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1.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 103129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293531

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The symptoms of COVID-19 at the time of presentation mainly include fever, cough, respiratory distress and myalgia. On the other hand, as neurological symptoms, disruption of taste and smell and cerebrovascular pathologies are well-known, whereas other neurological symptoms and signs are being newly recognized. Sudden-onset sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) and idiopathic acute facial paralysis (Bell's palsy) are otologic emergencies that are frequently encountered by otorhinolaryngology specialists. Although there are many articles describing SSNHL and Bell's palsy in the literature, the literature describing their relationship to COVID-19 is limited. In our study, we aimed to present the neuro-otologic relationship of SSNHL and Bell's palsy with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The pretreatment real-time oronasopharyngeal PCR tests, COVID-19 symptomatology and COVID-19 infection statuses of patients who presented to our clinic with isolated SSNHL and Bell's palsy between April 2020 and April 2021 were questioned, and the data of the patients were collected. Throughout their treatment, the patients were followed-up in terms of COVID-19 infection. This is a prospective study. Moreover, to observe the change in the incidence, the data of patients visiting between January 2019 and January 2020 were also collected. The data of the patients were statistically analyzed using SPSS. RESULTS: The study included a total of 177 patients. The SSNHL group consisted of 91 patients, and the Bell's palsy group consisted of 86 patients. Neither group showed a statistically significant difference in comparison to the year without the pandemic in terms of the patient numbers (incidence), sex, age, morbidity, response to treatment or social habits. There was a statistically significant difference in age only in the Bell's palsy group, but this difference was not medically significant. CONCLUSION: As a result of our study, we did not observe a relationship between COVID-19 and cases of SSNHL and Bell's palsy. It is recommended to apply standard otologic treatment to isolated SSNHL and Bell's palsy patients whose association with COVID-19 is not determined.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/epidemiology , Hearing Loss, Sudden/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Bell Palsy/diagnosis , Bell Palsy/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/virology , Female , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/virology , Hearing Loss, Sudden/diagnosis , Hearing Loss, Sudden/virology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Turkey
2.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(5): 103032, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171724

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Publications about increased number of peripheral facial paralysis in the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in the literature. However, these studies comprised of an estimate rather than a broad analysis of exact numbers. In this study, we planned to investigate whether the pandemic really resulted in an increase in facial paralysis cases admitted to the hospital by evaluating the cases who applied to our hospital due to facial paralysis in the COVID-19 pandemic year and in the previous 4 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who applied to our hospital due to facial paralysis between March 2016-February 2017 (Group 1), between March 2017-February 2018 (Group 2), between March 2018-February 2019 (Group 3), between March 2019-February 2020 (Group 4), and between March 2020-February 2021 (Group 5) were investigated and detailed data were noted. RESULTS: 156, 164, 149, 172 and 157 patients were admitted to the hospital due to peripheral facial paralysis in Group 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Of these patients, 155, 164, 145, 169, and 153 were Bell's palsy, respectively. SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test was positive in only 2 of the 153 patients who were diagnosed in the year of the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the number of peripheral facial paralysis detected during the COVID-19 pandemic was similar to previous years. Very few number of positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results may have been found incidentally in Bell's palsy patients. Theses stating that SARS-CoV-2 causes peripheral facial paralysis should be supported by laboratory studies and postmortem research.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Facial Paralysis/epidemiology , Bell Palsy/diagnosis , Bell Palsy/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Turkey
3.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 135, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, different neurological manifestations have been observed. However, only a few cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and COVID-19 have been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate a case of concomitant GBS with COVID-19 in Colombia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old woman was admitted to a teaching hospital in Barranquilla, Colombia with a history of progressive general weakness with lower limb dominance. Previous symptoms such as ageusia, anosmia and intense headache were reported. Upon admission, facial diplegia, quadriparesis with lower extremity predominance and Medical Research Council muscular strength of 2/5 in the lower limbs and 4/5 in the upper limbs were reported. During clinical evolution, due to general areflexia, hypertensive emergency and progressive diaphragmatic weakness, the patient was admitted to an intensive care unit. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed protein-cytological dissociation and the GBS diagnosis was confirmed via a nerve conduction and electromyography test. With regard to the symptoms before hospitalisation, SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing was performed with positive results in the second test. The patient was managed with supportive care and was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization with clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few cases of COVID-19 with GBS have been reported. Different subtypes have been previously identified, such as Miller-Fisher syndrome and dysautonomic GBS with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study investigated the first confirmed case of COVID-19 with concomitant GBS in Colombia. In patients with GBS, several viral and bacterial pathogens have been found in case-control studies but the factors that induce the immune-mediated destruction of the nerve tissues have not been determined. Further studies are needed to determine the possible association between COVID-19 exposure and GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Bell Palsy/diagnosis , Colombia , Electromyography , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Neural Conduction , Quadriplegia/diagnosis
4.
Am J Case Rep ; 21: e927956, 2020 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This case report is of a patient who presented with loss of taste and facial weakness and was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Bell's palsy, associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. GBS is a neurological emergency defined as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The patient responded to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 44-year-old Hispanic man who came for evaluation of bilateral facial weakness and lack of taste sensation. He had lower motor neuron facial weakness. His head computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance imaging scans did not show any pathological abnormalities. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by a nasopharyngeal swab reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis via lumbar puncture revealed elevated protein levels, no leukocytes, and a negative Gram stain. The CSF RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 was negative. PCR tests of the CSF for other viral infections were negative. A diagnosis of GBS was made, and he was treated successfully with IVIG. After the fourth dose of IVIG, the patient was able to close his eyes, frown, show his teeth, and smile. CONCLUSIONS Our case is rare because the patient did not present with lower extremity weakness, but only with bilateral Bell's palsy. Physicians should be aware of GBS because it is a neurological emergency for which COVID-19 can be a risk factor. Early diagnosis and treatment of GBS can prevent neurological disability.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/diagnosis , Bell Palsy/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/drug therapy , Ageusia/etiology , Bell Palsy/etiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics
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