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1.
Australas Psychiatry ; 30(3): 334-337, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685906

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether COVID-19 has led to increased usage of benzodiazepines in acute psychiatric settings. METHOD: We evaluated the rates of benzodiazepine usage in two acute psychiatric inpatient units over a period of two years, 2019 and 2020 (the year of the pandemic). Rates of oral atorvastatin usage over the same period were used as a comparator. RESULTS: We saw a significant increase in the usage of benzodiazepines in the period between April and December 2020 compared to the same period in 2019 despite a decline in the total number of admissions in 2020. Usage peaked further at the time of eased pandemic restrictions which coincided with higher rates of emergency department mental health (MH) presentations and acute MH hospital admissions. We also noticed higher rates of substance use disorder recorded on admission. Hospital leave restrictions due to COVID-19 also led to further restrictions on smoking. CONCLUSION: Benzodiazepine usage increased in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study encourages more research to better understand the impact of the pandemic on acute psychiatric settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Depress Anxiety ; 39(2): 156-162, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population studies have shown that rates of depressive and anxious symptoms have increased as a result of COVID-19. We analyzed trends in the dispensing rates of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in Canada to determine whether the pandemic has caused changes in rates of pharmacological treatment for depression and anxiety. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional time-series analysis of antidepressants and benzodiazepines dispensed monthly by Canadian community pharmacies between January 2017 and December 2020. We used March 2020 as the intervention month to determine if there were any significant changes in the national rate of antidepressant and benzodiazepine tablets dispensed as the result of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: There was a temporary reduction in the dispensing rate of antidepressants in April 2020 (from 489 tablets per 100 in March 2020 to 356 tablets per 100 in April 2020; p ≤ .0001); however, the rate returned to its previous level by August 2020. There were no detectable deviations in benzodiazepine dispensing after the declaration of the state of emergency in Ontario. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increased reporting of depressive and anxious symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been no changes in the dispensing trends of medications used to treat these disorders. As the pandemic continues to evolve, future research is needed to monitor the prevalence of depression and anxiety, and associated medication use, in the Canadian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Ontario , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 131, 2021 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who experience harms from alcohol and other substance use often seek care in the emergency department (ED). ED visits related to alcohol withdrawal have increased across the world during the COVID-19 pandemic. ED clinicians are responsible for risk-stratifying patients under time and resource constraints and must reliably identify those who are safe for outpatient management versus those who require more intensive levels of care. Published guidelines for alcohol withdrawal are largely limited to the primary care and outpatient settings, and do not provide specific guidance for ED use. The purpose of this review was to synthesize published evidence on the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the ED. METHODS: We conducted a rapid review by searching MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1980 to 2020). We searched for grey literature on Google and hand-searched the conference abstracts of relevant addiction medicine and emergency medicine professional associations (2015 to 2020). We included interventional and observational studies that reported outcomes of clinical interventions aimed at treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome in adults in the ED. RESULTS: We identified 13 studies that met inclusion criteria for our review (7 randomized controlled trials and 6 observational studies). Most studies were at high/serious risk of bias. We divided studies based on intervention and summarized evidence narratively. Benzodiazepines decrease alcohol withdrawal seizure recurrence and treat other alcohol withdrawal symptoms, but no clear evidence supports the use of one benzodiazepine over another. It is unclear if symptom-triggered benzodiazepine protocols are effective for use in the ED. More evidence is needed to determine if phenobarbital, with or without benzodiazepines, can be used safely and effectively to treat alcohol withdrawal in the ED. Phenytoin does not have evidence of effectiveness at preventing withdrawal seizures in the ED. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have evaluated the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapies for alcohol withdrawal specifically in the ED setting. Benzodiazepines are the most evidence-based treatment for alcohol withdrawal in the ED. Pharmacotherapies that have demonstrated benefit for treatment of alcohol withdrawal in other inpatient and outpatient settings should be evaluated in the ED setting before routine use.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures , Benzodiazepines , Emergency Service, Hospital , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Adult , Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures/drug therapy , Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures/prevention & control , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/prevention & control
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2131012, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482078

ABSTRACT

Importance: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and associated mitigation measures have disrupted access to psychiatric medications, particularly for women. Objective: To assess the sex differences in trends in the prescribing of benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics and serotonergic (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]), which are commonly prescribed for anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from Clinformatics Data Mart, one of the largest commercial health insurance databases in the US. Enrollees 18 years or older were required to have complete enrollment in a given month during our study period, January 1, 2018, to March 31, 2021, to be included for that month. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prescription of a benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI. For each month, the percentage of patients with benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI prescriptions by sex was calculated. Results: The records of 17 255 033 adults (mean [SD] age, 51.7 [19.5] years; 51.3% female) were examined in 2018, 17 340 731 adults (mean [SD] age, 52.5 [19.7] years; 51.6% female) in 2019, 16 916 910 adults (mean [SD] age, 53.7 [19.8] years; 51.9% female) in 2020, and 15 135 998 adults (mean [SD] age, 56.2 [19.8] years; 52.5% female) in 2021. Compared with men, women had a higher rate of prescriptions for all 3 drugs classes and had larger changes in prescription rates over time. Benzodiazepine prescribing decreased from January 2018 (women: 5.61%; 95% CI, 5.60%-5.63%; men: 3.03%; 95% CI, 3.02%-3.04%) to March 2021 (women: 4.91%; 95% CI, 4.90%-4.93%; men: 2.66%; 95% CI, 2.65%-2.67%), except for a slight increase in April 2020 among women. Z-hypnotic prescribing increased from January 2020 for women (1.39%; 95% CI, 1.38%-1.40%) and February 2020 for men (0.97%; 95% CI, 0.96%-0.98%) to October 2020 (women: 1.46%; 95% CI, 1.46%-1.47%; men: 1.00%; 95% CI, 0.99%-1.01%). Prescribing of SSRIs and SNRIs increased from January 2018 (women: 12.77%; 95% CI; 12.75%-12.80%; men: 5.56%; 95% CI, 5.44%-5.58%) to April 2020 for men (6.73%; 95% CI, 6.71%-6.75%) and October 2020 for women (15.18%; 95% CI, 15.16%-15.21%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic onset was an increase in Z-hypnotic as well as SSRI and SNRI prescriptions in both men and women along with an increase in benzodiazepine prescriptions in women, findings that suggest a substantial mental health impact of COVID-19-associated mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/psychology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463646

ABSTRACT

Benzodiazepines have proven to be highly effective for treating insomnia and anxiety. Although considered safe when taken for a short period of time, a major risk-benefit dilemma arises in the context of long-term use, relating to addiction, withdrawal symptoms, and potential side effects. For these reasons, benzodiazepines are not recommended for treating chronic sleep disorders, anxiety disorders, nor for people over the age of 65, and withdrawal among long-term users is a public health issue. Indeed, only 5% of patients manage to discontinue using these drugs on their own. Even with the help of a general practitioner, this rate does not exceed 25 to 30% of patients, of which approximately 7% manage to remain drug-free in the long term. Cognitive Behavioral Therapies (CBT) offer a crucial solution to this problem, having been shown to increase abstinence success to 70-80%. This article examines traditional and novel CBT techniques in this regard, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, which address both the underlying condition (insomnia/anxiety) and the substance-related disorder. The theoretical framework and evidence supporting the use of these approaches are reviewed. Finally, current research gaps are discussed, and key research perspectives are proposed.


Subject(s)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Humans , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/drug therapy
6.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 32(2): 114-127, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are currently the most commonly prescribed medication for the treatment of anxiety in older adults, although there is a dearth of good-quality data on this subject. The aim of this review was to systematically review studies examining the efficacy and tolerability of benzodiazepines for the treatment of anxiety disorders among older adults. METHODS: The authors conducted a systematic review, searching PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. All searches were limited to English-language articles. The quality of each study was appraised using criteria developed by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine for randomized controlled trials. RESULTS: A total of 8,785 citations were retrieved and pooled in EndNote and de-duplicated to 3,753. This set was uploaded to Covidence for screening. Two separate screeners (AG and SAF) evaluated the titles, abstracts, and full text of the eligible articles. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Across all studies, benzodiazepines were associated with decreased anxiety at the end of the study period. The limited tolerability data show mild adverse effects from the benzodiazepines studied. Limitations of the trials included limited data on the long-term use of benzodiazepines for anxiety and a preponderance of trials examining generalized anxiety disorder, with relatively less data on other anxiety disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Benzodiazepines are effective for treating anxiety disorders in late life, at least in the short term, but more data is needed to establish tolerability and their long-term benefits.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged
7.
Rev Neurol ; 73(6): 201-209, 2021 09 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405636

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The consequences of the use of of benzodiazepines in coronavirus disease 2019 have not yet been studied. We compared the hospital prognosis of patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 in benzodiazepine users and non-users. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study with a retrospective cohort design. All consecutive patients admitted with a confirmed diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 were included. The patients under chronic treatment with benzodiazepines at the time of admission were studied and compared with non-users. The primary objective was to analyze the mortality of patients who used chronic benzodiazepines at the time of admission and compare them with those who did not use them. The secondary objective was to analyze the risk of severe disease due to coronavirus 2019, acute respiratory distress syndrome and admission to the Intensive Care Unit in both groups of patients. RESULTS: We included 576 patients, 138 (24.0%) used benzodiazepines. After adjusting for sex, age, baseline situation and all the different variables between both groups, benzodiazepine users did not show a higher odds of mortality (OR: 1,1, IC 95%: 0,7-1,9, p = 0,682) or higher risk of severe disease due to coronavirus 2019 (OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 0.7-1.8, p = 0.523). They also did not have a higher risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR: 1.2, IC 95%: 0.8-1.9, p = 0.315) or more admission to the Intensive Care Unit (OR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.4, p = 0.433). CONCLUSION: In our sample, treatment with benzodiazepines at the time of admission was not associated with a worse hospital prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019.


TITLE: Efecto del tratamiento con benzodiacepinas en el pronóstico hospitalario de la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019.Introducción. Las consecuencias del consumo de benzodiacepinas en el marco de la la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) no se habían estudiado hasta ahora. En el presente estudio se comparó el pronóstico hospitalario de pacientes ingresados por COVID-19 que tomaban benzodiacepinas con el de otros ingresados por idéntico motivo que no las tomaban. Pacientes y métodos. Estudio observacional de cohortes retrospectivo. En el estudio se admitió a todos los pacientes consecutivos ingresados con un diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Se estudió a los pacientes que en el momento del ingreso estaban en tratamiento crónico con benzodiacepinas en comparación con otros que no las tomaban. El objetivo principal fue analizar la mortalidad de dichos pacientes con uso crónico de benzodiacepinas y compararla con la mortalidad de los que no tomaban. El objetivo secundario fue analizar en ambos grupos de pacientes el riesgo de padecer un cuadro grave por COVID-19, el síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda o el ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Resultados. Se admitieron 576 pacientes, 138 (24,0%) de los cuales tomaban benzodiacepinas. Después del ajuste por sexo, edad, situación inicial y todas las variables diferentes entre ambos grupos, los pacientes que tomaban benzodiacepinas no mostraron una probabilidad mayor de muerte (odds ratio: 1,1; IC 95%: 0,7-1,9; p = 0,682) ni un riesgo más acusado de COVID-19 grave (odds ratio: 1,2; IC 95%: 0,7-1,8; p = 0,523). Tampoco presentaron un riesgo mayor de síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda (odds ratio: 1,2; IC 95%: 0,8-1,9; p = 0,315) ni de ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (odds ratio: 0,8; IC 95%: 0,4-1,4; p = 0,433). Conclusión. En esta muestra de pacientes con COVID-2019, el tratamiento con benzodiacepinas en el momento del ingreso no apareció asociado con un empeoramiento del pronóstico hospitalario.


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Aged , Benzodiazepines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2118441, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335942

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has had devastating effects on the health and well-being of older adult residents and health care professionals in nursing homes. Uncertainty about the associated consequences of these adverse effects on the use of medications common to this care setting remains. Objective: To examine the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and prescription medication changes among nursing home residents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study with an interrupted time-series analysis used linked health administrative data bases for residents of all nursing homes (N = 630) in Ontario, Canada. During the observation period, residents were divided into consecutive weekly cohorts. The first observation week was March 5 to 11, 2017; the last observation week was September 20 to 26, 2020. Exposures: Onset of the COVID-19 pandemic on March 1, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly proportion of residents dispensed antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, antibiotics, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Autoregressive integrated moving average models with step and ramp intervention functions tested for level and slope changes in weekly medication use after the onset of the pandemic and were fit on prepandemic data for projected trends. Results: Across study years, the annual cohort size ranged from 75 850 to 76 549 residents (mean [SD] age, 83.4 [10.8] years; mean proportion of women, 68.9%). A significant increased slope change in the weekly proportion of residents who were dispensed antipsychotics (parameter estimate [ß] = 0.051; standard error [SE] = 0.010; P < .001), benzodiazepines (ß = 0.026; SE = 0.003; P < .001), antidepressants (ß = 0.046; SE = 0.013; P < .001), trazodone hydrochloride (ß = 0.033; SE = 0.010; P < .001), anticonvulsants (ß = 0.014; SE = 0.006; P = .03), and opioids (ß = 0.038; SE = 0.007; P < .001) was observed. The absolute difference in observed vs estimated use in the last week of the pandemic period ranged from 0.48% (for anticonvulsants) to 1.52% (for antipsychotics). No significant level or slope changes were found for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, statistically significant increases in the use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids followed the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, although absolute differences were small. There were no significant changes for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors. Studies are needed to monitor whether changes in pharmacotherapy persist, regress, or accelerate during the course of the pandemic and how these changes affect resident-level outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(5): 5010-5016, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olanzapine and clozapine are atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) with the greatest risk of weight gain, and changes in feeding behavior are among the most important underlying mechanisms. However, few studies have investigated the role of diet-alone interventions in improving individuals' weight gain by taking AAPs. In closed management mental hospitals of China, family members are allowed to bring food to patients regularly, causing patients to have caloric intake added to their 3 daily meals. However, during the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), bringing food to the hospital was temporarily prohibited in mental health institutions in China to prevent the spread of the virus. This study sought to compare the body weight and body mass index (BMI) changes of patients taking olanzapine or clozapine undergoing diet-alone interventions caused by this prohibition. METHODS: A retrospective self-controlled study was conducted on 90 patients with schizophrenia from a single-center treated with olanzapine or clozapine monotherapy, or combined with aripiprazole or ziprasidone which has a small metabolic impact. A paired-samples t-test was used to compare the changes in body weight and BMI before and after the 3-month prohibition, and general linear regression was used to analyze the effects of gender, age, disease course, duration of drug exposure, and equivalent dose on the BMI improvement. Also, the percentage of people who lost weight and that of individuals who lost 5% of their pre-prohibition body weight were calculated. RESULTS: Paired-samples t-test showed that after 3-month prohibition, the patients' body weight (71.68±6.83 vs. 66.91±7.03, P<0.001) and BMI (26.43±2.11 vs. 24.63±1.81, P<0.001) decreased significantly. Weight loss rate accounted for 99.1%, and weight loss of 5% from the pre-prohibition body weight accounted for 71.8%. General linear regression showed that the duration of drug exposure (ß =-0.678, P<0.001) was significantly and negatively correlated with the BMI changes. No significant correlation of gender, age, disease course, or equivalent dose with BMI changes was found. CONCLUSIONS: Diet-alone interventions facilitate weight loss in chronically hospitalized schizophrenia patients taking AAPs. Conduction of dietary intervention in the early stages of medication may yield greater benefits.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Clozapine , Schizophrenia , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Body Weight , China , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Humans , Olanzapine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risperidone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/drug therapy
10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108486, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 community mitigation measures (e.g., stay-at-home orders) may worsen mental health and substance use-related harms such as opioid use disorder and overdose and limit access to medications for these conditions. We used nationally-representative data to assess dispensing of select substance use and mental health medications during the pandemic in the U.S. METHODS: IQVIA Total Patient Tracker data were used to calculate U.S. monthly numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine, extended-release (ER) intramuscular naltrexone, naloxone, selective serotonin or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and for comparison, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) between January 2019-May 2020. Forecasted estimates of number of unique patients dispensed medications, generated by exponential smoothing statistical forecasting, were compared to actual numbers of patients by month to examine access during mitigation measures (March 2020-May 2020). RESULTS: Between March 2020-May 2020, numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine and numbers dispensed naloxone were within forecasted estimates. Numbers dispensed ER intramuscular naltrexone were significantly below forecasted estimates in March 2020 (-1039; 95 %CI:-1528 to -550), April 2020 (-2139; 95 %CI:-2629 to -1650), and May 2020 (-2498; 95 %CI:-2987 to -2009). Numbers dispensed antidepressants and benzodiazepines were significantly above forecasted estimates in March 2020 (977,063; 95 %CI:351,384 to 1,602,743 and 450,074; 95 % CI:189,999 to 710,149 additional patients, respectively), but were within forecasted estimates in April 2020-May 2020. Dispensing patterns for statins and ARBs were similar to those for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on substance use and mental health underscore the need for innovative strategies to facilitate continued access to treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Forecasting , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Naltrexone/therapeutic use , Opiate Overdose/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
13.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 22(4)2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-654929

ABSTRACT

The Psychiatric Consultation Service at Massachusetts General Hospital sees medical and surgical inpatients with comorbid psychiatric symptoms and conditions. During their twice-weekly rounds, Dr Stern and other members of the Consultation Service discuss diagnosis and management of hospitalized patients with complex medical or surgical problems who also demonstrate psychiatric symptoms or conditions. These discussions have given rise to rounds reports that will prove useful for clinicians practicing at the interface of medicine and psychiatry.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Deprescriptions , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Emergence Delirium/diagnosis , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Emergence Delirium/therapy , Humans , Male , Neurologic Examination , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Propofol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/therapy
14.
Acta Med Port ; 33(10): 693-702, 2020 Oct 01.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-691633

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic is a particularly relevant threat to mentally ill patients, and it constitutes a new challenge for health care providers. To the best of our knowledge, there is not any embracing published review about the use of psychotropic drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non-systematic literature review. A search in the PubMed database was performed, with the terms 'psychotropic drugs', 'COVID-19', 'psychiatry' and 'pandemic'. Consensus and clinical guidelines about psychotropic drugs and COVID-19 approach, published by scientific societies, governmental entities and drug regulatory agencies were included. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We present the recommendations about the use of psychotropic drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic, in the outpatient and inpatient settings. The treatment of affective bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have now added increased difficulties. Some psychotropic drugs interfere with the pathophysiology of the novel coronavirus infection and they could interact with the drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19. Some patients will need pharmacological interventions due to the presence of delirium. Smoking cessation changes the serum levels of some psychotropic drugs and may influence their use. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has created new challenges in clinical practice. Psychiatric patients are a vulnerable population and often a careful clinical, laboratorial and electrocardiographic evaluation may be needed, particularly in those diagnosed with COVID-19. The regular treatment of mentally ill patients with COVID-19 presents increased complexity.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 constitui uma ameaça particularmente relevante para os portadores de doença mental e um novo desafio para os profissionais que os acompanham. Até à data, tanto quanto sabemos, não existe qualquer revisão abrangente publicada relativamente à utilização de fármacos psicotrópicos durante a pandemia COVID-19. Material e Métodos: Revisão não sistemática da literatura. A pesquisa na PubMed foi realizada com os termos 'psychotropic drugs', 'COVID-19', 'psychiatry' e 'pandemic'. Foram incluídos os consensos e as normas publicadas pelas sociedades científicas, entidades governamentais e agências regulamentares de medicamentos. Resultados e Discussão: Apresentam-se recomendações relativamente à utilização de psicofármacos durante a pandemia COVID-19, em contexto de ambulatório e de internamento. O tratamento da perturbação afetiva bipolar e da esquizofrenia tem agora dificuldades acrescidas. Alguns psicofármacos interferem com os mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos na infeção pelo novo coronavírus e têm interações com os fármacos utilizados no tratamento da COVID-19. Em doentes com COVID-19 e com delirium, a utilização de psicofármacos poderá ser necessária. A cessação tabágica altera os níveis séricos de alguns psicofármacos e pode condicionar a sua utilização. Conclusão: A pandemia de COVID-19 coloca novos desafios na prática clínica. Os doentes psiquiátricos constituem uma população vulnerável, sendo frequentemente necessária uma avaliação clínica, laboratorial e eletrocardiográfica cuidadosa, naqueles com o diagnóstico de COVID-19. Os doentes mentais com COVID-19 apresentam uma complexidade acrescida na gestão da sua terapêutica habitual.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Body Temperature Regulation/drug effects , Body Temperature Regulation/physiology , Buprenorphine/adverse effects , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Delayed-Action Preparations/therapeutic use , Drug Interactions , Hospitalization , Humans , Lithium Compounds/therapeutic use , Mental Disorders/complications , Methadone/adverse effects , Methadone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/adverse effects , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/drug therapy , Smoking Cessation Agents/therapeutic use , Valproic Acid/therapeutic use
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