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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1503, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655621

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly pathogenic to humans and has created health care threats worldwide. This urgent situation has focused the researchers worldwide towards the development of novel vaccine or small molecule therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2. Although several vaccines have already been discovered and are in use for the masses, no therapeutic medication has yet been approved by FDA for the treatment of COVID-19. Keeping this in view, in the present study, we have identified promising hits against the main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 from edible mushrooms. Structure-based virtual screening (VS) of 2433 compounds derived from mushrooms was performed with Mpro protein (6LU7). Four promising hits, namely, Kynapcin-12 (M_78), Kynapcin-28 (M_82), Kynapcin-24 (M_83), and Neonambiterphenyls-A (M_366) were identified based on the result of docking, Lipinski's rule, 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and MM/PBSA binding free energy calculations. Finally, the inhibitory properties of these hits were compared with three known inhibitors, baicalein (1), baicalin (2), and biflavonoid (3). Data indicated that M_78, M_82 and M_83 compounds present in edible mushroom Polyozellus multiplex were potent inhibitors of Mproprotein (6LU7). It could be concluded that edible mushroom Polyozellus multiplex has potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection and identified molecules could be further explored as therapeutic inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Basidiomycota/chemistry , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Benzofurans/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Terphenyl Compounds/pharmacology , Terphenyl Compounds/therapeutic use
2.
Cell Rep ; 37(2): 109806, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466094

ABSTRACT

Tactical disruption of protein synthesis is an attractive therapeutic strategy, with the first-in-class eIF4A-targeting compound zotatifin in clinical evaluation for cancer and COVID-19. The full cellular impact and mechanisms of these potent molecules are undefined at a proteomic level. Here, we report mass spectrometry analysis of translational reprogramming by rocaglates, cap-dependent initiation disruptors that include zotatifin. We find effects to be far more complex than simple "translational inhibition" as currently defined. Translatome analysis by TMT-pSILAC (tandem mass tag-pulse stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture mass spectrometry) reveals myriad upregulated proteins that drive hitherto unrecognized cytotoxic mechanisms, including GEF-H1-mediated anti-survival RHOA/JNK activation. Surprisingly, these responses are not replicated by eIF4A silencing, indicating a broader translational adaptation than currently understood. Translation machinery analysis by MATRIX (mass spectrometry analysis of active translation factors using ribosome density fractionation and isotopic labeling experiments) identifies rocaglate-specific dependence on specific translation factors including eEF1ε1 that drive translatome remodeling. Our proteome-level interrogation reveals that the complete cellular response to these historical "translation inhibitors" is mediated by comprehensive translational landscape remodeling.


Subject(s)
Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Protein Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/drug effects , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/metabolism , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , Proteomics/methods , Ribosomes/metabolism , Transcriptome/drug effects , Transcriptome/genetics , Triterpenes/pharmacology
3.
Proteins ; 89(11): 1425-1441, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281247

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) still has serious negative effects on health, social life, and economics. Recently, vaccines from various companies have been urgently approved to control SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, any specific antiviral drug has not been confirmed so far for regular treatment. An important target is the main protease (Mpro ), which plays a major role in replication of the virus. In this study, Gaussian and residue network models are employed to reveal two distinct potential allosteric sites on Mpro that can be evaluated as drug targets besides the active site. Then, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs are docked to three distinct sites with flexible docking using AutoDock Vina to identify potential drug candidates. Fourteen best molecule hits for the active site of Mpro are determined. Six of these also exhibit high docking scores for the potential allosteric regions. Full-atom molecular dynamics simulations with MM-GBSA method indicate that compounds docked to active and potential allosteric sites form stable interactions with high binding free energy (∆Gbind ) values. ∆Gbind values reach -52.06 kcal/mol for the active site, -51.08 kcal/mol for the potential allosteric site 1, and - 42.93 kcal/mol for the potential allosteric site 2. Energy decomposition calculations per residue elucidate key binding residues stabilizing the ligands that can further serve to design pharmacophores. This systematic and efficient computational analysis successfully determines ivermectine, diosmin, and selinexor currently subjected to clinical trials, and further proposes bromocriptine, elbasvir as Mpro inhibitor candidates to be evaluated against SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzofurans/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Repositioning/methods , Imidazoles/chemistry , Allosteric Site , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/metabolism , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Bromocriptine/chemistry , Bromocriptine/metabolism , Bromocriptine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Diosmin/chemistry , Diosmin/metabolism , Hydrazines/chemistry , Hydrazines/metabolism , Hydrazines/pharmacology , Imidazoles/metabolism , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Ivermectin/chemistry , Ivermectin/metabolism , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Triazoles/chemistry , Triazoles/metabolism , Triazoles/pharmacology , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
4.
Mar Drugs ; 19(5)2021 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201406

ABSTRACT

The high risk of morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 has accelerated the development of many potential vaccines. However, these vaccines are designed against SARS-CoV-2 isolated in Wuhan, China, and thereby may not be effective against other SARS-CoV-2 variants such as the United Kingdom variant (VUI-202012/01). The UK SARS-CoV-2 variant possesses D614G mutation in the Spike protein, which impart it a high rate of infection. Therefore, newer strategies are warranted to design novel vaccines and drug candidates specifically designed against the mutated forms of SARS-CoV-2. One such strategy is to target ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme2)-Spike protein RBD (receptor binding domain) interaction. Here, we generated a homology model of Spike protein RBD of SARS-CoV-2 UK strain and screened a marine seaweed database employing different computational approaches. On the basis of high-throughput virtual screening, standard precision, and extra precision molecular docking, we identified BE011 (Dieckol) as the most potent compounds against RBD. However, Dieckol did not display drug-like properties, and thus different derivatives of it were generated in silico and evaluated for binding potential and drug-like properties. One Dieckol derivative (DK07) displayed good binding affinity for RBD along with acceptable physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, drug-likeness, and ADMET properties. Analysis of the RBD-DK07 interaction suggested the formation of hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, and hydrophobic interactions with key residues mediating the ACE2-RBD interaction. Molecular dynamics simulation confirmed the stability of the RBD-DK07 complex. Free energy calculations suggested the primary role of electrostatic and Van der Waals' interaction in stabilizing the RBD-DK07 complex. Thus, DK07 may be developed as a potential inhibitor of the RBD-ACE2 interaction. However, these results warrant further validation by in vitro and in vivo studies.


Subject(s)
Benzofurans/chemistry , Benzofurans/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Computer Simulation , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/drug effects , Molecular Structure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
Future Med Chem ; 13(8): 691-700, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190567

ABSTRACT

Aim: To identify virtual bioisosteric replacements of two GPR40 agonists. Materials & methods: Bioinformatic docking of candidate molecules featuring a wide range of carboxylic acid bioisosteres into complex with GPR40 was performed using TAK-875 and GW9508 templates. Results: This study suggests that 2,6-difluorophenol and squaric acid motifs are the preferred bioisosteric groups for conferring GPR40 affinity. Conclusion: This study suggests that compounds 10 and 20 are worthy synthetic targets.


Subject(s)
Benzofurans/pharmacology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Methylamines/pharmacology , Propionates/pharmacology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/agonists , Sulfones/pharmacology , Animals , Benzofurans/metabolism , Cyclobutanes/chemistry , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Methylamines/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phenols/chemistry , Propionates/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Sulfones/metabolism
6.
J Comput Chem ; 42(13): 897-907, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130516

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 belong to the subfamily Coronaviridae and infect humans, they are constituted by four structural proteins: Spike glycoprotein (S), membrane (M), envelope (E) and nucleocapsid (N), and nonstructural proteins, such as Nsp15 protein which is exclusively present on nidoviruses and is absent in other RNA viruses, making it an ideal target in the field of drug design. A virtual screening strategy to search for potential drugs was proposed, using molecular docking to explore a library of approved drugs available in the DrugBank database in order to identify possible NSP15 inhibitors to treat Covid19 disease. We found from the docking analysis that the antiviral drugs: Paritaprevir and Elbasvir, currently both approved for hepatitis C treatment which showed some of the lowest free binding energy values were considered as repositioning drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations of the Apo and Holo-Nsp15 systems were performed in order to get insights about the stability of these protein-ligand complexes.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cyclopropanes/pharmacology , Endoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Lactams, Macrocyclic/pharmacology , Proline/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Proline/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
7.
Antiviral Res ; 189: 105055, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126674

ABSTRACT

The current emergency of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 urged the need for broad-spectrum antiviral drugs as the first line of treatment. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that already challenged humanity in at least two other previous outbreaks and are likely to be a constant threat for the future. In this work we developed a pipeline based on in silico docking of known drugs on SARS-CoV1/2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase combined with in vitro antiviral assays on both SARS-CoV2 and the common cold human coronavirus HCoV-OC43. Results showed that certain drugs displayed activity for both viruses at a similar inhibitory concentration, while others were specific. In particular, the antipsychotic drug lurasidone and the antiviral drug elbasvir showed promising activity in the low micromolar range against both viruses with good selectivity index.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Drug Repositioning , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Lurasidone Hydrochloride/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Computer Simulation , Fibroblasts , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3143-3151, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082050

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the new coronavirus (also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2, 2019-nCoV])-induced disease, COVID-19, has spread rapidly worldwide. Studies have reported that the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza possesses remarkable antiviral properties; however, the anti-coronaviral activity of its main components, salvianolic acid A (SAA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and salvianolic acid C (SAC) is still debated. In this study, we used Cell Counting Kit-8 staining and flow cytometry to evaluate the toxicity of SAA, SAB, and SAC on ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) high-expressing HEK293T cells (ACE2h cells). We found that SAA, SAB, and SAC had a minor effect on the viability of ACE2h cells at concentrations below 100 µM. We further evaluated the binding capacity of SAA, SAB, and SAC to ACE2 and the spike protein of 2019-nCoV using molecular docking and surface plasmon resonance. They could bind to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the 2019-nCoV with a binding constant (KD ) of (3.82 ± 0.43) e-6 M, (5.15 ± 0.64)e-7 M, and (2.19 ± 0.14)e-6 M; and bind to ACE2 with KD (4.08 ± 0.61)e-7 M, (2.95 ± 0.78)e-7 M, and (7.32 ± 0.42)e-7 M, respectively. As a result, SAA, SAB, and SAC were determined to inhibit the entry of 2019-nCoV Spike pseudovirus with an EC50 of 11.31, 6.22, and 10.14 µM on ACE2h cells, respectively. In conclusion, our study revealed that three Salvianolic acids can inhibit the entry of 2019-nCoV spike pseudovirus into ACE2h cells by binding to the RBD of the 2019-nCoV spike protein and ACE2 protein.


Subject(s)
Alkenes/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Caffeic Acids/pharmacology , Lactates/pharmacology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Alkenes/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Benzofurans/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caffeic Acids/chemistry , Cell Survival , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lactates/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Polyphenols/chemistry , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
9.
Antiviral Res ; 186: 105012, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064809

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of COVID-19, a severe respiratory disease with varying clinical presentations and outcomes, and responsible for a major pandemic that started in early 2020. With no vaccines or effective antiviral treatments available, the quest for novel therapeutic solutions remains an urgent priority. Rocaglates, a class of plant-derived cyclopenta[b]benzofurans, exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple RNA viruses including coronaviruses. Specifically, rocaglates inhibit eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A)-dependent mRNA translation initiation, resulting in strongly reduced viral RNA translation. Here, we assessed the antiviral activity of the synthetic rocaglate CR-31-B (-) against SARS-CoV-2 using both in vitro and ex vivo cell culture models. In Vero E6 cells, CR-31-B (-) inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication with an EC50 of ~1.8 nM. In primary human airway epithelial cells, CR-31-B (-) reduced viral titers to undetectable levels at a concentration of 100 nM. Reduced virus reproduction was accompanied by substantially reduced viral protein accumulation and replication/transcription complex formation. The data reveal a potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity by CR-31-B (-), corroborating previous results obtained for other coronaviruses and supporting the idea that rocaglates may be used in first-line antiviral intervention strategies against novel and emerging RNA virus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Benzofurans/chemistry , Bronchi/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Hydroxamic Acids/chemistry , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects , Viral Replication Compartments/drug effects
10.
Nat Prod Rep ; 38(1): 18-23, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662491

ABSTRACT

Covering: up to the beginning of 2020Many natural substances have been transformed again and again with regard to their pharmaceutical-medical potential, including new members of a growing class of natural products, the flavaglines. Important representatives are rocaglamide and silvestrol, isolated from the Aglaia species, which are highlighted here. These products started as potential anti-tumor agents five decades ago and have recently proved to be very promising antiviral agents, especially against RNA viruses. Today they are discussed as potential starting compounds for developing drug candidates and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Coronavirus/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Structure
11.
Antiviral Res ; 175: 104706, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2162

ABSTRACT

Rocaglates, a class of natural compounds isolated from plants of the genus Aglaia, are potent inhibitors of translation initiation. They are proposed to form stacking interactions with polypurine sequences in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of selected mRNAs, thereby clamping the RNA substrate onto eIF4A and causing inhibition of the translation initiation complex. Since virus replication relies on the host translation machinery, it is not surprising that the rocaglate Silvestrol has broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Unfortunately, synthesis of Silvestrol is sophisticated and time-consuming, thus hampering the prospects for further antiviral drug development. Here, we present the less complex structured synthetic rocaglate CR-31-B (-) as a novel compound with potent broad-spectrum antiviral activity in primary cells and in an ex vivo bronchial epithelial cell system. CR-31-B (-) inhibited the replication of corona-, Zika-, Lassa-, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses and, to a lesser extent, hepatitis E virus (HEV) at non-cytotoxic low nanomolar concentrations. Since HEV has a polypurine-free 5'-UTR that folds into a stable hairpin structure, we hypothesized that RNA clamping by Silvestrol and its derivatives may also occur in a polypurine-independent but structure-dependent manner. Interestingly, the HEV 5'-UTR conferred sensitivity towards Silvestrol but not to CR-31-B (-). However, if an exposed polypurine stretch was introduced into the HEV 5'-UTR, CR-31-B (-) became an active inhibitor comparable to Silvestrol. Moreover, thermodynamic destabilization of the HEV 5'-UTR led to reduced translational inhibition by Silvestrol, suggesting differences between rocaglates in their mode of action, most probably by engaging Silvestrol's additional dioxane moiety.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzofurans/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Viruses/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Benzofurans/chemical synthesis , Bronchi/cytology , Cell Culture Techniques , Cells, Cultured , Epithelial Cells/virology , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A/antagonists & inhibitors , Hepatocytes/virology , Humans , Mice , Viruses/classification
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