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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 205-209, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599343

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Delta variant epidemiology in Africa is unknown. We found Delta variant was introduced in Benin during April-May 2021 and became predominant within 2 months, after which a steep increase in reported coronavirus disease incidence occurred. Benin might require increased nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Humans
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 205-209, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528804

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Delta variant epidemiology in Africa is unknown. We found Delta variant was introduced in Benin during April-May 2021 and became predominant within 2 months, after which a steep increase in reported coronavirus disease incidence occurred. Benin might require increased nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Humans
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2889-2903, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379955

ABSTRACT

Intense transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Africa might promote emergence of variants. We describe 10 SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Benin during early 2021 that harbored mutations associated with variants of concern. Benin-derived SARS-CoV-2 strains were more efficiently neutralized by antibodies derived from vaccinees than patients, warranting accelerated vaccination in Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Humans , Mutation
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 293, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257124

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: following the global COVID-19 outbreak, the government of Benin implemented preventive measures to stall viral transmission. We sought to evaluate adherence of the Beninese people to these preventive measures, in order to identify predictors of poor adherence and adapt the national response to COVID-19. METHODS: two consecutive online surveys were conducted between May and August 2020. Four hundred and sixty two and 507 adult participants aged 18 years and above responded to the first and second survey respectively, with >70% being males. RESULTS: more than 98% of respondents reported wearing face masks. A five-point adherence score was constituted by scoring observance to key preventive measures (mask use, physical distancing, hand hygiene, coughing hygiene and avoiding to touch one´s face). We observed that the mean adherence scores were fairly stable over time, respectively 4.08 and 4.03 during the first and second survey (p=0.439). Increasing age (aOR=1.043, 95% CI: 1.026 - 1.061; p<0.001) and obtaining COVID-19 information from official sources (aOR=1.628, 95% CI: 1.275 - 2.081; p<0.001) were significantly associated with higher adherence scores in a multivariable model. CONCLUSION: these findings suggest that a wide dissemination of adequate information about COVID-19 would increase adherence, and that targeted efforts should be directed towards increasing the compliance to preventive measures among the younger age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Public Health , Adult , Age Factors , Benin/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Hygiene/standards , Information Dissemination , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(3): 899-911, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic indirectly impacts HIV epidemiology in Central/West Africa. We estimated the potential impact of COVID-19-related disruptions to HIV prevention/treatment services and sexual partnerships on HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths among key populations including female sex workers (FSW), their clients, men who have sex with men, and overall. SETTING: Yaoundé (Cameroon) and Cotonou (Benin). METHODS: We used mathematical models of HIV calibrated to city population-specific and risk population-specific demographic/behavioral/epidemic data. We estimated the relative change in 1-year HIV incidence and HIV-related deaths for various disruption scenarios of HIV prevention/treatment services and decreased casual/commercial partnerships, compared with a scenario without COVID-19. RESULTS: A 50% reduction in condom use in all partnerships over 6 months would increase 1-year HIV incidence by 39%, 42%, 31%, and 23% among men who have sex with men, FSW, clients, and overall in Yaoundé, respectively, and 69%, 49%, and 23% among FSW, clients, and overall, respectively, in Cotonou. Combining a 6-month interruption of ART initiation and 50% reduction in HIV prevention/treatment use would increase HIV incidence by 50% and HIV-related deaths by 20%. This increase in HIV infections would be halved by a simultaneous 50% reduction in casual and commercial partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in condom use after COVID-19 would increase infections among key populations disproportionately, particularly FSW in Cotonou, who need uninterrupted condom provision. Disruptions in HIV prevention/treatment services have the biggest impacts on HIV infections and deaths overall, only partially mitigated by equal reductions in casual/commercial sexual partnerships. Maintaining ART provision must be prioritized to minimize short-term excess HIV-related deaths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Benin/epidemiology , Cameroon/epidemiology , Condoms , Female , Humans , Male , Models, Biological , Risk Factors , Safe Sex , Sex Workers , Urban Population
6.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066824

ABSTRACT

Information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread in Africa is limited by insufficient diagnostic capacity. Here, we assessed the coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-related diagnostic workload during the onset of the pandemic in the central laboratory of Benin, Western Africa; characterized 12 SARS-CoV-2 genomes from returning travelers; and validated the Da An RT-PCR-based diagnostic kit that is widely used across Africa. We found a 15-fold increase in the monthly laboratory workload due to COVID-19, dealt with at the cost of routine activities. Genomic surveillance showed near-simultaneous introduction of distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages termed A.4 and B.1, including the D614G spike protein variant potentially associated with higher transmissibility from travelers from six different European and African countries during March-April 2020. We decoded the target regions within the ORF1ab and N genes of the Da An dual-target kit by MinION-based amplicon sequencing. Despite relatively high similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) within the ORF1ab target domain, no cross-detection of high-titered cell culture supernatants of HCoVs was observed, suggesting high analytical specificity. The Da An kit was highly sensitive, detecting 3.2 to 9.0 copies of target-specific in vitro transcripts/reaction. Although discrepant test results were observed in low-titered clinical samples, clinical sensitivity of the Da An kit was at least comparable to that of commercial kits from affluent settings. In sum, virologic diagnostics are achievable in a resource-limited setting, but unprecedented pressure resulting from COVID-19-related diagnostics requires rapid and sustainable support of national and supranational stakeholders addressing limited laboratory capacity.IMPORTANCE Months after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, case numbers from Africa are surprisingly low, potentially because the number of SARS-CoV-2 tests performed in Africa is lower than in other regions. Here, we show an overload of COVID-19-related diagnostics in the central laboratory of Benin, Western Africa, with a stagnating average number of positive samples irrespective of daily sample counts. SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance confirmed a high genomic diversity in Benin introduced by travelers returning from Europe and other African countries, including early circulation of the D614G spike mutation associated with potentially higher transmissibility. We validated a widely used RT-PCR kit donated by the Chinese Jack Ma Foundation and confirmed high analytical specificity and clinical sensitivity equivalent to tests used in affluent settings. Our assessment shows that although achievable in an African setting, the burden from COVID-19-related diagnostics on national reference laboratories is very high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Benin/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Developing Countries , Female , Genome, Viral , Health Resources/supply & distribution , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Travel-Related Illness , Workload/statistics & numerical data
7.
Malar J ; 19(1): 431, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2020, Benin has implemented a digitalized mass distribution campaign of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic. This paper describes the implementation process as well as the challenges and lessons learned from this campaign. METHODS: A descriptive design was used for reporting the planning and implementation process of ITNs campaign. Moreover, the changes and adaptations related to COVID-19 pandemic are described. RESULTS: A total of 3,175,773 households were registered corresponding to a total of 14,423,998 persons (13.55% more from projection). Moreover, 94.16% (13,581,637 people) of enumerated population were protected. A total of 7,652,166 ITNs were distributed countrywide. CONCLUSIONS: High political commitment, engagement and support add to the financial and technical supports from partners were the essential factors that make 2020 ITNs mass campaign success in Benin despite the particular context of COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential to maintain the prevention activities for malaria and this could substantially reduce the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic for the populations at malaria risk.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Insecticide-Treated Bednets/supply & distribution , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Benin/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery of Health Care , Education , Family Characteristics , Health Care Surveys , Health Planning Organizations , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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