Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 39
Filter
1.
J Behav Addict ; 11(1): 88-101, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736571

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: The current Covid-19 situation offers a natural experiment to explore the effect of a chronic stressor on compulsive buying tendencies over an extended period of time. Design: Survey method of sampling every three days a new cohort during the first six months of the Covid-19 pandemic (March-October 2020) in the United States. Participants: Total (clean) sample of N = 1,430 (39.3% female, mean age = 36.4 years). Measurements: Online and offline compulsive buying separately, distress, economic position, income and age were assessed. Findings: Both online and offline compulsive buying increased during the data collection period ( τ = 0.24, τ = 0.22, respectively, both P < 0.001). Individuals with self-reported high economic position (EP) reported the highest tendency for compulsive buying throughout the entire time frame, although the increase in compulsive buying tendencies over time was the most pronounced among the economically less privileged. Online compulsive buying increased after the CARES Act (first stimulus package) by an effect size of d = 0.33. When entered into a regression model, EP had the strongest effect on compulsive buying after accounting for the effect of distress, income and age. The high-EP group reported the strongest correlation between distress and compulsive buying (r = 0.67, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.57-0.76). Conclusions: Compulsive buying tendency gradually increased during the first six months of the Covid-19 pandemic especially after the CARES Act.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce , Compulsive Behavior/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
2.
Public Health ; 205: 72-78, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712937

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Online platforms enable real-time trading activities that are similar to those of gambling. This study aimed to investigate the associations of traditional investing, real-time stock trading, and cryptocurrency trading with excessive behavior and mental health problems. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional population-based survey. METHODS: The participants were Finnish people aged 18-75 years (N = 1530, 50.33% male). Survey asked about monthly regular investing, real-time stock-trading platform use, and cryptocurrency trading. The study had measures for excessive behavior: gambling (Problem Gambling Severity Index), gaming (Internet Gaming Disorder Test), internet use (Compulsive Internet Use Scale), and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Psychological distress (Mental Health Inventory), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), COVID-19 anxiety, and perceived loneliness were also measured. Background factors included sociodemographic variables, instant loan taking, and involvement in social media identity bubbles (Identity Bubble Reinforcement Scale). Multivariate analyses were conducted with regression analysis. RESULTS: Within the sample, 22.29% were categorized into monthly regular investors only, 3.01% were investors using real-time stock-trading platforms, and 3.59% were cryptomarket traders. Real-time stock-trading platform use and cryptocurrency trading were associated with younger age and male gender. Cryptomarket traders were more likely to have an immigrant background and have taken instant loans. Both real-time stock-trading platform use and cryptomarket trading were associated with higher excessive behavior. Cryptomarket traders especially reported higher excessive gambling, gaming, and internet use than others. Cryptomarket traders reported also higher psychological distress, perceived stress, and loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Regular investing is not a risk factor for excessive behavior. However, rapid online trading platforms and applications were significantly more commonly used by participants reporting excessive behavior and mental health problems. The strong association between cryptomarket trading and excessive behavior in particular underlines the need to acknowledge the potential risks related to real-time trading platforms.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Gambling , Anxiety Disorders , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gambling/epidemiology , Gambling/psychology , Humans , Internet , Male
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 808264, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699555

ABSTRACT

From the perspective of positive youth development, developmental assets and self-control play critical roles in promoting adolescent development. However, their effects have not been evaluated in the current issue, internet gaming disorder (IGD). IGD is gradually becoming an important social problem among worldwide youth and has been included in the eleventh International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). Therefore, the present study was determined to investigate the relationship between developmental assets, self-control, and IGD. A two-wave longitudinal study, with each wave spanning half a year apart, was conducted in a sample of 1023 adolescents (aging from 11 to 15, 49.36% boys) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results of the moderated mediation model revealed that T1 developmental assets could predict less IGD at T2 directly or through T1 self-control indirectly. Furthermore, the moderating effect of gender was not significant in the mediation model. Overall, adolescents who experience more developmental assets are less likely to suffer IGD. Moreover, developmental assets are conducive to developing a higher level of self-control, which in turn contributes to preventing or intervening in IGD as well. Therefore, measures should be taken to construct developmental assets to prevent or reduce IGD during adolescence.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Self-Control , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Affect Disord ; 302: 424-427, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of trait impulsivity in development, continuation and escalation of addictive behaviors has long been recognized. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted during the COVID-19 lockdown on 6003 Italian adults aged 18-74 years, representative of the Italian general population, to investigate the relationship between impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale - BIS) and selected addictive behaviors (gambling habits, smoking status, cannabis use, average alcohol daily use). RESULTS: A statistically significant relationship was found between motor impulsivity and starting/increasing drinking and increasing gambling (high vs. low motor impulsivity: multivariate odds ratio, OR=3.12; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.45-6.74; p for trend=0.004 for start and OR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.26-1.86; p for trend<0.001 for increase drinking, respectively; OR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.41-3.12; p for trend<0.001 for increasing gambling). LIMITATIONS: Potential information and recall bias. The necessity to limit the length of the questionnaire not to reduce the quality of the answers of study participants. CONCLUSIONS: The multifaceted nature of impulsivity, potentially either cause or effect, hampers the understanding of its proper role in addictive behaviors. If confirmed by future longitudinal studies, our findings might support the planning, implementation and monitoring of evidence-based preventive interventions, to reduce addictive behaviors during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667143

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic and its related containment measures have been associated with increased levels of stress, anxiety and depression in the general population. While the use of digital media has been greatly promoted by national governments and international authorities to maintain social contacts and healthy lifestyle behaviors, its increased access may also bear the risk of inappropriate or excessive use of internet-related resources. The present study, part of the COVID Mental hEalth Trial (COMET) study, aims at investigating the possible relationship between social isolation, the use of digital resources and the development of their problematic use. A cross sectional survey was carried out to explore the prevalence of internet addiction, excessive use of social media, problematic video gaming and binge watching, during Italian phase II (May-June 2020) and III (June-September 2020) of the pandemic in 1385 individuals (62.5% female, mean age 32.5 ± 12.9) mainly living in Central Italy (52.4%). Data were stratified according to phase II/III and three groups of Italian regions (northern, central and southern). Compared to the larger COMET study, most participants exhibited significant higher levels of severe-to-extremely-severe depressive symptoms (46.3% vs. 12.4%; p < 0.01) and extremely severe anxiety symptoms (77.8% vs. 7.5%; p < 0.01). We also observed a rise in problematic internet use and excessive gaming over time. Mediation analyses revealed that COVID-19-related general psychopathology, stress, anxiety, depression and social isolation play a significant role in the emergence of problematic internet use, social media addiction and problematic video gaming. Professional gamers and younger subjects emerged as sub-populations particularly at risk of developing digital addictions. If confirmed in larger and more homogenous samples, our findings may help in shedding light on possible preventive and treatment strategies for digital addictions.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Young Adult
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639397

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has profoundly affected the social fabric and the economic and health care viability and functioning of most countries. Aside from its deeply destructive impact on health care systems and national economies, the pandemic has jeopardized people's emotional and psychological well-being as well. The authors aimed to shed a light on how the pandemic has been affecting patients with addiction issues and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is characterized by negative thoughts about appearance and body misperceptions. People with body dysmorphic disorder are in fact at increased risk of developing substance use disorders, and such a destructive association has only been made more severe by pandemic-related restrictions, emotional distress and anxiety, as well as longer exposure to social media and online interactions. This is a major cause for concern, because substance use worsens symptoms of BDD and contributes to unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Image/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Anxiety , Behavior, Addictive/complications , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/complications , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/epidemiology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Humans , Social Media , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
7.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 42(3): 17-28, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627257

ABSTRACT

The Internet, mobile phones, and other similar tools are often necessary for the current functioning of both private life and business. During these two years of pandemic (2019-2021), Internet use, especially different games and mobile phones, were indispensable for the global population. Internet addiction is defined as a psychological dependence on the internet, regardless of the type of activity once logged on. Many studies have confirmed the correlation of stress, depression, and anxiety with internet addiction. It has also been proven that internet addiction, per se, increases the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic has generated and promoted social isolation along with unmonitored and increased screen time, all of which are the main causes of internet addiction. The aim of this article is to give a short review of internet addiction research, terminology, and symptoms related to brain functioning. The source material was articles cited in the database, PubMed. Our interest was especially oriented towards the personality characteristics of users and addicted persons as well as neuroimage findings among affected people. We selected the newest articles, published in the period of 2012-2021, of which there are more than 2000. The selected obtained results will be presented and discussed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512350

ABSTRACT

The internet has become an important medium for learning and communication during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for university students. Nevertheless, an increase in internet usage could predispose people to internet addiction (IA) and internet gaming (IG). Equally, there is concern that anxiety levels have increased during the pandemic. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IA and IG, and their associations with anxiety among medical students during the pandemic. Data were collected during the second wave of the "Conditional Movement Control Order" (CMCO) in Malaysia between 12 November and 10 December 2020. A total of 237 students participated through proportionate stratified random sampling in this cross-sectional study. They completed a set of online questionnaires which consisted of a sociodemographic profile, the Malay version of the internet addiction test (MVIAT), the Malay version of the internet gaming disorder-short form (IGDS9-SF) and the Malay version of the depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21). The prevalence of IA and internet gaming disorder (IGD) were 83.5% and 2.5%, respectively. A multiple logistic regression showed that those in pre-clinical years had a greater risk of anxiety than those in clinical years [(AOR) = 2.49, p-value 0.01, 95% CI = 1.22-5.07]. In contrast, those who scored high on IA were protected against anxiety [AOR = 0.100, p-value 0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.76)]. In conclusion, IA was highly prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic and its high usage might serve as a protective factor against anxiety among the medical students in this study sample.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Video Games , Anxiety/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480739

ABSTRACT

This study explores the level and frequency of anxiety about COVID-19 infection in some Middle Eastern countries, and differences in this anxiety by country, gender, workplace, and social status. Another aim was to identify the predictive power of anxiety about COVID-19 infection, daily smartphone use hours, and age in smartphone addiction. The participants were 651 males and females from Jordan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Egypt. The participants' ages ranged between 18 and 73 years (M 33.36, SD = 10.69). A questionnaire developed by the authors was used to examine anxiety about COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, the Italian Smartphone Addiction Inventory was used after being translated, adapted, and validated for the purposes of the present study. The results revealed that the percentages of participants with high, average, and low anxiety about COVID-19 infection were 10.3%, 37.3%, and 52.4%, respectively. The mean scores of anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the four countries were average: Egypt (M = 2.655), Saudi Arabia (M = 2.458), the United Arab Emirates (M = 2.413), and Jordan (M = 2.336). Significant differences in anxiety about COVID-19 infection were found between Egypt and Jordan, in favor of Egypt. Significant gender differences were found in favor of females in the Jordanian and Egyptian samples, and in favor of males in the Emirati sample. No significant differences were found regarding workplace and social status. The results also revealed a significant positive relationship between anxiety about COVID-19 infection, daily smartphone use hours, and age on the one hand, and smartphone addiction on the other. The strongest predictor of smartphone addiction was anxiety about COVID-19 infection, followed by daily use hours. Age did not significantly contribute to the prediction of smartphone addiction. The study findings shed light on the psychological health and cognitive aspects of anxiety about COVID-19 infection and its relation to smartphone addiction.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Young Adult
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477944

ABSTRACT

Food addiction is currently not an official diagnosis (as a standalone disorder substance-related and addictive disorder) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). To best of our knowledge, there is no previous research on differences between addictive-like eating behavior regarding its associations with psychological distress, eating behaviors and physical activity among individuals with obesity. The objective of the present study was to distinguish psychological and behavioral patterns of individuals with obesity concerning food addiction using a cluster analysis. We determined the profiles of the participants in terms of psychological distress, eating behaviors and physical activity and evaluated their association with food addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and November 2020, during the lockdown period imposed by the government for the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 507 individuals with obesity aged between 18 and 65 years participated in the present study by filling in the online questionnaire, including the validated Arabic version of the modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale, the Arabic version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, and the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. A cluster analysis was performed using the K-mean method to identify and group participants according to their patterns/profiles. A stepwise linear regression was conducted, taking the food addiction score as the dependent variable. Higher levels of uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and stress were significantly associated with higher food addiction score. Belonging to cluster 2 (psychological well-being and cognitive restraint) (B = 14.49) or cluster 3 (moderate psychological distress and cognitive restraint) (B = 6.67) compared to cluster 1 (psychological well-being, appropriate physical activity levels and eating behaviors) was significantly associated with higher food addiction score. The present research revealed that food addiction is significantly associated with higher psychological distress and maladaptive eating behaviors. Higher levels of uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and stress as well as belonging to clusters 2 and 3 were found to be predictors of food addiction in individuals with obesity in the present study. This knowledge could be useful in regard to psychological treatment of obesity and addictive-like eating behavior.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Food Addiction , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Food Addiction/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463648

ABSTRACT

The aims of this cross-sectional study were: (i) to establish the prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) and eating disorders (EDs) among Polish students; (ii) to investigate potential correlations between the two phenomena; and (iii) to identify predictors of eating disorders among socio-demographic and Internet use characteristics in this population. To this end, a total of 1008 Polish students aged 18-40, completed the Problematic Internet Use Test (TPIU22), the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and a self-designed Socio-demographic and Internet Use Survey. Men received more PIU scores (p < 0.001), while women received more EAT-26 scores (p < 0.05) with a significant correlation observed between those variables (rho = 0.212; p < 0.001). The strongest predictors of EDs were as follows: preoccupation with the Internet, neglect of sleep in favor of Internet use, alleviation of negative feelings while online, higher mean number of hours spent online on weekends for academic and work-related purposes, extracurricular activity, lower height and higher BMI. An association has been demonstrated between problematic internet use and eating disorders. Somewhat surprisingly, our results suggest that people at risk of EDs use the Internet primarily to fulfill their routine duties. Nevertheless, further research is needed to establish the causality of EDs and PIU.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Internet , Internet Use , Male , Students
13.
Gesundheitswesen ; 84(1): 19-26, 2022 Jan.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440491

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe changes in consumer behavior, particularly in Germany, and the population groups affected due to in-creased substance use or are at greater risk of being infected by SARS-CoV-2 and are also in danger of suffering from a more severe course of disease. METHODS: The literature search used databases from PubMed and PubPsych, along with expert opinions. RESULTS: A slight increase in daily use of alcohol and tobacco was seen, whereas the consumption of illegal drugs decreased in European countries. There was a drop in consumption among occasional users whereas among intensive users, there was an increase in consumption. Adults and children spent more time on media and internet activities during the pandemic. Anxiety, depression and stress could be the reason for the increased behavorial changes. People already suffering from an addiction were not only psychologically burdened but were also at higher risk of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or a severe progression of the disease. CONCLUSION: These results suggest possible societal trends which should be validated by larger representative surveys in the near future. Protecting risk groups and utilizing pandemic-adapted prevention measures are necessary.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Child , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438611

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the survey was to assess the level of depression correlated with physical activity and internet addiction among physiotherapy students of Polish universities during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The survey was carried out via the internet among Polish physiotherapy students (141 respondents). The level of depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory, physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in Polish and the level of internet addiction by the Kimberly Young Questionnaire. RESULTS: It was found that 31% of those surveyed stated that they suffered from moderate or severe depression. The overwhelming majority of the respondents (92%) considered the level of their internet addiction as low. More physical activity had a positive effect on mental health. The overuse of the internet exacerbated depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of depression observed in students is mainly related to distant learning systems. Therefore, regular physical activity is recommended as it is associated with a lower level of depression. It is also advisable to provide students with necessary psychological care. Excessive use of social media is not recommended to elevate mood as it makes depression symptoms worse.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Exercise , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Pandemics , Physical Therapy Modalities , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
15.
Am J Addict ; 30(6): 585-592, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era is not known. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIU among baccalaureate nursing students (hereafter: nursing students) in the post-COVID-19 era. METHODS: A total of 1070 nursing students were consecutively invited to participate in this study from the nursing schools of five universities. PIU and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. t Tests, χ2 , tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare basic demographic and clinical characteristics between participants with and without PIU. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine independent correlates. RESULTS: The prevalence of PIU was 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7%-25.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that second- (p = .024) and third-year (p = .012) students were more likely to suffer from PIU compared with first year students. Students with more severe depressive (p = .014) and anxiety symptoms (p = .011) were independently and significantly associated with more severe PIU. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with PIU had a lower overall QOL score (p = .002). CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Problematic Internet use (PIU) was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of PIU on QOL and academic performance, regular screening should be conducted and effective interventions implemented for nursing students with PIU. This was the first study on the prevalence of PIU among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. The findings of this study could help health professionals and education authorities to understand the patterns of PIU and its influence on QOL among nursing students and to allocate health resources and develop effective measures to reduce the risk of PIU in this population.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate , Students, Nursing , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Use , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 35(6): 595-601, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384997

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This research was conducted to investigate the prevalence of internet addiction and psychosocial problems and associated factors among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Turkey. The population was composed of 9th and 10th grade students. The sample consisted of 1572 participants. Data were collected from parents of the students through a questionnaire, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and the Parent-Child Internet Addiction Test. RESULTS: The prevalence of psychosocial problems was 20.7%. A few (4.8%) of adolescents had limited internet addiction symptoms. The psychosocial problems risk was significantly higher in adolescents whose fathers did not work, whose family income was less than expense, and whose daily internet use time was more than 3 h and more (p < 0.05). The risk of problematic internet use was significantly higher in males, whose mother's education level was high school and lower, whose family income was less than expense, and whose duration of internet use was 5 years and more (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between internet addiction and psychosocial problem mean scores (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Most of the adolescents were internet users and one in five adolescents was at risk of psychosocial problems. Internet addiction and psychosocial problems were associated with several sociodemographic factors. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study emphasizes the need for the prevention of excessive internet use and psychosocial problems during COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents. Nurses should organize online trainings for internet addiction and psychosocial problems for adolescents and their parents during the quarantine process.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Psychiatr Res ; 142: 218-225, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340739

ABSTRACT

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and problematic internet use (PIU) are becoming increasingly detrimental to modern society, with serious consequences for daily functioning. IGD and PIU may be exacerbated by lifestyle changes imposed by the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study investigated changes in IGD and PIU during the pandemic and risk factors for them. This study is a part of a larger online study of problematic smartphone use in Japan, originally planned in 2019, and expanded in August 2020 to include the impact of COVID-19. 51,246 adults completed an online survey during the pandemic (August 2020), in Japan. Of these, 3,938 had also completed the survey before the onset of the pandemic (December 2019) and were used as the study population to determine how the pandemic has influenced IGD and PIU. IGD was assessed using the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS). PIU was measured using the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS). The prevalence of probable IGD during COVID-19 was 4.1% overall [95%CI, 3.9%-4.2%] (N = 51,246), and 8.6% among younger people (age < 30), 1-2.5% higher than reported before the pandemic. Probable PIU was 7.8% overall [95%CI, 7.6%-8.1%], and 17.0% [95%CI, 15.9%-18.2%] among younger people, 3.2-3.7% higher than reported before the pandemic. Comparisons before and during the pandemic, revealed that probable IGD prevalence has increased 1.6 times, and probable PIU prevalence by 1.5 times (IGD: χ2= 619.9, p < .001, PIU: χ2= 594.2, p < .001). Youth (age < 30) and COVID-19 infection were strongly associated with IGD exacerbation (odds ratio, 2.10 [95%CI, 1.18 to 3.75] and 5.67 [95%CI, 1.33 to 24.16]). Internet gaming disorder and problematic internet use appear to be aggravated by the pandemic. In particular, younger persons and people infected with COVID-19 are at higher risk for Internet Gaming Disorder. Prevention and treatment of these problems are needed.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adolescent , Adult , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Internet Use , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302333

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the heightened risk of school closures and mental disorders has made adolescents particularly vulnerable to developing internet gaming disorder (IGD). There have been reports of increased time spent playing games on the internet among adolescents during the pandemic, and the risk of developing IGD may be higher for adolescents in South Korea as the majority of them play games on the internet. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined the impact of the pandemic on adolescents' internet gaming behavior in South Korea. This study aimed to explore the different profiles of addictive internet gaming behavior among adolescents before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and examine how the pandemic influenced addictive internet gaming usage and time spent playing games on the internet. Nationally representative survey data from the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family with 3040 and 2906 responses from 2018 and 2020, respectively, were analyzed. Using seven factors of a maladaptive gaming usage scale (tolerance, withdrawal, excessive usage, control impairment, compulsive usage, neglecting daily activity, and gaming despite negative consequence), a four-profile model was selected in both 2018 and 2020 for latent profile analysis: 'casual' gamer, 'moderate' gamer, 'potential-risk' gamer and 'addictive' gamer. The results from the two-way ANCOVA showed significant interaction between the cohorts (2018 cohort vs. 2020 cohort) and the four profiles on addictive internet gaming usage (F = 119.747, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.05), including time spent playing internet games on a PC (F = 22.893, p < 0.001, η2 = 0.013), and time spent playing games on a mobile phone (F = 3.245, p < 0.05, η2 = 0.02). The results indicated that the increase of addictive internet gaming usage and gameplay time differed by profile. The results imply that the increase in gameplay time was higher for profiles with higher scores in addictive internet gaming usage for internet games played on a PC while the relationship was not obvious for games played on a mobile phone. Despite the statistical significance, there was only 1.2% to 4.9% of mean difference in addictive internet gaming usage between the 2018 and 2020 cohorts, which implies little clinical significance. While adolescents of the four profiles showed no significant signs of increased addictive internet gaming usage, the addictive gamer profile demonstrated a significant increase in game time after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282488

ABSTRACT

It is mainly children and adolescents who are involved in video gaming. The lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic may have further increased their use of video games and, consequently, the risk of gaming disorder (GD) symptoms. However, currently, we do not have exhaustive knowledge of this issue. To fill this gap, the current study aims to analyze video gaming habits in children and adolescents during the lockdown, starting in March 2020 in Italy, the first European country affected by the pandemic. Specifically, we aim to understand how variables related to parents-for instance, knowledge of their offspring's life, the monitoring of their video gaming habits, and parental use of video games-are related to their offspring's time spent on video games and GD symptoms. A web-based survey involving parents (n = 554, 79% mothers, mean age = 45.39) of 554 children and adolescents (73% males, mean age = 11.11) was utilized. The results showed that they were involved in video games, particularly boys and adolescents, with high rates of GD symptoms. The parents also spent a considerable amount of time playing video games. A path model that explained the mechanisms through which parental variables were related to their offspring's time spent on video games and GD symptoms, controlling for gender and age, was verified. Overall, the findings indicate the importance of educating parents to behave effectively with respect to video games and monitor their offspring's video gaming habits.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Video Games , Adolescent , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Europe , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: College students are among the heaviest users of smartphones and the Internet, and there is growing concern regarding problematic Internet (PIU) and smartphone use (PSU). A subset of adverse childhood experiences, household dysfunction [(HHD) e.g.; parental substance use, mental illness, incarceration, suicide, intimate partner violence, separation/divorce, homelessness], are robust predictors of behavioral disorders; however, few studies have investigated the link between HHD and PIU and PSU and potential protective factors, such as social support, among students. METHODS: Data are from a diverse California student sample (N = 1027). The Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version and Internet Addiction Test assessed dimensions of addiction. Regression models tested associations between students' level of HHD (No HHD, 1-3 HHD, ≥4 HHD) and PSU and PIU, and the role of extrafamilial social support in these relationships, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, SES, employment loss due to COVID-19, and depression. RESULTS: Compared to students reporting no HHD, students with ≥4 HHD had twice the odds (AOR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.21-3.40) of meeting criteria for PSU, while students with 1-3 HHD and ≥4 HHD had three and six times the odds of moderate to severe PIU (AORs: 2.03-2.46, CI:1.21-3.96) after adjusting for covariates. Extrafamilial social support was inversely associated with PIU and moderated the HHD-PSU association for students with 1-3 HHD. CONCLUSION: Students exposed to HHD may be especially vulnerable to developing behavioral addictions such as PSU and PIU. Extrafamilial social support offset the negative effects of HHD for PSU among the moderate risk group; implications for prevention efforts are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adverse Childhood Experiences , Behavior, Addictive , COVID-19 , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL