of the population) across the first phase of the COVID-19 crisis, we quantify gender-specific patterns of communication intensity, mobility, and circadian rhythms. We show the resilience of behavioral patterns with respect to the shock imposed by a strict nation-wide lock-down that Austria experienced in the beginning of the crisis with severe implications on public and private life. We find drastic differences in gender-specific responses during the different phases of the pandemic. After the lock-down gender differences in mobility and communication patterns increased massively, while circadian rhythms tended to synchronize. In particular, women had fewer but longer phone calls than men during the lock-down. Mobility declined massively for both genders, however, women tended to restrict their movement stronger than men. Women showed a stronger tendency to avoid shopping centers and more men frequented recreational areas. After the lock-down, males returned back to normal quicker than women; young age-cohorts return much quicker. Differences are driven by the young and adolescent population. An age stratification highlights the role of retirement on behavioral differences. We find that the length of a day of men and women is reduced by 1 h. We interpret and discuss these findings as signals for underlying social, biological and psychological gender differences when coping with crisis and taking risks.


Subject(s)
Behavior/physiology , COVID-19 , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Age Factors , Austria , Cell Phone , Circadian Rhythm , Communication , Female , Humans , Leisure Activities , Male , Pandemics
8.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(10): e676-e683, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community mobility data have been used to assess adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions and its impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We assessed the association between location-specific community mobility and the reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2 across UK local authorities. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on community mobility from Google with data on R from 330 UK local authorities, for the period June 1, 2020, to Feb 13, 2021. Six mobility metrics are available in the Google community mobility dataset: visits to retail and recreation places, visits to grocery and pharmacy stores, visits to transit stations, visits to parks, visits to workplaces, and length of stay in residential places. For each local authority, we modelled the weekly change in R (the R ratio) per a rescaled weekly percentage change in each location-specific mobility metric relative to a pre-pandemic baseline period (Jan 3-Feb 6, 2020), with results synthesised across local authorities using a random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: On a weekly basis, increased visits to retail and recreation places were associated with a substantial increase in R (R ratio 1·053 [99·2% CI 1·041-1·065] per 15% weekly increase compared with baseline visits) as were increased visits to workplaces (R ratio 1·060 [1·046-1·074] per 10% increase compared with baseline visits). By comparison, increased visits to grocery and pharmacy stores were associated with a small but still statistically significant increase in R (R ratio 1·011 [1·005-1·017] per 5% weekly increase compared with baseline visits). Increased visits to parks were associated with a decreased R (R ratio 0·972 [0·965-0·980]), as were longer stays at residential areas (R ratio 0·952 [0·928-0·976]). Increased visits to transit stations were not associated with R nationally, but were associated with a substantial increase in R in cities. An increasing trend was observed for the first 6 weeks of 2021 in the effect of visits to retail and recreation places and workplaces on R. INTERPRETATION: Increased visits to retail and recreation places, workplaces, and transit stations in cities are important drivers of increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission; the increasing trend in the effects of these drivers in the first 6 weeks of 2021 was possibly associated with the emerging alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. These findings provide important evidence for the management of current and future mobility restrictions. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Transportation , Travel , Workplace , Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Biological , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18626, 2021 09 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428899

ABSTRACT

Population confinements have been one of the most widely adopted non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented by governments across the globe to help contain the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. While confinement measures have been proven to be effective to reduce the number of infections, they entail significant economic and social costs. Thus, different policy makers and social groups have exhibited varying levels of acceptance of this type of measures. In this context, understanding the factors that determine the willingness of individuals to be confined during a pandemic is of paramount importance, particularly, to policy and decision-makers. In this paper, we study the factors that influence the unwillingness to be confined during the COVID-19 pandemic by the means of a large-scale, online population survey deployed in Spain. We perform two types of analyses (logistic regression and automatic pattern discovery) and consider socio-demographic, economic and psychological factors, together with the 14-day cumulative incidence per 100,000 inhabitants. Our analysis of 109,515 answers to the survey covers data spanning over a 5-month time period to shed light on the impact of the passage of time. We find evidence of pandemic fatigue as the percentage of those who report an unwillingness to be in confinement increases over time; we identify significant gender differences, with women being generally less likely than men to be able to sustain long-term confinement of at least 6 months; we uncover that the psychological impact was the most important factor to determine the willingness to be in confinement at the beginning of the pandemic, to be replaced by the economic impact as the most important variable towards the end of our period of study. Our results highlight the need to design gender and age specific public policies, to implement psychological and economic support programs and to address the evident pandemic fatigue as the success of potential future confinements will depend on the population's willingness to comply with them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Behavior , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Spain/epidemiology , Statistics as Topic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Workplace
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371647

ABSTRACT

Epidemic preparedness depends on our ability to predict the trajectory of an epidemic and the human behavior that drives spread in the event of an outbreak. Changes to behavior during an outbreak limit the reliability of syndromic surveillance using large-scale data sources, such as online social media or search behavior, which could otherwise supplement healthcare-based outbreak-prediction methods. Here, we measure behavior change reflected in mobile-phone call-detail records (CDRs), a source of passively collected real-time behavioral information, using an anonymously linked dataset of cell-phone users and their date of influenza-like illness diagnosis during the 2009 H1N1v pandemic. We demonstrate that mobile-phone use during illness differs measurably from routine behavior: Diagnosed individuals exhibit less movement than normal (1.1 to 1.4 fewer unique tower locations; [Formula: see text]), on average, in the 2 to 4 d around diagnosis and place fewer calls (2.3 to 3.3 fewer calls; [Formula: see text]) while spending longer on the phone (41- to 66-s average increase; [Formula: see text]) than usual on the day following diagnosis. The results suggest that anonymously linked CDRs and health data may be sufficiently granular to augment epidemic surveillance efforts and that infectious disease-modeling efforts lacking explicit behavior-change mechanisms need to be revisited.


Subject(s)
Behavior , Cell Phone , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Cell Phone Use , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Geography , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Movement , Privacy
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4111, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315595

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic (including lockdown) is likely to have had profound but diverse implications for mental health and well-being, yet little is known about individual experiences of the pandemic (positive and negative) and how this relates to mental health and well-being, as well as other important contextual variables. Here, we analyse data sampled in a large-scale manner from 379,875 people in the United Kingdom (UK) during 2020 to identify population variables associated with mood and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to investigate self-perceived pandemic impact in relation to those variables. We report that while there are relatively small population-level differences in mood assessment scores pre- to peak-UK lockdown, the size of the differences is larger for people from specific groups, e.g. older adults and people with lower incomes. Multiple dimensions underlie peoples' perceptions, both positive and negative, of the pandemic's impact on daily life. These dimensions explain variance in mental health and can be statistically predicted from age, demographics, home and work circumstances, pre-existing conditions, maladaptive technology use and personality traits (e.g., compulsivity). We conclude that a holistic view, incorporating the broad range of relevant population factors, can better characterise people whose mental health is most at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Personality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295522

ABSTRACT

Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) can influence emotional predictions, constructed by the brain (generation stage) to prearrange action (implementation stage), and update internal models according to incoming stimuli (updating stage). However, neurocomputational mechanisms by which IU affects emotional predictions are unclear. This high-density EEG study investigated if IU predicted event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain sources activity developing along the stages of emotional predictions, as a function of contextual uncertainty. Thirty-six undergraduates underwent a S1-S2 paradigm, with emotional faces and pictures as S1s and S2s, respectively. Contextual uncertainty was manipulated across three blocks, each with 100%, 75%, or 50% S1-S2 emotional congruency. ERPs, brain sources and their relationship with IU scores were analyzed for each stage. IU did not affect prediction generation. During prediction implementation, higher IU predicted larger Contingent Negative Variation in the 75% block, and lower left anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area activations. During prediction updating, as IU increased P2 to positive S2s decreased, along with P2 and Late Positive Potential in the 75% block, and right orbito-frontal cortex activity to emotional S2s. IU was therefore associated with altered uncertainty assessment and heightened attention deployment during implementation, and to uncertainty avoidance, reduced attention to safety cues and disrupted access to emotion regulation strategies during prediction updating.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Emotions/physiology , Fear/physiology , Frontal Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Behavior/physiology , Brain/pathology , Brain/physiology , Brain Mapping , Contingent Negative Variation/physiology , Electroencephalography , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Face/physiology , Fear/psychology , Female , Forecasting , Frontal Lobe/pathology , Frontal Lobe/physiology , Humans , Male , Uncertainty , Young Adult
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276012

ABSTRACT

Human behavior is notoriously difficult to change, but a disruption of the magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to bring about long-term behavioral changes. During the pandemic, people have been forced to experience new ways of interacting, working, learning, shopping, traveling, and eating meals. A critical question going forward is how these experiences have actually changed preferences and habits in ways that might persist after the pandemic ends. Many observers have suggested theories about what the future will bring, but concrete evidence has been lacking. We present evidence on how much US adults expect their own postpandemic choices to differ from their prepandemic lifestyles in the areas of telecommuting, restaurant patronage, air travel, online shopping, transit use, car commuting, uptake of walking and biking, and home location. The analysis is based on a nationally representative survey dataset collected between July and October 2020. Key findings include that the "new normal" will feature a doubling of telecommuting, reduced air travel, and improved quality of life for some.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/psychology , Air Travel/psychology , Humans , Teleworking
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10153, 2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226436

ABSTRACT

Health risk exposure during the global COVID-19 pandemic has required people to adopt self-isolation. Public authorities have therefore had the difficult task of sustaining such protective but stressful behaviour. Evidence shows that besides egoistic drives, the motivation for self-isolation behaviour could be altruistic. However, the type and role of prosocial motivation in the current pandemic is underestimated and its interaction with risk exposure and psychological distress is largely unknown. Here we show that affective empathy for the most vulnerable predicts acceptance of lockdown measures. In two retrospective studies, one with a general population and one with COVID-19 positive patients, we found that (1) along with health risk exposure, affective empathy is a predictor of acceptance of lockdown measures (2) social covariates and psychological distress have no significant impact. Our results support the need to focus on altruistic behaviours while informing the public instead of on fear-inducing messages.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Altruism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Empathy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Psychological Distress , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Isolation , Young Adult
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e28892, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201852

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since late 2019, the lives of people across the globe have been disrupted by COVID-19. Millions of people have become infected with the disease, while billions of people have been continually asked or required by local and national governments to change their behavioral patterns. Previous research on the COVID-19 pandemic suggests that it is associated with large-scale behavioral and mental health changes; however, few studies have been able to track these changes with frequent, near real-time sampling or compare these changes to previous years of data for the same individuals. OBJECTIVE: By combining mobile phone sensing and self-reported mental health data in a cohort of college-aged students enrolled in a longitudinal study, we seek to understand the behavioral and mental health impacts associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, measured by interest across the United States in the search terms coronavirus and COVID fatigue. METHODS: Behaviors such as the number of locations visited, distance traveled, duration of phone use, number of phone unlocks, sleep duration, and sedentary time were measured using the StudentLife mobile smartphone sensing app. Depression and anxiety were assessed using weekly self-reported ecological momentary assessments, including the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. The participants were 217 undergraduate students. Differences in behaviors and self-reported mental health collected during the Spring 2020 term, as compared to previous terms in the same cohort, were modeled using mixed linear models. RESULTS: Linear mixed models demonstrated differences in phone use, sleep, sedentary time and number of locations visited associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. In further models, these behaviors were strongly associated with increased interest in COVID fatigue. When mental health metrics (eg, depression and anxiety) were added to the previous measures (week of term, number of locations visited, phone use, sedentary time), both anxiety and depression (P<.001) were significantly associated with interest in COVID fatigue. Notably, these behavioral and mental health changes are consistent with those observed around the initial implementation of COVID-19 lockdowns in the spring of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In the initial lockdown phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, people spent more time on their phones, were more sedentary, visited fewer locations, and exhibited increased symptoms of anxiety and depression. As the pandemic persisted through the spring, people continued to exhibit very similar changes in both mental health and behaviors. Although these large-scale shifts in mental health and behaviors are unsurprising, understanding them is critical in disrupting the negative consequences to mental health during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Smartphone , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety/diagnosis , Cell Phone Use/statistics & numerical data , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Locomotion , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mobile Applications , Sedentary Behavior , Self Report , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(16)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169445

ABSTRACT

Staying home and avoiding unnecessary contact is an important part of the effort to contain COVID-19 and limit deaths. Every state in the United States enacted policies to encourage distancing and some mandated staying home. Understanding how these policies interact with individuals' voluntary responses to the COVID-19 epidemic is a critical initial step in understanding the role of these nonpharmaceutical interventions in transmission dynamics and assessing policy impacts. We use variation in policy responses along with smart device data that measures the amount of time Americans stayed home to disentangle the extent that observed shifts in staying home behavior are induced by policy. We find evidence that stay-at-home orders and voluntary response to locally reported COVID-19 cases and deaths led to behavioral change. For the median county, which implemented a stay-at-home order with about two cases, we find that the response to stay-at-home orders increased time at home as if the county had experienced 29 additional local cases. However, the relative effect of stay-at-home orders was much greater in select counties. On the one hand, the mandate can be viewed as displacing a voluntary response to this rise in cases. On the other hand, policy accelerated the response, which likely helped reduce spread in the early phase of the pandemic. It is important to be able to attribute the relative role of self-interested behavior or policy mandates to understand the limits and opportunities for relying on voluntary behavior as opposed to imposing stay-at-home orders.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Policy , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United States/epidemiology
18.
Econ Hum Biol ; 42: 100998, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163683

ABSTRACT

In early 2020 the world was struck by the epidemic of novel SARS-CoV-2 virus. Like many others, German government has introduced severe contact restrictions to limit the spread of infection. This paper analyses effects of weather on the spread of the disease under the described circumstances. We demonstrate that regions reported lower growth rates of the number of the infection cases after days with higher temperatures, no rain and low humidity. We argue that this effect is channelled through human behaviour. The evidence suggests that "good" weather attracts individuals to outdoor (safer) environments, thus, deterring people from indoor (less safe) environments. Understanding this relationship is important for improving the measures aiming at combating the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Weather , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6569, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146605

ABSTRACT

Does cognitive motivation influence how people gather and interpret information about COVID-19 and their adherence to measures? To address these questions, we conducted a longitudinal survey among European and American respondents. Wave 1 (N = 501) was conducted on March 27, 2020 and Wave 2 (N = 326) on July 1, 2020. We assessed COVID-19 knowledge, endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories, media use, Need for Cognition (NC), Need for Cognitive Closure (NCC), and self-reported adherence to governmental measures taken. Results showed that nearly three-quarters of our respondents actively searched for information about COVID-19. Most at least once a day. Information seeking behaviour was not influenced by cognitive motivation (i.e., NC and NCC). However, cognitive motivation was related to (1) knowledge about COVID-19, (2) conspiracy rejection, and (3) change in knowledge over time. Respondents with more knowledge on COVID-19 also indicated to adhere more often to measures taken by their government. Self-reported adherence to measures was not influenced by cognitive motivation. Implications of these findings will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Knowledge , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior , COVID-19/virology , Cognition , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Self Report , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Methods ; 195: 92-102, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142317

ABSTRACT

Because the spread of pandemics depends heavily on human choices and behaviors, dealing with COVID-19 requires insights from cognitive science which integrates psychology, neuroscience, computer modeling, philosophy, anthropology, and linguistics. Cognitive models can explain why scientists adopt hypotheses about the causes and treatments of disease based on explanatory coherence. Irrational deviations from good reasoning are explained by motivated inference in which conclusions are influenced by personal goals that contribute to emotional coherence. Decisions about COVID-19 can also be distorted by well-known psychological and neural mechanisms. Cognitive science provides advice about how to improve human behavior in pandemics by changing beliefs and by improving behaviors that result from intention-action gaps.


Subject(s)
Behavior , COVID-19/psychology , Cognitive Science/methods , Culture , Decision Making , Denial, Psychological , Behavior/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Choice Behavior/physiology , Decision Making/physiology , Humans
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