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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265284, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883658

ABSTRACT

As a global threat, the COVID-19 pandemic has been an important factor in increasing death rate worldwide. As the virus spreads across international borders, it causes severe illness, death, and disruptions in our daily lives. Death and dying rituals and customs aid bereaved people in overcoming their grief. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to access thoughts and feelings of Portuguese adults and the impact of the loss in daily life during COVID-19. A structured online questionnaire was applied (snowball sampling) and qualitative data on death and mourning namely the impact of the loss in daily life, was collected. One hundred and sixty-six individuals have lost someone since the beginning of the pandemic and were included. Analysis was inspired by Braun and Clark's content analysis. Most participants were female (66.9%), the median age was of 37.3 years, and 70.5% had a high education degree. Moreover, 30.7% of the participants present anxiety symptoms and 10.2% depression symptoms. The answers of studied participants gave insights on the extent of the loss in day-to-day life and four thematic themes were found: (1) The perceived inadequacy of the funeral rituality, (2) Sadness, fear and loneliness, (3) Changes in sleeping and concentration and increased levels of anxiety and (4) Concerns regarding the pandemic situation. We found a high prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in the study sample. Also, the changes in post mortem procedures, have shown to be of great importance in the mourning procedure of the participants.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Grief , Humans , Pandemics , Portugal/epidemiology
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e224908, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820880

Subject(s)
Bereavement , Schools , Child , Humans
3.
Death Stud ; 46(6): 1297-1306, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819676

ABSTRACT

In view of the mounting death toll of COVID-19 worldwide and the complicating circumstances that commonly accompany such losses, we studied the grief experiences of 209 adult mourners who lost a loved one to coronavirus with a focus on self-blaming emotions and unresolved issues with the deceased. We found universal endorsement of one or more forms of self-blame (guilt, regret, shame) or unfinished business (UB), with over one-third of mourners endorsing all four experiences. Those having a closer relationship to the deceased reported both greater distress over UB and more intense and dysfunctional grief symptomatology. Strikingly, unresolved conflict, a major dimension of UB, accounted for nearly 40% of the unique variance in problematic grief, which bore no relation to time since the loss.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Adult , Emotions , Grief , Guilt , Humans , Shame
4.
Midwifery ; 111: 103356, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814973

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the experiences and perceptions of midwives providing perinatal bereavement care during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify the barriers and facilitators to providing compassionate bereavement care. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive design was utilized to address the research question. Following ethical approval, in depth, semi structured interviews were undertaken to explore midwives' experiences of providing care to parents following perinatal bereavement. Narrative data was analyzed using thematic analysis. SETTING: A standalone regional maternity hospital located in a large metropolitan center in the Republic of Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: A purposeful sample of eleven midwives, who cared for bereaved parents during the COVID-19 pandemic volunteered to participate in the study. FINDINGS: Two main themes were identified, each with associated subthemes (1) Challenges of providing compassionate bereavement care during a pandemic (2) Psychological effect and coping strategies utilised by midwives during a pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic brought unprecedented challenges when providing perinatal bereavement care. The mandatory infection prevention and control measures significantly disrupted human communication and connections. Participants in the study utilized techniques to optimize care while adhering to COVID-19 guidelines, and simultaneously putting their own fear and anxieties aside.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Hospice Care , Midwifery , Female , Humans , Ireland , Midwifery/methods , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 90(4): 303-313, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805564

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Investigating the concordance of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) criteria that have been recently introduced to the 5th text revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5-TR) and the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11). METHOD: N = 193 treatment-seeking bereaved adults were assessed with the prolonged grief disorder 13 + 9 interview. Data were examined in terms of (a) diagnostic rates for PGDDSM-5-TR and PGDICD-11, including increases of the PGDICD-11 accessory symptom threshold (PGDICD-11-X+) and time criterion (PGDICD-11-12 months), (b) dimensionality, (c) the frequency with which single PGD symptoms occur, and (d) concurrent validity in terms of psychological symptoms and loss-related characteristics. RESULTS: The diagnostic rate of PGDDSM-5-TR (52%) was significantly lower than that of PGDICD-11 (76%) and agreement between the two criteria sets was moderate, κ = 0.51, 95% CI [0.47-0.55]. Increasing the PGDICD-11 accessory symptom threshold did not improve the diagnostic agreement. In contrast, increasing the ICD-11 time criterion led to almost perfect agreement between PGDICD-11-12 months and PGDDSM-5-TR, κ = 0.91, 95% CI [0.89-0.93]. Confirmatory factor analysis results indicated a one-factor model fit best for both PGDDSM-5-TR and PGDICD-11. Emotional pain symptoms (e.g., guilt) were predominantly reported by patients with a PGDICD-11 diagnosis, while attachment disturbance symptoms (e.g., identity disruption) were reported more often by patients with a PGDDSM-5-TR diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Despite methodological limitations of this study, results indicate discordance in PGDDSM-5-TR and PGDICD-11 regarding diagnostic rates and single symptom occurrence, while the factor structure is similar. Changes in the ICD-11 time criterion could reduce these differences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Bereavement , International Classification of Diseases , Adult , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Grief , Humans
6.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(4): 277-278, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802009

Subject(s)
Bereavement , Grief , Humans
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785637

ABSTRACT

Individuals bereaved by suicide represent an important group in terms of postvention. While peer support groups are often accessed by those bereaved, few studies have examined their impact in terms of physical and mental health wellbeing. The aim of this study was to examine psychosocial outcomes of individuals attending suicide bereavement peer support groups in Ireland. Between August 2020 and June 2021, all members were invited to complete a survey, with new members also surveyed at three- and six-month follow-up, to examine changes in wellbeing, depressive symptoms and grief reactions. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and mixed linear regression models. The 75 participants were mostly female, with lower levels of overall wellbeing and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation than the general population. Participants also reported high levels of social adjustment difficulties and grief reactions, which were more pronounced for those more recently bereaved. At follow-up (n = 28), a significant improvement in wellbeing and a reduction in grief reactions were found, adjusting for time since bereavement. Participants identified the groups as creating a safe space and providing a sense of belonging and hope. Notwithstanding the small number of participants at follow-up, these findings underline the enduring mental health challenges for those bereaved by suicide and provide further evidence for the role of peer support in postvention.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , Suicide , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Grief , Humans , Male , Self-Help Groups , Suicide/psychology
8.
Death Stud ; 46(6): 1465-1471, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774117

ABSTRACT

With nearly 4 million deaths worldwide, COVID-19 has resulted in a great loss of life. For many of the bereaved, the grieving process has been especially difficult due to COVID-19 spatial distancing procedures and the traumatic circumstances of this particular form of loss. Consequently, a large number of the world's bereaved are experiencing dysfunctional levels of grief. To assess such grief, the Pandemic Grief Scale (PGS) was created to identify those affected who may benefit from professional support. This study aimed to psychometrically analyze the properties of the Urdu version of the scale, among a sample of 272 Pakistanis who lost a loved one to COVID-19 from March to June 2021. Results revealed that the scale was found to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing dysfunctional pandemic grief for both men and women. However, unique gender differences were found. Additional research should further confirm the psychometric properties of the PGS on other culturally diverse samples.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Female , Grief , Humans , Male , Pakistan , Pandemics , Psychometrics
9.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264971, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Families of intensive care unit (ICU) decedents are at increased risk of experiencing complicated grief. However, factors associated with complicated grief in ICU and bereavement needs assessment are not available routinely. We aimed to conduct a systematic review identifying risk factors associated with complicated grief among family members of ICU decedents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science were searched to identify relevant articles. Observational studies and randomised and non-randomised controlled trials were included. Studies were screened and quality appraised in duplicate. Risk of bias was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. RESULTS: Seven studies conducted across three continents were eligible. Four studies were of high quality. 61 risk factors were investigated across the studies. Factors associated with a decreased risk of complicated grief included age, patient declining treatment and involvement in decision-making. Factors associated with increased risk included living alone, partner, dying while intubated, problematic communication, and not having the opportunity to say goodbye. CONCLUSION: This systematic review has identified risk factors which may help identify family members at increased risk of complicated grief. Many of the studies has small sample sizes increasing the risk of erroneously reporting no effect due to type II error. Some factors are specific to the ICU setting and are potentially modifiable. Bereavement services tailored to the needs of bereaved family members in ICU settings are required. (PROSPERO registration ID 209503).


Subject(s)
Bereavement , Grief , Family , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Risk Factors
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732015

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a series of biopsychosocial repercussions among nursing professionals. The impossibility of anticipating the events, the numerous deaths, the excessive workload, the lack of personal health and the necessary means of protection made it difficult to regulate the impact and the elaboration of grief to the point of becoming, on many occasions, a traumatic grief whose physical and psychological manifestations are becoming more and more evident. The main objective of this research was to develop a scale for a group of symptoms based on professional traumatic grief. The development consisted of two phases: (I) instrument design through a literature review and focus groups of bereavement experts and healthcare professionals who experience the grief process in their work; and (II) validation of the content of the instrument. A total of 25 final items were established as suitable for inclusion in the instrument. It is expected that the experiences and results obtained through the development and validation of a scale of specific symptomatology of professional traumatic grief in health professionals will allow the assessment and detection of symptomatology in order to develop programs and strategies for early intervention and prevention.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Grief , Humans , Needs Assessment , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 80-81, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719341

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an extreme threat to global health and become a leading cause of death worldwide. Loss, as a more encompassing theme, interweaves many aspects of people's life in this challenging time. Failure to address the pressing needs of those experiencing loss and grief may result in poor mental and physical health. Recognizing the uniqueness of each individual and their loss and grief will provide opportunities to develop tailored strategies that facilitate functional adaptation to loss and promote mental health and wellbeing in this crisis.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , Bereavement , Coronavirus Infections , Grief , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Resilience, Psychological , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Disenfranchised Grief , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Palliat Med ; 36(4): 717-729, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Experiences of end-of-life care and early bereavement during the COVID-19 pandemic are poorly understood. AIM: To identify clinical and demographic risk factors for sub-optimal end-of-life care and pandemic-related challenges prior to death and in early bereavement, to inform clinical practice, policy and bereavement support. DESIGN: Online national survey of adults bereaved in the UK (deaths between 16 March 2020 and 2 January 2021), recruited via media, social media, national associations and organisations. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: 711 participants, mean age 49.5 (SD 12.9, range 18-90). 628 (88.6%) were female. Mean age of the deceased was 72.2 (SD 16.1, range miscarriage to 102 years). 311 (43.8%) deaths were from confirmed/suspected COVID-19. RESULTS: Deaths in hospital/care home increased the likelihood of poorer experiences at the end of life; for example, being unable to visit or say goodbye as wanted (p < 0.001). COVID-19 was also associated with worse experiences before and after death; for example, feeling unsupported by healthcare professionals (p < 0.001), social isolation/loneliness (OR = 0.439; 95% CI: 0.261-0.739), and limited contact with relatives/friends (OR = 0.465; 95% CI: 0.254-0.852). Expected deaths were associated with a higher likelihood of positive end-of-life care experiences. The deceased being a partner or child also increased the likelihood of positive experiences, however being a bereaved partner strongly increased odds of social isolation/loneliness, for example, OR = 0.092 (95% CI: 0.028-0.297) partner versus distant family member. CONCLUSIONS: Four clear risk factors were found for poorer end-of-life care and pandemic-related challenges in bereavement: place, cause and expectedness of death, and relationship to the deceased.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Terminal Care , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Family , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686779

ABSTRACT

Background: It is estimated that approximately 41,000 children and young people experience the death of a parent each year. Grief responses, such as anxiety and depression, can follow. This research investigated the adult reflections of experiencing parental death as a young person. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults (N = 14; female n = 8) who experienced parental death as a young person, which occurred over 5 years ago (time since death, M = 12.9 years; age at death, M = 16.4 years; age at interview, M = 30.9 years). The data were analysed inductively using thematic analysis. Results: Seven themes revealed that parental bereavement can lead to (1) "Distance and isolation" and is an (2) "Emotional journey" with (3) a "Physical impact". Many experienced (4) "Post-traumatic growth" but acknowledged that (5) "Life will never be the same", highlighting the importance of (6) "Support and understanding" and triggers for (7) "Re-grief". Conclusions: Parental bereavement has significant emotional and physical consequences, but can also lead to personal growth. Talking therapies were rarely accessed, often due to a lack of awareness or desire to engage, revealing a translational gap between existing support services and uptake. Enabling open conversations about grief and identifying suitable support is a public health priority. This need has been amplified since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may be a trigger for grief empathy and re-grief in those who have already been bereaved.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Grief , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Death Stud ; 46(6): 1287-1296, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684309

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 pandemic prompting predictions of a "grief pandemic," rates and risks for Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) warrant further investigation. Data were collected online from 1470 respondents between October 2020 and July 2021. Shorter time since death, deaths of siblings and "others," and deaths from accidents and homicides were positively associated with potential risk of probable PGD; deaths of extended family and from dementia were negatively associated with probable PGD. When compared directly to deaths from COVID-19, natural causes of death were associated with lower potential risk of probable PGD, while deaths from unnatural causes were associated with higher potential risk.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Preimplantation Diagnosis , Female , Grief , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy
17.
JAMA ; 327(2): 123, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653106
18.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 840, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic poses an unprecedented risk to the global population. Maternity care in the UK was subject to many iterations of guidance on how best to reconfigure services to keep women, their families and babies, and healthcare professionals safe. Parents who experience a pregnancy loss or perinatal death require particular care and support. PUDDLES is an international collaboration investigating the experiences of recently bereaved parents who suffered a late miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death during the global COVID-19 pandemic, in seven countries. In this study, we aim to present early findings from qualitative work undertaken with recently bereaved parents in the United Kingdom about how access to healthcare and support services was negotiated during the pandemic. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with parents (N = 24) who had suffered a late miscarriage (n = 5; all mothers), stillbirth (n = 16; 13 mothers, 1 father, 1 joint interview involving both parents), or neonatal death (n = 3; all mothers). Data were analysed using a template analysis with the aim of investigating bereaved parents' access to services, care, and networks of support, during the pandemic after their bereavement. RESULTS: All parents had experience of utilising reconfigured maternity and/or neonatal, and bereavement care services during the pandemic. The themes utilised in the template analysis were: 1) The Shock & Confusion Associated with Necessary Restrictions to Daily Life; 2) Fragmented Care and Far Away Families; 3) Keeping Safe by Staying Away; and 4) Impersonal Care and Support Through a Screen. Results suggest access to maternity, neonatal, and bereavement care services were all significantly reduced, and parents' experiences were notably affected by service reconfigurations. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, whilst preliminary, are important to document now, to help inform care and service provision as the pandemic continues and to provide learning for ongoing and future health system shocks. We draw conclusions on how to enable development of safe and appropriate services during this pandemic and any future health crises, to best support parents who experience a pregnancy loss or whose babies die.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Bereavement , COVID-19/psychology , Grief , Parents/psychology , Perinatal Death , Stillbirth/psychology , Continuity of Patient Care/standards , Female , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Preliminary Data , Psychosocial Support Systems , Qualitative Research , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e058768, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pandemic-related restrictions are expected to continue to shape end-of-life care and impact the experiences of dying hospitalised patients and their families. OBJECTIVE: To understand families' experiences of loss and bereavement during and after the death of their loved one amidst the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive study. SETTING: Three acute care units in a Canadian tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Family members of 28 hospitalised patients who died from March-July 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Qualitative semistructured interviews conducted 6-16 months after patient death inquired about family experiences before and beyond the death of their loved one and garnered suggestions to improve end-of-life care. RESULTS: Pandemic restrictions had consequences for families of dying hospitalised patients. Most family members described an attitude of acquiescence, some framing their experience as a sacrifice made for the public good. Families appreciated how clinicians engendered trust in the name of social solidarity while trying to mitigate the negative impact of family separation. However, fears about the patient's experience of isolation and changes to postmortem rituals also created despair and contributed to long-lasting grief. CONCLUSION: Profound loss and enduring grief were described by family members whose final connections to their loved one were constrained by pandemic circumstances. Families observed solidarity among clinical staff and experienced a sense of unity with staff, which alleviated some distress. Their suggestions to improve end-of-life care given pandemic restrictions included frequent, flexible communication, exceptions for family presence when safe, and targeted efforts to connect patients whose isolation is intensified by functional impairment or limited technological access. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04602520; Results.


Subject(s)
Bereavement , COVID-19 , Canada , Critical Care , Family , Grief , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
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