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Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(9): 586-594, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545532


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can lead to multiorgan failure. Dapagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, has significant protective benefits for the heart and kidney. We aimed to see whether this agent might provide organ protection in patients with COVID-19 by affecting processes dysregulated during acute illness. METHODS: DARE-19 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and with at least one cardiometabolic risk factor (ie, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease). Patients critically ill at screening were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to dapagliflozin (10 mg daily orally) or matched placebo for 30 days. Dual primary outcomes were assessed in the intention-to-treat population: the outcome of prevention (time to new or worsened organ dysfunction or death), and the hierarchial composite outcome of recovery (change in clinical status by day 30). Safety outcomes, in patients who received at least one study medication dose, included serious adverse events, adverse events leading to discontinuation, and adverse events of interest. This study is registered with, NCT04350593. FINDINGS: Between April 22, 2020 and Jan 1, 2021, 1250 patients were randomly assigned with 625 in each group. The primary composite outcome of prevention showed organ dysfunction or death occurred in 70 patients (11·2%) in the dapagliflozin group, and 86 (13·8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·80, 95% CI 0·58-1·10; p=0·17). For the primary outcome of recovery, 547 patients (87·5%) in the dapagliflozin group and 532 (85·1%) in the placebo group showed clinical status improvement, although this was not statistically significant (win ratio 1·09, 95% CI 0·97-1·22; p=0·14). There were 41 deaths (6·6%) in the dapagliflozin group, and 54 (8·6%) in the placebo group (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·52-1·16). Serious adverse events were reported in 65 (10·6%) of 613 patients treated with dapagliflozin and in 82 (13·3%) of 616 patients given the placebo. INTERPRETATION: In patients with cardiometabolic risk factors who were hospitalised with COVID-19, treatment with dapagliflozin did not result in a statistically significant risk reduction in organ dysfunction or death, or improvement in clinical recovery, but was well tolerated. FUNDING: AstraZeneca.

Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , Cardiometabolic Risk Factors , Glucosides/administration & dosage , Multiple Organ Failure/prevention & control , Sodium-Glucose Transporter 2 Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Aged , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Treatment Outcome
Trials ; 21(1): 690, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690784


OBJECTIVES: To determine if a specific intervention reduces the composite of progression of patients with COVID-19-related disease to organ failure or death as measured by time to incidence of any one of the following: death, invasive mechanical ventilation, ECMO, cardiovascular organ support (inotropes or balloon pump), or renal failure (estimated Cockcroft Gault creatinine clearance <15ml/min). TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, parallel arm, open-label, adaptive platform Phase 2/3 trial of potential disease modifying therapies in patients with late stage 1/stage 2 COVID-19-related disease, with a diagnosis based either on a positive assay or high suspicion of COVID-19 infection by clinical, laboratory and radiological assessment. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18 and over, with a clinical picture strongly suggestive of COVID-19-related disease (with/without a positive COVID-19 test) AND a risk count (as defined below) >3 OR ≥3 if risk count includes "Radiographic severity score >3". A risk count is calculated by the following features on admission (1 point for each): radiographic severity score >3, male gender, non-white ethnicity, diabetes, hypertension, neutrophils >8.0 x109/L, age >40 years and CRP >40 mg/L. Patients should be considered an appropriate subject for intervention with immunomodulatory or other disease modifying agents in the opinion of the investigator and are able to swallow capsules or tablets. The complete inclusion and exclusion criteria as detailed in the Additional file 1 should be fulfilled. Drug specific inclusion and exclusion criteria will also be applied to the active arms. Patients will be enrolled prior to the need for invasive mechanical ventilation, cardiac or renal support. Participants will be recruited across multiple centres in the UK including initially at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and St George's University NHS Foundation Trust. Other centres will be approached internationally in view of the evolving pandemic. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: There is increasing evidence of the role of immunomodulation in altering the course of COVID-19. Additionally, various groups have demonstrated the presence of pulmonary shunting in patients with COVID-19 as well as other cardiovascular complications. TACTIC-E will assess the efficacy of the novel immunomodulatory agent EDP1815 versus the approved cardio-pulmonary drugs, Dapagliflozin in combination with Ambrisentan versus the prevailing standard of care. EDP1815 will be given as 2 capsules twice daily (1.6 x 1011 cells) for up to 7 days with the option to extend up to 14 days at the discretion of the principal investigator or their delegate, if the patient is felt to be clinically responding to treatment, is tolerating treatment, and is judged to be likely to benefit from a longer treatment course. Ambrisentan 5mg and Dapagliflozin 10mg will be given in combination once daily orally for up to maximum of 14 days. Patients will be randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio across treatments. Each active arm will be compared with standard of care alone. Additional arms may be added as the trial progresses. No comparisons will be made between active arms in this platform trial. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary outcome is the incidence (from baseline up to Day 14) to the occurrence of the any one of the following events: death, invasive mechanical ventilation, extra corporeal membrane oxygenation, cardiovascular organ support (inotropes or balloon pump), or renal failure (estimated Cockcroft Gault creatinine clearance <15ml/min). RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be randomised using a central web-based randomisation service (Sealed Envelope) in a 1:1:1 ratio, stratified by site to one of the treatment arms or standard of care. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial. Data analysis will not be blinded. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): There is no fixed sample size for this study. There will be an early biomarker-based futility analysis performed at a point during the study. If this biomarker futility analysis is not conclusive, then a second futility analysis based on clinical endpoints will be performed after approximately 125 patients have been recruited per arm. Provisionally, further analyses of clinical endpoints will be performed after 229 patients per active arm and later 469 patients per arm have been recruited. Further additional analyses may be triggered by the independent data monitoring committee. TRIAL STATUS: TACTIC-E Protocol version number 1.0 date May 27th, 2020. Recruitment starts on the 3rd of July 2020. The end trial date will be 18 months after the last patient's last visit and cannot be accurately predicted at this time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on EU Clinical Trials Register EudraCT Number: 2020-002229-27 registered: 9 June 2020. The trial was also registered on (NCT04393246) on 19 May 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.

Benzhydryl Compounds/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glucosides/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Phenylpropionates/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pyridazines/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , COVID-19 , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , COVID-19 Drug Treatment