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1.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580211055621, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784978

ABSTRACT

By September 20, 2021, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been pandemic in 237 countries and regions, resulting in 228,506,698 confirmed cases and 4,692,361 deaths. At the same time, a total of 1123 cases of COVID-19 had been confirmed in Beijing, China. Peking University Shougang Hospital has 4 community hospitals with 174 staff members, covering 230,000 residents in Shijingshan district, Beijing. The community hospitals were the basic units of China's healthcare system for public health services, as the main battlefield for screening and controlling of COVID-19. We reported our experience about the prevention of SARS-CoV-2. We suggest that community hospitals should change their process for admitting patients. While the screening of suspected cases of COVID-19 is vital, patients with suspected infections should be isolated immediately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Hospitals, Community , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 32, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nucleic acid test (NAT) could effectively control the spread of COVID-19 caused by large-scale sports competitions. However, quantitative analysis on the appropriate frequency of NAT is scarce, and the cost-effectiveness and necessity of high-frequency NAT remain to be fully explored and validated. This study aims to optimize the COVID-19 surveillance strategies through cost-effectiveness analysis for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games and the upcoming Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games. METHODS: A total of 18 scenarios were designed regarding the NAT frequency, symptom monitoring, and strengthening close-contact control. An agent-based stochastic dynamic model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of different NAT scenarios and optimize the surveillance strategies. The dynamics of the proposed model included the arrival and departure of agents, transmission of the disease according to Poisson processes, and quarantine of agents based on regular NATs and symptom onset. Accumulative infections, cost, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) were simulated in the frame of the model. ICER was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of different scenarios. Univariate sensitivity analysis was performed to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: In Scenario 16, where the competition-related personnel (CRP) received NAT daily and national sports delegation (NSD) with quarantined infections accepted an additional NAT daily, accumulative infection was 320.90 (90 initial infections), the total cost was (United States Dollar) USD 8 920 000, and the cost of detecting out each infection was USD 27 800. Scenario 16 would reduce the total cost by USD 22 570 000 (avoid 569.61 infections), USD 1 420 000 (avoid 47.2 infections) compared with Scenario 10 (weekly NAT, strengthened close contact control) and Scenario 7 (daily NAT, no strengthened close contact control), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the result was most sensitive to the change in basic reproductive number. CONCLUSIONS: High-frequency NATs such as bidaily, daily, and twice a day were cost-effective. NAT daily for CRP with strengthening close-contact control could be prioritized in defense against COVID-19 at large-scale sports competitions. This study could assist policymakers by assessing the cost-effectiveness of NAT scenarios and provide the host country with an optimal COVID-19 surveillance strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2237-2249, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664417

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still ongoing and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants are circulating worldwide, an increasing number of breakthrough infections are being detected despite the good efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. Data on 88 COVID-19 breakthrough cases (breakthrough infections group) and 41 unvaccinated cases (unvaccinated group) from June 1 to August 22, 2021, were extracted from a cloud database established at Beijing Ditan Hospital to evaluate the clinical, immunological, and genomic characteristics of COVID-19 breakthrough infections. Among these 129 COVID-19 cases, 33 whole genomes were successfully sequenced, of which 23 were Delta variants, including 15 from the breakthrough infections group. Asymptomatic and mild cases predominated in both groups, but two patients developed severe disease in the unvaccinated group. The median time of viral shedding in the breakthrough infections group was significantly lower than that in the unvaccinated group (p = 0.003). In the breakthrough infections group, the IgG titers showed a significantly increasing trend (p = 0.007), and the CD4 + T lymphocyte count was significantly elevated (p = 0.018). For people infected with the Delta variant in the two groups, no significant difference was observed in either the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction results or viral shedding time. In conclusion, among vaccinated patients, the cases of COVID-19 vaccine breakthrough infections were mainly asymptomatic and mild, IgG titers were significantly increased and rose rapidly, and the viral shedding time was shorter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 411-417, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654566

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to reconstruct the complete transmission chain of the COVID-19 outbreak in Beijing's Xinfadi Market using data from epidemiological investigations, which contributes to reflecting transmission dynamics and transmission risk factors. METHODS: We set up a transmission model, and the model parameters are estimated from the survey data via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Bayesian data augmentation approaches are used to account for uncertainty in the source of infection, unobserved onset, and infection dates. RESULTS: The rate of transmission of COVID-19 within households is 9.2%. Older people are more susceptible to infection. The accuracy of our reconstructed transmission chain was 67.26%. In the gathering place of this outbreak, the Beef and Mutton Trading Hall of Xinfadi market, most of the transmission occurs within 20 m, only 19.61% of the transmission occurs over a wider area (>20 m), with an overall average transmission distance of 13.00 m. The deepest transmission generation is 9. In this outbreak, there were 2 abnormally high transmission events. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical method of reconstruction of transmission trees from incomplete epidemic data provides a valuable tool to help understand the complex transmission factors and provides a practical guideline for investigating the characteristics of the development of epidemics and the formulation of control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Aged , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cattle , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 87, 2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited information is available on the effectiveness of the BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm, Beijing CNBG) vaccine, especially in the elderly, despite the fact that it is approved in more than 50 countries. METHODS: RBD-specific antibody titres, as a rapidly available and highly predictive surrogate marker, were measured after two doses of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine in 450 subjects. Results were analyzed in a multivariable model accounting for age, sex and time since the administration of the second dose of the vaccine. RESULTS: Sex and time since the second dose had little association with the antibody titres. Age, however, was highly relevant: measurable antibody levels were present in about 90% of individuals below the age of 50, but antibody production after BBIBP-CorV vaccination was strongly reduced with increasing age. A large number of elderly subjects, reaching 25% at 60 years, and up to 50% at ages over 80, were found not to produce any protective antibody. CONCLUSIONS: RBD-specific antibody titre, as a correlate of protection for COVID-19 disease susceptibility, should help to evaluate the effectiveness of the BBIBP-CorV vaccine. Results suggest that proper measures should be undertaken to prevent a potential outbreak of COVID-19 in BBIBP-CorV vaccinated but eventually unprotected elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Aged , Beijing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643601

ABSTRACT

Taking Beijing as a case, this paper conducted a survey to collect the characteristics of residents' daily activities, including the mode of frequency and duration of travel, the type and environment of activities, and the duration and frequency of activities. We calculated the COVID-19 exposure risk of residents in different activities based on the exposure risk formula; the influencing factors of residents' exposure risk were analyzed by regression analysis. The variance of residents' COVID-19 exposure risk was calculated by coefficient of variation. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) There are differences in activity types of COVID-19 exposure risk, which are survival activity, daily activity and leisure activity from high to low. (2) There are differences in populations of COVID-19 exposure risk. Education level, occupation and income are the main factors affecting residents' COVID-19 exposure risk. (3) There is internal inequity in the risk of COVID-19 exposure. The exposure risk was higher on work days than on rest days. Health inequities at work are highest on both work days and rest days. Among the different population characteristics, male, 31-40 years old, married, with a high school education, income level of 20,001-25,000 yuan, with a non-local rural hukou, rental housing, farmers, three generations or more living together have a greater degree of COVID-19 exposure risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Chemosphere ; 293: 133631, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639538

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the corresponding lockdown measures have been confirmed to reduce the air pollution in major megacities worldwide. Especially at some monitoring hotspots, NO2 has been verified to show a significant decrease. However, the diffusion pattern of these hotspots in responding to COVID-19 is not clearly understood at present stage. Hence, we selected Beijing, a typical megacity with the strictest lockdown measures during COVID-19 period, as the studied city and attempted to discover the NO2 diffusion process through complex network method. The improved metrics derived from the topological structure of the network were adopted to describe the performance of diffusion. Primarily, we found evidences that COVID-19 had significant effects on the spatial diffusion distribution due to combined effect of changed human activities and meteorological conditions. Besides, to further quantify the impacts of disturbance caused by different lockdown measures, we discussed the evolutionary diffusion patterns from lockdown period to recovery period. The results displayed that the difference between normal operation and pandemic operation firstly increased at the cutoff of lockdown measures but then declined after the implement of recovery measures. The source areas had greater vulnerability and lower resilience than receptors areas. Furthermore, based on the conclusion that the diffusion pattern changed during different periods, we explored the key stations on the path of diffusion process to further gain information. These findings could provide references for comprehending spatiotemporal pattern on city scale, which might be help for high-resolution air pollution mapping and prediction.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 59, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634635

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the WHO declared the novel coronavirus outbreak a global pandemic. While great success in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control has been achieved in China, imported cases have become a major challenge. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of imported COVID-19 cases and to assess the effectiveness of screening strategies in Beijing, China. METHODS: This retrospective study included all imported cases transferred to Beijing Ditan Hospital from 29 February to 20 March 2020 who were screened by both chest computed tomography (CT) and reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the initial presentation. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data, in addition to chest CT imaging, were collected and analysed. RESULTS: In total, 2545 cases were included, among which 71 (2.8%) were finally diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. The majority 63 (88.7%) were from Europe. The most common initial symptoms were cough and fever, which accounted for 49.3% and 42.3%, respectively. Only four cases (5.6%) had lymphocytopenia, and thirteen cases (18.3%) demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). All cases had normal serum levels of procalcitonin (PCT). At initial presentation, among the 71 confirmed cases, 59 (83.1%) had a positive RT-PCR assay, and 35 (49.3%) had a positive chest CT. Twelve (16.9%) had a negative RT-PCR assay but a positive chest CT. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of RT-PCR and chest CT is an effective strategy for the screening of imported COVID-19 cases. Our findings provide important information and clinical evidence about the infection control of imported COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Vaccine ; 40(7): 994-1000, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2007, Beijing has offered a free trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for residents aged ≥ 60 years and school students. The quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) was administered to school children in 2018 and will be administered to elderly adults in the future. In addition, health care workers (HCWs) who are involved in the prevention and control of COVID-19 were included in the program in 2020. This study aimed to analyze the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive list of combined strategies of TIV and QIV for school children, elderly adults, and HCWs to identify the most cost-effective strategy. METHODS: A decision tree was developed to compare 1-year outcomes of TIV vs. QIV in three risk groups: school children, elderly adults, and HCWs. The outcome was incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Probabilistic sensitivity analyses and scenario analyses were developed to assess the robustness of the results. RESULTS: From the perspective of society, this study found that the introduction of QIVs can be cost-effective for any and all targeted groups with a willingness-to-pay threshold of 3-fold GDP per capita. Among all programs, program H (all school children, elderly adults, and HCWs received the QIV) showed a 79% probability of being cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 13,580 (95% CI: 13,294, 13,867) US$/QALY and was the preferred option in the base case scenario. CONCLUSION: The introduction of QIVs to school children, elderly adults, or HCWs is likely to be cost-effective, either separately or collectively. The introduction of QIV to school children, elderly adults, and health care workers simultaneously showed the highest probability of being cost-effective and was the preferred option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Aged , Beijing , Child , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(1): 155-164, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576042

ABSTRACT

During the SARS period in 2003 and COVID-19 pandemic period in 2020, unexpected severe particulate matter pollution occurred in northern China, although the anthropogenic activities and associated emissions have assumed to be reduced dramatically. This anomalistic increase in PM2.5 pollution raises a question about how source emissions impact the air quality during these pandemic periods. In this study, we investigated the stable Cu and Si isotopic compositions and typical source-specific fingerprints of PM2.5 and its sources. We show that the primary PM2.5 emissions (PM2.5 emitted directly from sources) actually had no reduction but redistribution during these pandemic periods, rather than the previous thought of being greatly reduced. This finding provided critical evidence to interpret the anomalistic PM2.5 increase during the pandemic periods in north China. Our results also suggested that both the energy structure adjustment and stringent regulations on primary emissions should be synergistically implemented in a regional scale for clean air actions in China.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0257036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560695

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 leads small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to survive very hard. The development difficulties of SMEs lead to weak employment and GDP growth in various countries. In the process of COVID-19's continuous spread, what is the major reason for the difficulties of SMEs? This paper hopes to answer this question by studying SMEs in Beijing. On this basis, this paper uses structural equation model (SEM) to study the relatively fast recovery of SMEs in Beijing, China, to explore the factors affecting SMEs in the pandemic. After detailed desk research and interviews with relevant entrepreneurs, this paper collects 234 valid questionnaires from SMEs in various industries in Beijing with the help of Federation of Industry and Commerce and Chamber of Commerce in Beijing. Then the data is analyzed with the SEM, which shows the relationship between cash flow from financing activities, markets, employees, costs, government policies and the impact of the pandemic. Finally, an impact model of the pandemic on SMEs is established. The result of the model indicates that the direct effect of the pandemic on the market is the most prominent, and government policies can significantly reduce the negative impact of the pandemic on SMEs indirectly. Based on this, this paper puts forward some policy suggestions, such as the targeted issuance of consumption vouchers and the reduction of administrative barriers. This will enable megacities in various countries to improve policy support for SMEs and promote the recovery and development of SMEs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Industry/economics , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 713879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551550

ABSTRACT

Objective: Provide a reference point for the division of labor during the collaboration of multiple departments and the planning for the prevention and control of the Covid-19 epidemic of departments of the Beijing Municipal Government, from the perspective of policy documents. Methods: Policy documents and daily updates on COVID-19 cases published in 2020 are taken from the official website of Beijing Municipal Government and Beijing Municipal Health Commission. The characteristics of the pandemic situation and the content of relevant documents issued by different departments are described in five stages. Results: There were 988 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Beijing in 2020, and policy analysis covered 444 documents (257 policy documents and 187 explanations of policy). A total of 153 policy documents were directly issued by the Beijing Municipal Government and its 45 subordinate commissions and bureaus, while others were policy forwarding from the central government and its relevant departments, county-level governments of Beijing and other organizations. Most cases and documents emerged during the initial stage of the pandemic (Level-I of the Emergency Response, which is the most serious). It was found that as many as 109 documents published by Beijing Municipal Government during the Level I emergency response period were relevant to economic and social development, 83 documents were related to disease control and medical services, and the rest were in close relation to the production and daily life of the people. Overall, major policy measures taken were relevant to 7 fields: finance, transportation, economic activities, employment people's lives, epidemic prevention and control and medical insurance. Policy implementation objectives were centered on promoting epidemic prevention and control and maintaining the stability of social production and residents' life. However, there are different emphases in different stages of the epidemic. Conclusion: Beijing municipality realized an effective mode of collaboration among multiple departments and organizations in the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic, which was an example of the practice of "Health in All Policies."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Beijing/epidemiology , Humans , Local Government , Pandemics/prevention & control , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1757-1762, 2021 Oct 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534275

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of close contacts of COVID-19 cases and infection-related risk factors in Beijing and provide evidences for COVID-19 prevention and control. Methods: A total of 20 681 close contacts of COVID-19 cases, who had exposures during January 6, 2020 to February 15, 2021, were traced in Beijing. The information about their demographic characteristics, exposure history, and quarantine outcomes were collected and analyzed with descriptive statistics. The logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for COVID-19. Results: The infection rate SARS-CoV-2 in close contacts was 2.16% (447/20 681). The age M(P25, P75) was 35 (27, 49) years. The majority of the close contacts were aged 20-59 years, accounting for 81.77% (16 912/20 681). Centralized isolation was the major type of medical observation, accounting for 82.15% (16 989/20 681). Among the exposure types, working and studying in the same room (16.06%, 3 322/20 681), sharing same transport vehicle (12.88%, 2 664/20 681), performing diagnosis and treatment nursing (7.80%,1 612/20 681), and living together (7.23%,1 495/20 681), accounting for 43.96% (9 093/20 681). The index cases included staff (19.34%, 3 999/20 681), the unemployed (17.34%, 3 586/20 681), people engaged in business service (13.85%, 2 864/20 681), people engaged in food service (10.77%, 2 228/20 681), their close contacts accounted for 61.30% (12 677/20 681). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with other types of exposure, the risk factors for infection were having meal together (OR=3.96, 95%CI: 2.30-6.83) and living together (OR=6.41, 95%CI:4.48-9.17); Compared with the other occupations, the index case being engaged in food service (OR=3.06, 95%CI:1.29-7.25) and teacher (OR=4.94, 95%CI:1.43-17.08) were risk factors for the infection. Conclusions: The main environmental exposure types of SARS-CoV-2 infection in close contacts were having meal together and living together. Contact with the index case being engaged in food service and teacher increased the risk for COVID-19. Comprehensive prevention and control measures such as centralized isolation and vaccination should be continued.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Beijing , Contact Tracing , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(3): 427-432, 2021 Mar 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534262

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clusters of COVID-19 associated with a market (market Y) in Haidian District, Beijing, and analyze the chain of transmission and provide reference for effective prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods: The investigation of field epidemiology and cluster epidemic was used to describe the distributions of all COVID-19 cases. The time sequence diagram of the cases, disease onset was drawn and transmission chains were analyzed. Real-time RT-PCR assay was conducted for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test by using the respiratory samples of the cases. Results: The COVID-19 epidemic, originated from a wholesale farm produce market (market X) in Fengtai District, Beijing, was introduced by a marketer in the market Y who had exposed to market X, causing 8 clusters of 20 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and one asymptomatic case, including 8 men and 13 women, in market Y, surrounding communities, food plaza, companies,families and other places. The incidence peaked during June 10-14, 2020; the median age of the cases was 45 years, ranging from 5 years to 87 years. The initial symptoms of the cases included fever (10/20) and pharynx discomfort (7/20). The median of incubation period was 5 days (IQR:3-8). The median of serial interval between primary case and secondary cases was 5 days with a secondary attack rate of 3.7%(20/538), and the secondary attack rate in household close-contacts was 14.0% (7/50). Conclusions: The clusters of COVID-19 associated with market Y were caused by several modes of transmission, including human-to-human, contaminated material-to-human, etc. The combined public-health response measures were effective to control the COVID-19 epidemic in Haidian district of Beijing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Beijing/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Emerg Med ; 53: 68-72, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Strict control measures under the COVID epidemic have brought an inevitable impact on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)'s emergency treatment. We investigated the impact of the COVID on the treatment of patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. METHODS: In this single center cohort study, we selected a time frame of 6 month after declaration of COVID-19 infection (Jan 24-July 24, 2020); a group of STEMI patients in the same period of 2019 was used as control. Finally, a total of 246 STEMI patients, who were underwent primary PCI, were enrolled into the study (136 non COVID-19 outbreak periods and 110 COVID-19 outbreak periods). The impact of COVID on the time of symptom onset to the first medical contact (symptom-to-FMC) and door to balloon (D-to-B) was investigated. Moreover, the primary outcome was in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of cardiac death, heart failure and malignant arrhythmia. RESULTS: Compared with the same period in 2019, there was a 19% decrease in the total number of STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI at the peak of the pandemic in 2020. The delay in symptom-to-FMC was significantly longer in COVID Outbreak period (180 [68.75, 342] vs 120 [60,240] min, P = 0.003), and the D-to-B times increased significantly (148 [115-190] vs 84 [70-120] min, P < 0.001). However, among patients with STEMI, MACE was similar in both time periods (18.3% vs 25.7%, p = 0.168). On multivariable analysis, COVID was not independently associated with MACE; the history of diabetes, left main disease and age>65 years were the strongest predictors of MACE in the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID pandemic was not independently associated with MACE; suggesting that active primary PCI treatment preserved high-quality standards even when challenged by a severe epidemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://ClinicalTrials.gov Unique identifier: NCT04427735.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Aged , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/transmission , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/standards , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(4): 1047-1055, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525568

ABSTRACT

To estimate the impact on emergency attendance for stroke and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the pandemic of COVID-19 in Beijing, China. Based on 17,123 and 8693 emergency attendance for stroke and AMI, an interrupted time-series (ITS) study was conducted. Since 01/24/2020, the top two levels of regulations on major public health have been implemented in Beijing. This study covered from 03/01/2018 to 06/03/2020, including 19 weeks of lockdown period and 99 weeks before. A segmented Poisson regression model was used to estimate the immediate change and the monthly change in the secular trend of the emergency attendance rates. The emergency attendance rates of stroke and AMI cut in half at the beginning of the lockdown period, with 52.1% (95% CI 45.8% to 57.7%) and 63.1% (95% CI 56.1% to 63.1%) immediate decreases for stroke and AMI, respectively. Then during the lockdown period, 7.0% (95% CI 2.5%, 11.6%) and 16.1% (95% CI 9.5, 23.1) increases per month in the secular trends of emergency attendance rates were shown for stroke and AMI, respectively. Though the accelerated increasing rates, there were estimated 1335 and 747 patients with stroke and AMI without seeking emergency medical aid during the lockdown, respectively. The emergency attendance for stroke and AMI cut in half at the beginning of the pandemic then had gradual restoration thereafter. The results hint the need for more engagement and communications with all stakeholders to reduce the negative impact on CVD emergency medical services during the crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Beijing , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(11): 5109-5121, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497977

ABSTRACT

To control the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus(COVID-19), China imposed rigorous restrictions, which resulted in great reductions in pollutant emissions. However, two heavy haze pollution episodes still occurred in Beijing. In this study, we use the air pollutants, aerosol number concentration, and meteorological elements data in Beijing, combined with the HYSPLIT model, to calculate the potential source contribution factor(PSCF) and concentration weight trajectory(CWT), and analyze the characteristics of evolution and potential source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants during the two episodes. The COVID-19 lockdown restrictions had great impacts on the diurnal variations of PM2.5 and black carbon(BC), while small impacts on the diurnal variations of CO, NO2, SO2, and O3. The primary pollutant was PM2.5 during the two haze pollution episodes, and the haze1 episode was mainly local pollution, while haze 2 was mainly local and external transportation pollution. The spectrum of aerosol number concentration was unimodal under different processes, with the peak located at 0.3 µm. During the haze episodes, the number concentration in the size range of 0.2-0.5 µm increased 3.3-13.6 times that of the clean days. The mass concentration contributions of BCliquid to BC in different processes were 64.8%-85.1%. This mass concentration of BCliquid ranked in the order of haze 1(5.04 µg·m-3) >haze 1(3.20 µg·m-3) >clean day(before COVID-19) (2.31 µg·m-3) >clean day(COVID-19) (0.76 µg·m-3). The characteristics of PSCF and CWT distribution of PM2.5 and BC were different in different processes. The PSCF high value areas of PM2.5 on the clean day(before COVID-19) and the clean day(COVID-19) were mainly distributed in the southwest and western of Beijing, and the weight concentration exceeded 30 µg·m-3. The PSCF high value areas of PM2.5 during haze 1 and haze 2 were mainly distributed in Beijing and its surrounding areas and southwestern, when the weight concentration exceeded 90 µg·m-3. The PSCF high value areas of BC were mainly distributed in Beijing and its surrounding areas on clean days(before COVID-19), clean days(COVID-19) and haze 1, with weighted concentrations exceeding 2.4, 0.9 and, 4.5 µg·m-3, respectively. The PSCF high value areas of BC on haze 2 was distributed in the southwest of Beijing, and the weight concentration exceeded 5 µg·m-3.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Environmental Pollutants , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 765087, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497187

ABSTRACT

This research studies the development of distribution networks for the last mile distribution for cross-border E-business based on a vision of fourth party logistics (4PL) in smart cities in emerging markets in response to COVID-19. This research analyzes the distribution centers of distribution companies in Beijing city using fuzzy cluster analysis as a case study of smart cities. The location decision for distribution centers to serve cross-border E-business is further analyzed by considering the local conditions of the distribution centers. The solutions to the location decisions for distribution centers in different cases are further visualized by 2-mode networks. The key nodes in the distribution network of the last mile for cross-border E-business are further studied based on fourth-party logistics by a immune algorithm. Cross-border E-business value creation based on the development of distribution networks using fourth-party logistics is further discussed. The location distribution of key nodes can spread from the downtown district to suburban areas as the coverage of the distribution network is expanded. This research can help managers and decision makers address the last mile distribution for cross-border E-business in smart cities in emerging markets based on a vision of fourth-party logistics in response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Beijing , Cities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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