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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 731016, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775861

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The U.S. is struggling with dual crises of chronic pain and opioid overdoses. To improve statewide pain and addiction care, the Arizona Department of Health Services and 18 health education programs collaboratively created the evidence-based, comprehensive Arizona Pain and Addiction Curriculum which includes a Toolbox for Operationalization with adult learning theory applications and an annual program survey to assess curriculum implementation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the first year's survey data to better understand the implementation of a novel curriculum across all programs in the state. Materials and Methods: Program surveys were sent 6 months after curriculum publication to all 18 health education programs in Arizona to assess the 6 Ds of curriculum implementation: Degree of implementation, Difficulty of implementation, Delivery methods, Faculty Development, Didactic dissonance and Discussion Opportunities. Results: Responses from all program types (14/18 programs) indicated that there was widespread implementation of the curriculum, with 71% reporting that all ten Core Components had been included in the past academic year. The majority of programs did not find the Components difficult to implement and had implemented them through lectures. Seventy-seven percent of programs did not have a process to ensure clinical rotation supervisors are teaching content consistent with the curriculum, 77% reported not addressing student's didactic dissonance, and 77% of programs did not report asking students about their interactions with industry representatives. Conclusion: In < 1 year after creation of the Arizona Pain and Addiction Curriculum, all program types reported wide implementation with little difficulty. This may represent a first step toward the transformation of pain and addiction education, and occurred statewide, across program types. Further focus on didactic dissonance, problem solving and faculty development is indicated, along with systematic education on pharmaceutical and industry influence on learners. Other programs may benefit from adopting this curriculum and may not experience significant challenges in doing so.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Pain , Adult , Arizona , Curriculum , Humans
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736894

ABSTRACT

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a formal mental disorder leading to bad outcomes for children and adolescents. This study comprehensively compared the estimated effect of various pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions for IGD from randomized controlled trials (RCT) through updated meta-analysis, using meta-regression. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Airiti Library between 2000 and 2017 was conducted for various IA/IGD intervention modalities. A total of 124 studies from 29 selected papers involving 5601 children and young adults with IA/IGD were found. Meta-analyzing the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) revealed a preliminary random effect of 1.399 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.272-1.527, suggesting highly effective treatment of IA/IGD. After adjusting for the confounding risks of age, publication year, type of subjects, and type of study, this study revealed that combining pharmacotherapy with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or multi-level counseling (MLC) was the most effective treatment option. Using a scale of time spent online or a severity of IA symptoms scale was a more effective measurement, with p-values = 0.006 and 0.002, respectively. IA/IGD patients with comorbid depression showed worse outcomes than youth with another comorbidity. The corresponding model goodness-of-fit indices were τ2 = 1.188; I2-Residual = 89.74%; and Adjusted-R2 = 16.10%. This systematic review indicates that pharmacotherapy combined with CBT or MLC might be an effective therapeutic strategy for youth with gaming disorder.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin D , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Video Games/psychology , Young Adult
3.
J Behav Addict ; 11(1): 88-101, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736571

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: The current Covid-19 situation offers a natural experiment to explore the effect of a chronic stressor on compulsive buying tendencies over an extended period of time. Design: Survey method of sampling every three days a new cohort during the first six months of the Covid-19 pandemic (March-October 2020) in the United States. Participants: Total (clean) sample of N = 1,430 (39.3% female, mean age = 36.4 years). Measurements: Online and offline compulsive buying separately, distress, economic position, income and age were assessed. Findings: Both online and offline compulsive buying increased during the data collection period ( τ = 0.24, τ = 0.22, respectively, both P < 0.001). Individuals with self-reported high economic position (EP) reported the highest tendency for compulsive buying throughout the entire time frame, although the increase in compulsive buying tendencies over time was the most pronounced among the economically less privileged. Online compulsive buying increased after the CARES Act (first stimulus package) by an effect size of d = 0.33. When entered into a regression model, EP had the strongest effect on compulsive buying after accounting for the effect of distress, income and age. The high-EP group reported the strongest correlation between distress and compulsive buying (r = 0.67, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.57-0.76). Conclusions: Compulsive buying tendency gradually increased during the first six months of the Covid-19 pandemic especially after the CARES Act.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Compulsive Behavior/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
4.
Am J Health Promot ; 35(2): 317-319, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724157
5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.1): 2479-2486, Mar. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1725052

ABSTRACT

Resumo O presente ensaio busca discutir as implicações do isolamento social devido à pandemia do COVID-19 para o uso intensivo da internet entre crianças e adolescentes e suas possíveis consequências para a prática de violências autoinflingidas. Discutimos brevemente o potencial ansiogênico e a reprodução de um "medo global" que se consolidam com a exposição maciça e sem mediação dos conteúdos consumidos, que podem aumentar as vulnerabilidades para estresse e ideações suicidas. Centramos nosso debate sobre práticas "recreativas", denominadas de "desafios" com poder autolesivo, realizados por adolescentes no site Youtube. Essa prática revelou-se crescente a partir das medidas de isolamento social. Nossa reflexão sobre esses riscos é feita a partir da perspectiva teórica da sociabilidade digital, e suas implicações nas interações de adolescentes mediadas pela internet.


Abstract This essay aimed to discuss the implications of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic for the intensive use of the internet among children and adolescents and its possible consequences for the practice of self-inflicted violence. We briefly discussed the anxiogenic potential and the reproduction of a "global fear" that are consolidated with the massive and unmediated exposure of the content consumed, which can increase the vulnerabilities to stress and suicidal ideas. We centered our debate on "recreational" practices, called "challenges" with self-harm power, carried out by teenagers on the YouTube website. This practice has been shown to increase with the social isolation measures. Our reflection on these risks builds on the theoretical perspective of digital sociability, and its implications for the internet-mediated interactions of adolescents.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Anxiety/psychology , Self Concept , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Time Factors , Information Storage and Retrieval/statistics & numerical data , Behavior, Addictive , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Fear , Social Media/statistics & numerical data
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715341

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, increased stress factors affected people's motivations to engage in potentially addictive behaviors. Sexuality, understood as one of the psychological aspects to be investigated to explore the level of psychological well-being of a person, has suffered considerable repercussions due to the pandemic. A growing body of evidence suggests an unprecedented increase in Internet use and online pornography consumption during the pandemic. Since March 2020, during the lockdown period, Pornhub has seen a worldwide increase in pornography use of 11.6% compared to the previous average days. This research was conducted with the aim of exploring the possible increasing use of pornographic material during the lockdown period, in order to assess whether dysfunctional behaviors, such as compulsive behaviors, and thoughts of sex-related obsessives can lead to hypersexual behavior or a more severe Sexual Addiction. The individuals who participated in our research were 18 years of age or older (mean 23.1, s.d. 5.8), and 48% male and 52% females and were recruited online to complete a self-report questionnaire in the period between April 2020 and April 2021. The questionnaires were delivered via main social networks. The tool used for our survey was the SAST (Sexual Addiction Screening Test), a questionnaire including socio-demographic data and data relating to sexual practices, such as sexual orientation and time spent on the Internet for sexual activities. The results revealed significant differences concerning the various factors investigated such as loss of control, addictive symptoms and hide score.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Public Health ; 205: 72-78, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712937

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Online platforms enable real-time trading activities that are similar to those of gambling. This study aimed to investigate the associations of traditional investing, real-time stock trading, and cryptocurrency trading with excessive behavior and mental health problems. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional population-based survey. METHODS: The participants were Finnish people aged 18-75 years (N = 1530, 50.33% male). Survey asked about monthly regular investing, real-time stock-trading platform use, and cryptocurrency trading. The study had measures for excessive behavior: gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale), and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Psychological distress (Mental Health Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), COVID-19 anxiety, and perceived loneliness were also measured. Background factors included sociodemographic variables, instant loan taking, and involvement in social media identity bubbles (Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale). Multivariate analyses were conducted with regression analysis. RESULTS: Within the sample, 22.29% were categorized into monthly regular investors only, 3.01% were investors using real-time stock-trading platforms, and 3.59% were cryptomarket traders. Real-time stock-trading platform use and cryptocurrency trading were associated with younger age and male gender. Cryptomarket traders were more likely to have an immigrant background and have taken instant loans. Both real-time stock-trading platform use and cryptomarket trading were associated with higher excessive behavior. Cryptomarket traders especially reported higher excessive gambling, gaming, and internet use than others. Cryptomarket traders reported also higher psychological distress, perceived stress, and loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Regular investing is not a risk factor for excessive behavior. However, rapid online trading platforms and applications were significantly more commonly used by participants reporting excessive behavior and mental health problems. The strong association between cryptomarket trading and excessive behavior in particular underlines the need to acknowledge the potential risks related to real-time trading platforms.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Gambling , Anxiety Disorders , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gambling/epidemiology , Gambling/psychology , Humans , Internet , Male
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 808264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699555

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of positive youth development, developmental assets and self-control play critical roles in promoting adolescent development. However, their effects have not been evaluated in the current issue, internet gaming disorder (IGD). IGD is gradually becoming an important social problem among worldwide youth and has been included in the eleventh International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Therefore, the present study was determined to investigate the relationship between developmental assets, self-control, and IGD. A two-wave longitudinal study, with each wave spanning half a year apart, was conducted in a sample of 1023 adolescents (aging from 11 to 15, 49.36% boys) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of the moderated mediation model revealed that T1 developmental assets could predict less IGD at T2 directly or through T1 self-control indirectly. Furthermore, the moderating effect of gender was not significant in the mediation model. Overall, adolescents who experience more developmental assets are less likely to suffer IGD. Moreover, developmental assets are conducive to developing a higher level of self-control, which in turn contributes to preventing or intervening in IGD as well. Therefore, measures should be taken to construct developmental assets to prevent or reduce IGD during adolescence.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Self-Control , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 424-427, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of trait impulsivity in development, continuation and escalation of addictive behaviors has long been recognized. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown on 6003 Italian adults aged 18-74 years, representative of the Italian general population, to investigate the relationship between impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - BIS) and selected addictive behaviors (gambling habits, smoking status, cannabis use, average alcohol daily use). RESULTS: A statistically significant relationship was found between motor impulsivity and starting/increasing drinking and increasing gambling (high vs. low motor impulsivity: multivariate odds ratio, OR=3.12; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.45-6.74; p for trend=0.004 for start and OR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.26-1.86; p for trend<0.001 for increase drinking, respectively; OR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.41-3.12; p for trend<0.001 for increasing gambling). LIMITATIONS: Potential information and recall bias. The necessity to limit the length of the questionnaire not to reduce the quality of the answers of study participants. CONCLUSIONS: The multifaceted nature of impulsivity, potentially either cause or effect, hampers the understanding of its proper role in addictive behaviors. If confirmed by future longitudinal studies, our findings might support the planning, implementation and monitoring of evidence-based preventive interventions, to reduce addictive behaviors during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667143

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic and its related containment measures have been associated with increased levels of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population. While the use of digital media has been greatly promoted by national governments and international authorities to maintain social contacts and healthy lifestyle behaviors, its increased access may also bear the risk of inappropriate or excessive use of internet-related resources. The present study, part of the COVID Mental hEalth Trial (COMET) study, aims at investigating the possible relationship between social isolation, the use of digital resources and the development of their problematic use. A cross sectional survey was carried out to explore the prevalence of internet addiction, excessive use of social media, problematic video gaming and binge watching, during Italian phase II (May-June 2020) and III (June-September 2020) of the pandemic in 1385 individuals (62.5% female, mean age 32.5 ± 12.9) mainly living in Central Italy (52.4%). Data were stratified according to phase II/III and three groups of Italian regions (northern, central and southern). Compared to the larger COMET study, most participants exhibited significant higher levels of severe-to-extremely-severe depressive symptoms (46.3% vs. 12.4%; p < 0.01) and extremely severe anxiety symptoms (77.8% vs. 7.5%; p < 0.01). We also observed a rise in problematic internet use and excessive gaming over time. Mediation analyses revealed that COVID-19-related general psychopathology, stress, anxiety, depression and social isolation play a significant role in the emergence of problematic internet use, social media addiction and problematic video gaming. Professional gamers and younger subjects emerged as sub-populations particularly at risk of developing digital addictions. If confirmed in larger and more homogenous samples, our findings may help in shedding light on possible preventive and treatment strategies for digital addictions.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Young Adult
11.
Adv Pharmacol ; 93: 403-441, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650856

ABSTRACT

The number of people who suffer from a substance abuse disorder has continued to rise over the last decade; particularly, the number of drug-related overdose deaths has sharply increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Converging lines of clinical observations, supported by imaging and neuropsychological performance testing, have demonstrated that substance abuse-induced dysregulation of neurotransmissions in the brain is critical for development and expression of the addictive properties of abused substances. Recent scientific advances have allowed for better understanding of the neurobiological processes that mediates drugs of abuse and addiction. This chapter presents the past classic concepts and the recent advances in our knowledge about how cocaine, amphetamines, opioids, alcohol, and nicotine alter multiple neurotransmitter systems, which contribute to the behaviors associated with each drug. Additionally, we discuss the interactive effects of HIV-1 or COVID-19 and substance abuse on neurotransmission and neurobiological pathways. Finally, we introduce therapeutic strategies for development of pharmacotherapies for substance abuse disorders.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Behavior, Addictive/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Synaptic Transmission
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639397

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has profoundly affected the social fabric and the economic and health care viability and functioning of most countries. Aside from its deeply destructive impact on health care systems and national economies, the pandemic has jeopardized people's emotional and psychological well-being as well. The authors aimed to shed a light on how the pandemic has been affecting patients with addiction issues and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is characterized by negative thoughts about appearance and body misperceptions. People with body dysmorphic disorder are in fact at increased risk of developing substance use disorders, and such a destructive association has only been made more severe by pandemic-related restrictions, emotional distress and anxiety, as well as longer exposure to social media and online interactions. This is a major cause for concern, because substance use worsens symptoms of BDD and contributes to unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Image/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Anxiety , Behavior, Addictive/complications , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/complications , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/epidemiology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Humans , Social Media , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
13.
Rev Med Suisse ; 18(764-5): 11-14, 2022 Jan 19.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638068

ABSTRACT

Addiction medicine is influenced by societal changes and the environment has an impact on addictive behaviors and how they are experienced. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on addictive behaviors, some of which could be favorable, and others highlight vulnerabilities to be considered by clinicians. Recent legislative changes open possibilities to limit the negative impact of electronic lotteries. In a context favorable to a better acceptance of people of LGBTQIA+ diversity, research and training in addiction medicine also have a role to play. In view of advances in understanding the harmful effects of alcohol, it is necessary to adapt the perception of the risk, in order not to provoke the incomprehension in the population.


La médecine des addictions est liée aux enjeux sociétaux actuels, et l'environnement joue un rôle important sur les comportements addictifs et comment ils sont vécus. La pandémie de Covid-19 a eu un impact sur les comportements addictifs, dont certains pourraient être positifs et d'autres mettent en lumière des vulnérabilités à prendre en compte en clinique. Les récents changements législatifs ouvrent des possibilités pour limiter l'impact négatif des loteries électroniques. Dans le contexte favorable à une meilleure acceptation des personnes issues de la diversité LGBTQIA+ (lesbienne, gay, bisexuel·le, transgenre, queer, intersexe et asexuel·le ou aromantique), la recherche et la formation en médecine des addictions ont aussi un rôle à jouer. Au vu des avancées dans la connaissance des effets nocifs de l'alcool, il est nécessaire d'adapter la perception du risque, afin de ne pas susciter l'incompréhension de la population.


Subject(s)
Addiction Medicine , Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630607

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of Covid-19, the use of digital devices, especially smartphones, remarkably increased. Smartphone use belongs to one's daily routine, but can negatively impact physical and mental health, performance, and relationships if used excessively. The present study aimed to investigate potential correlates of problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity and the mechanisms underlying its development. Data of 516 smartphone users from Germany (Mage = 31.91, SDage = 12.96) were assessed via online surveys in April and May 2021. PSU severity was significantly negatively associated with sense of control. In contrast, it was significantly positively linked to fear of missing out (FoMO), repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and daily time spent on smartphone use. In a moderated mediation analysis, the negative relationship between sense of control and PSU severity was significantly mediated by FoMO. RNT significantly moderated the positive association between FoMO and PSU severity. Specifically, the higher the RNT, the stronger the relationship between FoMO and PSU. The present findings disclose potential mechanisms that could contribute to PSU. Potential ways of how to reduce PSU severity are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Internal-External Control , Smartphone/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Fear/psychology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Thinking , Young Adult
15.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 42(3): 17-28, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627257

ABSTRACT

The Internet, mobile phones, and other similar tools are often necessary for the current functioning of both private life and business. During these two years of pandemic (2019-2021), Internet use, especially different games and mobile phones, were indispensable for the global population. Internet addiction is defined as a psychological dependence on the internet, regardless of the type of activity once logged on. Many studies have confirmed the correlation of stress, depression, and anxiety with internet addiction. It has also been proven that internet addiction, per se, increases the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has generated and promoted social isolation along with unmonitored and increased screen time, all of which are the main causes of internet addiction. The aim of this article is to give a short review of internet addiction research, terminology, and symptoms related to brain functioning. The source material was articles cited in the database, PubMed. Our interest was especially oriented towards the personality characteristics of users and addicted persons as well as neuroimage findings among affected people. We selected the newest articles, published in the period of 2012-2021, of which there are more than 2000. The selected obtained results will be presented and discussed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Addict Behav ; 127: 107230, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623291

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 public health measures, including lockdowns, have disrupted psychological service delivery for substance use and behavioural addictions. This study aimed to examine how addictions treatment had been affected by COVID-19 related factors from the perspective of addiction and mental health service providers. Participants (n = 93) were experienced service managers and clinicians in New Zealand who completed an online survey. Clinicians reported increased presentations for problems related to internet gambling (n = 57, 61%), gaming (n = 53, 57%), social media use (n = 52, 56%), and pornography (n = 28, 30%). A qualitative analysis of responses generated six themes. Themes included service management and increased administrative burden, and service delivery reconfiguration. Access improved for some clients because of convenience and reduced structural barriers. However, online service delivery was problematic for those with unstable or no internet access and devices that could not support video conferencing and/or lack of safe, confidential or private spaces at home. Increased client complexity and restricted in-person care prompted changes to focus, and content of clinical interventions, and some respondents offered more frequent but shorter appointments. Clinicians who provided services by phone or email, rather than video conferencing, reported treatment was less effective, with reduced rapport and engagement a contributing factor. The New Zealand addictions sector has responded to COVID-19 by increasing treatment access through distance-based options. Maintaining multifaceted models of care that are agile to rapidly changing environments presents unique challenges but is critical to addressing the needs of people impacted by addiction.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , New Zealand , SARS-CoV-2
17.
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e051641, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546522

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Development of fully internet-based programs could provide a new avenue to improve access to healthcare for problem gamblers. In this project, we aim to assess the efficacy of a web-based cognitive intervention targeting inhibitory control among problem gamblers, using a randomised controlled design. As impaired inhibitory control is involved in self-regulation difficulties in behavioural addictions, it represents a particularly relevant cognitive process to target for an online psychological intervention. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a single-blinded, randomised, comparative therapeutic web-based, controlled trial. Up to 200 non-treatment seeking adult problem gamblers with a Problem Gambling Severity Index-recent (PGSI-recent) score ≥5 will be included. The intervention will be a computerised cognitive training program targeting inhibitory skills. The comparator, an active control, will be a computerised neutral sensorial program. Both programs will be carried out under similar conditions: biweekly online training for 6 weeks and optional telephone support will be offered to patients for debriefing. The main objective of the study is to assess the clinical efficacy of the online cognitive training program at 6 weeks, measured with the PGSI-recent. The secondary objectives are to assess the efficacy on the gambling behaviour assessed by the account-based gambling data, on the self-reported gambling practice, and on the inhibition performance at the neuropsychological level at 6, 14 and 52 weeks. We will also assess the acceptability of this program and the preferred level of guidance. Data analysis will be in intention-to-treat. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This randomized controlled trial will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, and was approved by the local ethics boards (Comité de Protection des Personnes) in October 2017. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03673800.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Gambling , Internet-Based Intervention , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/therapy , Gambling/therapy , Humans , Internet , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Self Report , Treatment Outcome
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542506

ABSTRACT

Internet addiction (IA) is widespread, comorbid with other conditions, and commonly undetected, which may impede recovery. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is widely used to evaluate IA among healthy respondents, with less agreement on its dimensional structure. This study investigated the factor structure, invariance, predictive validity, criterion validity, and reliability of the IAT among Spanish women with eating disorders (EDs, N = 123), Chinese school children (N = 1072), and Malay/Chinese university students (N = 1119). In school children, four factors with eigen values > 1 explained 50.2% of the variance, with several items cross-loading on more than two factors and three items failing to load on any factor. Among 19 tested models, CFA revealed excellent fit of a unidimensional six-item IAT among ED women and university students (χ2(7) = 8.695, 35.038; p = 0.275, 0.001; CFI = 0.998, 981; TLI = 0.996, 0.960; RMSEA = 0.045, 0.060; SRMR = 0.0096, 0.0241). It was perfectly invariant across genders, academic grades, majors, internet use activities, nationalities (Malay vs. Chinese), and Malay/Chinese female university students vs. Spanish women with anorexia nervosa, albeit it was variant at the scalar level in tests involving other EDs, signifying increased tendency for IA in pathological overeating. The six-item IAT correlated with the effects of internet use on academic performance at a greater level than the original IAT (r = -0.106, p < 0.01 vs. r = -0.78, p < 0.05), indicating superior criterion validity. The six-item IAT is a robust and brief measure of IA in healthy and diseased individuals from different cultures.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Child , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Male , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
20.
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