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2.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1121846, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317196

ABSTRACT

Purpose: By serving and providing a guide for other regional places, this study aims to advance and guide the epidemic prevention and control methods, and practices and strengthen people's ability to respond to COVID-19 and other future potential public health risks. Design/methodology/approach: A comparative analysis was conducted that the COVID-19 epidemic development trend and prevention and control effects both in Beijing and Shanghai. In fact, regarding the COVID-19 policy and strategic areas, the differences between governmental, social, and professional management were discussed and explored. To prevent and be ready for potential pandemics, experience and knowledge were used and summarized. Findings: The strong attack of the Omicron variant in early 2022 has posed challenges to epidemic prevention and control practices in many Chinese cities. Shanghai, which had achieved relatively good performance in the fight against the epidemic, has exposed limitations in its epidemic prevention and control system in the face of Omicron. In fact, the city of Beijing has undertaken prompt and severe lockdown measures and achieved rather good results in epidemic prevention and control because of learning from Shanghai's experience and lessons; adhering to the overall concept of "dynamic clearing," implementing precise prevention and monitoring, enhancing community control, and making emergency plans and preparations. All these actions and measures are still essential in the shift from pandemic response to pandemic control. Research limitations/implications: Different places have introduced different urgent policies to control the spread of the pandemic. Strategies to control COVID-19 have often been based on preliminary and limited data and have tended to be slow to evolve as new evidence emerges. Hence, the effects of these anti-epidemic policies need to be further tested.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Beijing/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , China/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(6)2023 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289199

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has imposed greater challenges and more stringent requirements on higher education institutions (HEIs). However, limited empirical research has been devoted to identifying external and internal factors that may promote individual preventive behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic within the higher education context. This study proposed and examined an extended norm activation model (NAM) concerning the relationships among cultural tightness, original NAM components, and COVID-19 preventive behaviors. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 3693 university students from 18 universities in Beijing, China. The results showed that cultural tightness was positively associated with respondents' COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Three original NAM variables, namely, awareness of consequences, the ascription of responsibility, and personal norms, played a chain mediating role in the relationship between cultural tightness and COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the findings of this study and suggestions for future research are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Universities , Pandemics/prevention & control , Beijing/epidemiology , Students , China/epidemiology
4.
Euro Surveill ; 28(11)2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288582

ABSTRACT

With COVID-19 public health control measures downgraded in China in January 2023, reported COVID-19 case numbers may underestimate the true numbers after the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron wave. Using a multiplier model based on our influenza surveillance system, we estimated that the overall incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 392/100,000 population in Beijing during the 5 weeks following policy adjustment. No notable change occurred after the Spring Festival in early February. The multiplier model provides an opportunity for assessing the actual COVID-19 situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
5.
J Med Virol ; 95(3): e28613, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258974

ABSTRACT

Different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been discovered globally. At present, the Omicron variant has been extensively circulated worldwide. There have been several outbreaks of the Omicron variant in China. Here, we investigated the epidemiologic, genetic characteristics, and origin-tracing data of the outbreaks of COVID-19 in Beijing from January to September 2022. During this time, 19 outbreaks occurred in Beijing, with the infected cases ranging from 2 to 2230. Two concern variants were detected, with eight genotypes. Based on origin tracing analysis, two outbreaks were from the cold-chain transmission and three from items contaminated by humans. Imported cases have caused other outbreaks. Our study provided a detailed analysis of Beijing's outbreaks and valuable information to control the outbreak's spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Beijing/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genomics
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(21): 60294-60302, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254532

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 lockdown had a positive control effect on urban air quality. However, this effect remains uncertain after the epidemic enters regular management, and furthermore, only limited data are available regarding urban PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5µm) under the impact of the epidemic. We used daily ambient PM2.5 concentration data in Beijing to compare and analyze the changes in urban PM2.5 concentrations before and after the COVID-19 epidemic and to estimate the healthy effects and economic burden associated with PM2.5 before and after the epidemic. The study found that COVID-19 has a significant impact on the urban environmental PM2.5 concentration, which is manifested by the decrease in the PM2.5 concentration in Beijing during the epidemic by 27.8%. Exposure-response models estimated 56.443 (95% CI: 43.084-69.893) thousand people die prematurely in Beijing during the COVID-19 epidemic attributed to long-term PM2.5 exposure, with a 13.3% decrease in the number of premature deaths year-on-year. The total healthy economic losses attributable to PM2.5 in Beijing during the COVID-19 epidemic were 35.76 (95% CI: 28.41-42.44) billion yuan, with a per capita loss of 816.8 yuan. Strict control measures throughout the COVID-19 epidemic had a positive impact on air quality in Beijing, with a decrease in both premature deaths and economic healthy losses attributable to fine particles. This paper helps to enrich and expand the research on the impact of COVID-19 on the urban environment and provides a basis for formulating policies related to air quality improvement in the post-epidemic era.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , Financial Stress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Air Pollution/analysis , China/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(2): e062272, 2023 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on healthcare utilisation. This study aimed to quantify how the online and face-to-face utilisation of healthcare services changed during this time and thus gain insights into the planning of future healthcare resources during the outbreak of infectious diseases. DESIGN: This work is an interrupted time-series study. SETTING: Monthly hospital-grade healthcare-service data from 22 tertiary first-class public hospitals managed by the Beijing Hospital Authority and online-consultation data from GoodDoctor were used in this study. METHODS: This is an interrupted time-series study about the change in face-to-face and online healthcare utilisation before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. We compared the impact of COVID-19 on the primary outcomes of both face-to-face healthcare utilisation (outpatient and emergency visits, discharge volume) and online healthcare utilisation (online consultation volume). And we also analysed the impact of COVID-19 on the healthcare utilisation of different types of diseases. RESULTS: The monthly average outpatient visits and discharges decreased by 36.33% and 35.75%, respectively, compared with those in 2019 in 22 public hospitals in Beijing. Moreover, the monthly average online consultations increased by 90.06%. A highly significant reduction occurred in the mean outpatients and inpatients, which dropped by 1 755 930 cases (p<0.01) and 5 920 000 cases (p<0.01), respectively. Online consultations rose by 3650 cases (p<0.05). We identified an immediate and significant drop in healthcare services for four major diseases, that is, acute myocardial infarction (-174, p<0.1), lung cancer (-2502, p<0.01), disk disease (-3756, p<0.01) and Parkinson's disease (-205, p<0.01). Otherwise, online consultations for disk disease (63, p<0.01) and Parkinson's disease (25, p<0.05) significantly increased. More than 1300 unique physicians provided online-consultation services per month in 2020, which was 35.3% higher than in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Obvious complementary trends in online and face-to-face healthcare services existed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Different changes in healthcare utilisation were shown for different diseases. Non-critically ill patients chose online consultation immediately after the COVID-19 lockdown, but critically ill patients chose hospital healthcare services first. Additionally, the volume of online physician services significantly rose as a result of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Beijing/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Referral and Consultation , Hospitals, Public
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 44(1): 48-57, 2023 Jan 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242797

ABSTRACT

The multi-scale variation trend of PM2.5-O3 compound pollution events was analyzed based on air quality data, meteorological data, and COVID-19 data in Beijing from 2015 to 2020. For the threshold of compound pollution, a compound pollution index was proposed, and the numerical response trend was evaluated based on the generalized additive model. A distributed lag nonlinear model was introduced to analyze the risk response relationship between compound pollution and influencing factors. The results showed that the events of PM2.5-O3 compound pollution in Beijing decreased annually. At the same time, due to the influence of pollutant emissions and meteorological conditions, there were obvious seasonal effects, week effects, holiday effects, and epidemic effects. The composite pollution index had no correlation with rainfall but had a linear positive correlation with O3 and air temperature and a nonlinear correlation with other explanatory variables. Air pollutants and meteorological conditions had obvious lag effects on the composite pollution index, and the lag effects were mainly concentrated in 1-3 d. PM2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, and air temperature in high-value areas significantly increased the risk of compound pollution. The CO (1-6 mg·m-3), NO2 (38-118 µg·m-3), and relative humidity (54%-87%) in the median section would also increase the risk of compound pollution, as would low wind speed. The compound pollution events showed a trend of multi-day continuous pollution in the numerical response. Compared with PM2.5 and PM10, compound pollution events were more dependent on O3, and the compound pollution rate in high-value areas was 30.7%-47.5%. CO and relative humidity had little effect on compound pollution events. The air temperature had the greatest impact, and 84.7% of the composite pollution incidents occurred at 20-30℃.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Air Pollutants/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis , China/epidemiology
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 23(1): 76, 2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Group A streptococcus is human-restricted gram-positive pathogen, responsible for various clinical presentations from mild epidermis infections to life threatened invasive diseases. Under COVID-19 pandemic,. the characteristics of the epidemic strains of GAS could be different. PURPOSE: To investigate epidemiological and molecular features of isolates from GAS infections among children in Beijing, China between January 2020 and December 2021. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiling was performed based on Cinical Laboratory Sandards Institute. Distribution of macrolide-resistance genes, emm types, and superantigens was examined by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: 114 GAS isolates were collected which were frequent resistance against erythromycin (94.74%), followed by clindamycin (92.98%), tetracycline (87.72%). Emm12 (46.49%), emm1 (25.44%) were dominant emm types. Distribution of ermB, ermA, and mefA gene was 93.85%, 2.63%, and 14.04%, respectively. Frequent superantigenes identified were smeZ (97.39%), speG (95.65%), and speC (92.17%). Emm1 strains possessed smeZ, ssa, and speC, while emm12 possessed smeZ, ssa, speG, and speC. Erythromycin resistance was predominantly mediated by ermB. Scarlet fever strains harbored smeZ (98.81%), speC (94.05%). Impetigo strains harbored smeZ (88.98%), ssa (88.89%), and speC (88.89%). Psoriasis strains harbored smeZ (100%). CONCLUSIONS: Under COVID-19 pandemic, our collections of GAS infection cutaneous diseases decreased dramatically. Epidemiological analysis of GAS infections among children during COVID-19 pandemic was not significantly different from our previous study. There was a correlation among emm, superantigen gene and disease manifestations. Long-term surveillance and investigation of emm types and superantigens of GAS prevalence are imperative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Streptococcal Infections , Child , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pyogenes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , China/epidemiology , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Erythromycin/therapeutic use , Superantigens/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2216009

ABSTRACT

The measures in the fight against COVID-19 have reshaped the functions of urban facilities, which might cause the associated crimes to vary with the occurrence of the pandemic. This paper aimed to study this phenomenon by conducting quantitative research. By treating the area under the jurisdiction of the police station (AJPS) as spatial units, the residential burglary and non-motor vehicle theft that occurred during the first-level response to the public health emergencies (pandemic) period in 2020 and the corresponding temporal window (pre-pandemic) in 2019 were collected and a practical study to Beijing was made. The impact of urban facilities on crimes during both periods was analyzed independently by using negative binomial regression (NBR) and geographical weight regression (GWR). The findings demonstrated that during the pandemic period, a reduction in the count and spatial concentration of both property crimes were observed, and the impact of facilities on crime changed. Some facilities lost their impact on crime during the pandemic period, while other facilities played a significant role in generating crime. Additionally, the variables that always kept a stable significant impact on crime during the pre- and pandemic periods demonstrated a heterogeneous impact in space and experienced some variations across the periods. The study proved that the strategies in the fight against COVID-19 changed the impact of urban facilities on crime occurrence, which deeply reshaped the crime patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Crime , Theft
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(12): 1881-1886, 2022 Dec 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201082

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and transmission chain of an epidemic of COVID-19 in Haidian district, Beijing. Methods: Descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of the epidemic, and field investigation and big data technology were used to analyze the transmission chain of the epidemic. Results: From April 27 to May 13, 2022, an epidemic of COVID-19 occurred in Haidian district. The strains isolated from the cases were identified by whole genome sequencing as Omicron variant (BA.2.2 evolutionary branch). A total of 38 infection cases were detected, including 34 confirmed cases and 4 asymptomatic cases. Most cases were mild ones (88.2%), no severe, critical or death cases occurred. The early clinical symptoms were mainly sore throat (50.0%) and cough (29.4%). The epidemic lasted for 17 days, resulting in 7 generations of the cases and involving 3 community transmissions, 2 working place transmissions and 8 family transmissions; the main infection routes were co-residence (47.6%) and co-space exposure (31.6%). The intergenerational interval M(Q1, Q3)was 3 (1, 6) days. The overall secondary attack rate was 1.5% (37/2 482), and the family secondary attack rate was 36.7% (18/49). Conclusions: The cases in this COVID-19 epidemic caused by Omicron variant had mild clinical symptoms, but the case clustering in families and communities was obvious, the transmission was rapid, and the risk for co-space exposure was high. It is necessary to use information technology to identify close contacts in the local population for the rapid and effective blocking of the epidemic spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Beijing/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Virol J ; 20(1): 4, 2023 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Under the pressure of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the prevalence of human adenovirus (HAdV) was monitored before and after NPIs launched on Jan 24, 2020 in pediatric patients in Beijing, China. METHODS: Respiratory samples collected from children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections from Jan 2015 to Dec 2021 were screened by direct immunofluorescence test or capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR assay. The hexon, penton base, and fiber genes were amplified from HAdV positive specimens, then sequenced. For HAdV typing, phylogenetic trees were built by MEGA X. Then clinical data of HAdV positive cases were collected. All data were evaluated using SPSS Statistics 22.0 software. RESULTS: A total of 16,097 children were enrolled and 466 (2.89%, 466/16,097) were HAdV-positive. The positive rates of HAdV varied, ranging from 4.39% (151/3,438) in 2018 to1.25% (26/2,081) in 2021, dropped from 3.19% (428/13,408) to 1.41% (38/2,689) from before to after NPIs launched (P < 0.001). There were 350 cases typed into nine types of species B, C, or E and 34 recorded as undetermined. Among them, HAdV-B3 (51.56%, 198/384) was the most prevalent types from 2015 to 2017, and HAdV-B7 (29.17%, 112/384) co-circulated with HAdV-B3 from 2018 to 2019. After NPIs launched, HAdV-B3 and B7 decreased sharply with HAdV-B7 undetected in 2021, while HAdV-C1 became the dominant one and the undetermined were more. CONCLUSIONS: The endemic pattern of HAdV changed in Beijing because of the NPIs launched for COVID-19. Especially, the dominant types changed from HAdV-B to HAdV-C.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Phylogeny , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
13.
J Med Virol ; 95(1): e28411, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173197

ABSTRACT

A series of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) was launched in Beijing, China, on January 24, 2020, to control coronavirus disease 2019. To reveal the roles of NPIs on the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), respiratory specimens collected from children with acute respiratory tract infection between July 2017 and Dec 2021 in Beijing were screened by capillary electrophoresis-based multiplex PCR (CEMP) assay. Specimens positive for RSV were subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by G gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using iqtree v1.6.12. The parallel and fixed (paraFix) mutations were analyzed with the R package sitePath. Clinical data were compared using SPSS 22.0 software. Before NPIs launched, each RSV endemic season started from October/November to February/March of the next year in Beijing. After that, the RSV positive rate abruptly dropped from 31.93% in January to 4.39% in February 2020; then, a dormant state with RSV positive rates ≤1% from March to September, a nearly dormant state in October (2.85%) and November (2.98%) and a delayed endemic season in 2020, and abnormal RSV positive rates remaining at approximately 10% in summer until September 2021 were detected. Finally, an endemic RSV season returned in October 2021. There was a game between Subtypes A and B, and RSV-A replaced RSV-B in July 2021 to become the dominant subtype. Six RSV-A and eight RSV-B paraFix mutations were identified on G. The percentage of severe pneumonia patients decreased to 40.51% after NPIs launched. NPIs launched in Beijing seriously interfered with the endemic season of RSV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Beijing/epidemiology , Phylogeny , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
14.
Nat Med ; 29(3): 579-582, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185965

ABSTRACT

We tracked the effective reproduction number (Rt) of the predominant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant Omicron BF.7 in Beijing in November-December 2022 by fitting a transmission dynamic model parameterized with real-time mobility data to (i) the daily number of new symptomatic cases on 1-11 November (when China's zero-COVID interventions were still strictly enforced) and (ii) the proportion of individuals who participated in online polls on 10-22 December and self-reported to have been test-positive since 1 November. After China's announcement of 20 measures to transition from zero-COVID, we estimated that Rt increased to 3.44 (95% credible interval (CrI): 2.82-4.14) on 18 November and the infection incidence peaked on 11 December. We estimated that the cumulative infection attack rate (IAR; that is, proportion of the population infected since 1 November) in Beijing was 75.7% (95% CrI: 60.7-84.4) on 22 December 2022 and 92.3% (95% CrI: 91.4-93.1) on 31 January 2023. Surveillance programs should be rapidly set up to monitor the evolving epidemiology and evolution of SARS-CoV-2 across China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Policy
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066023

ABSTRACT

Air pollution may change people's gym sports behavior. To test this claim, first, we used big data crawler technology and ordinary least square (OLS) models to investigate the effect of air pollution on people' gym visits in Beijing, China, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic of 2019-2020, and the results showed that a one-standard-deviation increase in PM2.5 concentration (fine particulate matter with diameters equal to or smaller than 2.5 µm) derived from the land use regression model (LUR) was positively associated with a 0.119 and a 0.171 standard-deviation increase in gym visits without or with consideration of the COVID-19 variable, respectively. Second, using spatial autocorrelation analysis and a series of spatial econometric models, we provided consistent evidence that the gym industry of Beijing had a strong spatial dependence, and PM2.5 and its spatial spillover effect had a positive impact on the demand for gym sports. Such a phenomenon offers us a new perspective that gym sports can be developed into an essential activity for the public due to this avoidance behavior regarding COVID-19 virus contact and pollution exposure.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis
16.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 75(5): 511-518, 2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040398

ABSTRACT

To estimate the effect of the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control measures taken to mitigate community transmission in many regions, we analyzed data from the influenza surveillance system in Beijing from week 27 of 2014 to week 26 of 2020. We collected weekly numbers of influenza-like illness (ILI) cases, weekly positive proportion of ILI cases, weekly ILI case proportion in outpatients, and the dates of implementation of COVID-19 measures. We compared the influenza activity indicators of the 2019/2020 season with the preceding five seasons and built two ARIMAX models to estimate the effectiveness of COVID-19 measures declared since January 24, 2020 by the emergency response. Based on the observed data, compared to the preceding five influenza seasons, ILIs, positive proportion of ILIs, and duration of the influenza epidemic period in 2019/2020 had increased from 13% to 54%; in particular, the number of weeks from the peak to the end of the influenza epidemic period had decreased from 12 to 1. According to ARIMAX model forecasting, after considering natural decline, weekly ILIs had decreased by 48.6%, weekly positive proportion had dropped by 15% in the second week after the emergency response was declared, and COVID-19 measures had reduced by 83%. We conclude that the public health emergency response can significantly interrupt the transmission of influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Public Health , Seasons
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032924

ABSTRACT

The satisfaction of highly educated citizens with community services for COVID-19 represents the attitude of the middle class and plays an important role in both the social and political stability of a country. The aim of this paper was to determine which factors influence public satisfaction with COVID-19 services in a highly educated community. Through a literature review and using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) model, this paper constructed a public satisfaction model of community services for COVID-19 and proposed relevant research hypotheses. A community with many highly educated residents in Beijing was selected as the case study, where 450 official questionnaires were distributed based on the age ratio of residents, with 372 valid questionnaires being collected from May 2021 to July 2021. The study results obtained by a structural equation model (SEM) show that: (1) public satisfaction is significantly and positively influenced by quality perception (0.305 **), public demand (0.295 **), and service maturity (0.465 ***); (2) public satisfaction has a significantly positive effect on service image (0.346 ***) and public trust (0.232 **), and service image significantly affects public trust (0.140 *); (3) service maturity is positively influenced by public demand (0.460 ***) and quality perception (0.323 *); and (4) public demand is positively influenced by quality perception (0.693 ***) (* p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.00). The conclusions of the study can provide suggestions and recommendations to improve the satisfaction of highly educated residents with community healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Satisfaction , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Social Welfare
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 861712, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022927

ABSTRACT

Objective: The duties, discipline cross-complementation, and work stress of professional staff during the COVID-19 pandemic are analyzed and summarized to provide a scientific basis for workforce allocation and reserve in respect of infectious disease prevention and control in the disease prevention and control (DPC) system. Method: The cross-sectional survey was made in April-May 2021 on professional staff in the Beijing DPC system by way of typical + cluster sampling. A total of 1,086 staff were surveyed via electronic questionnaire, which was independently designed by the Study Group and involves three dimensions, i.e., General Information, Working Intensity & Satisfaction, and Need for Key Capacity Building. This paper focuses on the former two dimensions: General Information, Working Intensity, and Satisfaction. The information collected is stored in a database built with Microsoft Excel 2010 and analyzed statistically with SPSS 22.0. The results are expressed in absolute quantities and proportions. Assuming that the overload of work stress is brought by incremental duties and cross-discipline tasks, a binary logistic regression model is constructed. Results: Among the 1086 staff surveyed, 1032 staff were engaged in COVID-19 prevention and control works, and they can be roughly divided into two groups by their disciplines: Public Health and Preventive Medicine (hereinafter referred to P, 637 staff, as 61.72%) and Non-Public Health and Preventive Medicine (hereinafter referred to N-P, 395 staff, as 38.28%). During the COVID-19 pandemic, the 1,032 staff assumed a total of 2239 duties, that is, 2.17 per person (PP), or 2.45 PP for the P group and 1.72 PP for the N-P group. As to four categories of duties, i.e., Spot Epidemiological Investigation and Sampling, Information Management and Analysis, On-site Disposal, Prevention, Control Guidance, and Publicity, the P group accounts for 76.14, 78.50, 74.74, and 57.66%, respectively, while the N-P group accounts for 23.86, 21.50, 25.26, and 42.34%, respectively. Obviously, the former proportions are higher than the latter proportions. The situation is the opposite of the Sample Detection and Other Works, where the P group accounts for 25.00 and 31.33%, respectively, while the N-P group accounts for 75.00 and 68.67%, respectively. The analysis of work stress reveals that the P group and N-P group have similar proportions in view of full load work stress, being 48.67 and 50.13%, respectively, and the P group shows a proportion of 34.38% in view of overload work stress, apparently higher than the N-P group (24.05%). Moreover, both groups indicate their work stresses are higher than the pre-COVID-19 period levels. According to the analysis of work stress factors, the duty quantity and cross-discipline tasks are statistically positively correlated with the probability of overload work stress. Conclusion: The front-line staff in the DPC system involved in the COVID-19 prevention and control primarily fall in the category of Public Health and Preventive Medicine discipline. The P group assumes the most duties, and the N-P group serves as an important cross-complement. The study results indicate that the prevention and control of same-scale epidemic require the duty post setting at least twice than usual. As to workforce recruitment, allocation, and reserve in respect of the DPC system, two solutions are optional: less addition of P staff, or more addition of N-P staff. A balance between P and N-P staff that enables the personnel composition to accommodate both routine DPC and unexpected epidemic needs to be further discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Workforce
19.
Indoor Air ; 32(8): e13095, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019343

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) lockdown in China is thought to have reduced air pollution emissions due to reduced human mobility and economic activities. Few studies have assessed the impacts of COVID-19 on community and indoor air quality in environments with diverse socioeconomic and household energy use patterns. The main goal of this study was to evaluate whether indoor and community air pollution differed before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown in homes with different energy use patterns. Using calibrated real-time PM2.5 sensors, we measured indoor and community air quality in 147 homes from 30 villages in Beijing over 4 months including periods before, during, and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Community pollution was higher during the lockdown (61 ± 47 µg/m3 ) compared with before (45 ± 35 µg/m3 , p < 0.001) and after (47 ± 37 µg/m3 , p < 0.001) the lockdown. However, we did not observe significantly increased indoor PM2.5 during the COVID-19 lockdown. Indoor-generated PM2.5 in homes using clean energy for heating without smokers was the lowest compared with those using solid fuel with/without smokers, implying air pollutant emissions are reduced in homes using clean energy. Indoor air quality may not have been impacted by the COVID-19 lockdown in rural settings in China and appeared to be more impacted by the household energy choice and indoor smoking than the COVID-19 lockdown. As clean energy transitions occurred in rural households in northern China, our work highlights the importance of understanding multiple possible indoor sources to interpret the impacts of interventions, intended or otherwise.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution, Indoor , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Beijing/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(8): 1230-1236, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994238

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the source and the transmission chain of a cold-chain product associated COVID-19 epidemic caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant in Beijing. Methods: Epidemiological investigation were used to verify the exposure points of the cases. Close contacts were traced from the exposure points, and human and environmental samples were collected for nucleic acid tests. Positive samples were analyzed by gene sequencing. Results: A total of 112 cases of COVID-19 were reported in the epidemic from January 18 to February 6, 2022 in Beijing. Except for 1 case was uncertain, there were epidemiological links among 111 cases. The source of infection was the packages of imported cold-chain products from Southeast Asia, which were harvested and stored in a local cold-storage in January 2021, and packaged and sent to the cold-storage A in A district in June 2021, and then sold in batches in cold-storage B in B district from January 2022. The first case was infected in the handling of positive frozen products, and then 77 cases occurred due to working, eating and living together with the index case in the cold-storage B, cold-storage C and restaurant D. Besides the cold-storage B, C and the restaurant D, there were 16 sub-transmission chains, resulting in additional 35 cases. Conclusion: The epidemic indicated that the risk of 2019-nCoV infection from imported cold-chain products contaminated by package and highlighted the importance to strengthen the management of cold-chain industry in future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Beijing/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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