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Support Care Cancer ; 31(5): 277, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315718


PURPOSE: Communication with family members is important to end-of-life care for patients with cancer. It is an interactive engagement between terminally-ill cancer patients and their families through which they expand their mutual understanding to cope with losses and find meaning in death. This study aimed to describe the experiences of end-of-life communication between patients with cancer and their family members in South Korea. METHODS: This is a qualitative descriptive study using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Ten bereaved family members with end-of-life communication experience with terminal cancer patients were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 29 constructed meanings, 11 sub-categories, and the following 3 categories were derived: "Offering a space for patients to reminisce and reflect," "Building a bond," and "Reflections on what we need." End-of-life communication primarily centered on the patients, with families struggling to share their stories with them. Although the families coped well, they also regretted the lack of meaningful communication with the patients, indicating a need for support to facilitate effective end-of-life communication. CONCLUSION: The study highlighted concrete communication for finding meaning at the end-of-life for cancer patients and their families. We found that the families have the potential to communicate appropriately to cope with the patients' end-of-life. Nevertheless, end-of-life presents a unique challenge in which families require adequate support. Given the increasing number of patients and families dealing with end-of-life care in hospitals, healthcare providers should be mindful of their needs and help them cope effectively.

Bereavement , Hospice Care , Neoplasms , Terminal Care , Humans , Male , Family , Qualitative Research , Communication , Death
Rev. baiana enferm ; 36: e47489, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2294048


Objetivo: compreender os significados do luto para as pessoas que enfrentaram a morte de um familiar devido a COVID-19. Método: estudo qualitativo, do tipo ação-participante, fundamentado nos pressupostos de Paulo Freire. Participaram 16 familiares, residentes no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Realizou-se um Círculo de Cultura de modo virtual, seguindo as etapas do Itinerário Freireano. Resultados: os participantes significaram que a vivência do luto do familiar, devido a COVID-19, tirou-lhes a oportunidade de se despedir do ente querido. A pandemia também lhes tirou o emprego, as aulas presenciais dos filhos, encontros, casamentos, abraços e sorrisos. Mas também significaram que trouxe aprendizado, com fortalecimento da espiritualidade e família. Conclusão: o significado do luto permeou inúmeras perdas, restringindo a vivência das etapas do luto. Contudo, houve maior busca pela espiritualidade e religião, com valorização da família e da vida.

Objetivo: comprender los significados del luto para las personas que enfrentaron la muerte de un familiar debido a COVID-19. Método: estudio cualitativo, del tipo acción-participante, fundamentado en los presupuestos de Paulo Freire. Participaron 16 familiares, residentes en el litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Se realizó un Círculo de Cultura de modo virtual, siguiendo las etapas del Itinerario Freireano. Resultados: los participantes significaron que la vivencia del luto del familiar, debido a COVID-19, les quitó la oportunidad de despedirse del ser querido. La pandemia también les quitó el empleo, las clases presenciales de los hijos, encuentros, matrimonios, abrazos y sonrisas. Pero también significaron que trajo aprendizaje, con fortalecimiento de la espiritualidad y familia. Conclusión: el significado del luto ha permeado numerosas pérdidas, restringiendo la vivencia de las etapas del luto. Sin embargo, hubo mayor búsqueda por la espiritualidad y religión, con valoración de la familia y de la vida.

Objective: to understand the meanings of mourning for people who faced the death of a family member due to COVID-19. Method: qualitative study, action-participant type, based on the assumptions of Paulo Freire. Participants were 16 family members living on the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil. A Culture Circle was held in a virtual way, following the stages of the Freire's Itinerary. Results: the participants meant that the experience of mourning the family, due to COVID-19, took them the opportunity to say goodbye to their loved one. The pandemic also took away their jobs, their children's face-to-face classes, meetings, weddings, hugs and smiles. But it also meant that it brought learning, with strengthening of spirituality and family. Conclusion: the meaning of mourning permeated countless losses, restricting the experience of the stages of mourning. However, there was a greater search for spirituality and religion, with appreciation of family and life.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Bereavement , Grief , Family Health , COVID-19/nursing , Qualitative Research
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 44-46, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293806


INTRODUCTION: Palliative care is an approach aimed at relieving suffering, controlling symptoms and seeking to improve quality of life. It must be offered in conjunction with standard treatment for any disease that threatens the continuation of life, such as a Covid-19 infection. DISCUSSION: The bioethical principles and strategies used by palliative medicine can assist nephrologists in the care of patients with renal dysfunction, who face the difficulties of isolation at the beginning and follow-up of dialysis in outpatient treatment, and those who are at risk for a more serious disease progress. Some of them: - a Shared decision making, which enables the patient and family to participate as facilitators in the systematization of the team's reasoning, in addition to respecting the principle of autonomy; - Symptom Management: which should be a priority to ensure relief of suffering even in times of social isolation; - Communication skills: making it possible to alleviate suffering in announcing bad news or complex decisions through communication techniques;; - Bereavement assistance: which in acute situations such as the pandemic, causing unexpected losses, the importance of sympathy from healthcare professionals becomes even greater. CONCLUSION: The principles of palliative care are essential to face the challenges of a planet-wide crisis, which raises human suffering in all dimensions, and which requires the construction of strategies that can keep patients assisted, comfortable and with measures proportional to their clinical condition and preferences.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Palliative Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Replacement Therapy/standards , Bereavement , COVID-19 , Communication , Decision Making, Shared , Humans , Nephrology/standards , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(8)2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297579


Advanced cancer caregivers in emerging and young adulthood (EYACs; ages 18-35) are an understudied yet vulnerable caregiving population. The COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges for advanced cancer caregivers but also created unique contexts from which caregivers sometimes benefited. To understand how the pandemic may have positively and negatively impacted their caregiving and bereavement experiences, we examined EYACs' experiences of caring for and losing a parent with advanced cancer during the pandemic in comparison to those of EYACs with a parent who died outside the context of the pandemic. Eligible EYACs completed an online survey and semi-structured interview. Quantitative analyses compared responses for pre-pandemic EYACS (n = 14) and pandemic EYACs (n = 26). A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts of pandemic EYACS (n = 14) was conducted. Pandemic EYACs experienced non-significant but higher communal coping, benefit finding, negative emotional experiences, and caregiver strain than pre-pandemic EYACs. Thematic analysis revealed that the pandemic negatively affected EYACs' caregiving efficacy, personal well-being, interpersonal dynamics, and bereavement; shifts to remote work and schooling were reported as benefits. The findings can inform the design of resources to support EYACs whose parents died during the pandemic and who are navigating the healthcare system today.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Adolescent , Caregivers/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/psychology , Death
Nat Aging ; 2(1): 7-12, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294004


Suicide is an important problem among older adults and in particular older men. Risk factors for suicide in older adults include the loss of a loved one, loneliness and physical illness. Suicide in older adults is often attributed to the development of depression due to bereavement or loss of physical health and independence. However, suicide prevention in old age requires avoiding overly simplistic therapeutic approaches. This Perspective discusses the impact of social determinants of health, cultural narratives and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on suicide among older adults and proposes strategies for a multifaceted approach to suicide prevention.

COVID-19 , Suicide , Aged , Humans , Male , Aging , Loneliness , Suicide Prevention , Depression , Bereavement
World Neurosurg ; 144: 351, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2251874
J Am Psychoanal Assoc ; 70(5): 939-968, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288369

Bereavement , Grief , Humans
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 18(1): 2186337, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285004


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic entailed significant changes in accompaniment, end-of-life, and bereavement experiences. In some countries, public health measures prevented or restricted family caregivers from visiting their dying loved ones in residences, long-term care institutions, and hospitals. As a result, family members were faced with critical decisions that could easily lead to ethical dilemmas and moral distress. AIM: This study aimed to understand better the experience of ethical dilemmas among family caregivers who lost a loved one. METHDS: We interviewed twenty bereaved family caregivers and analysed their narratives using Interpretative phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Our analysis suggests that family caregivers struggled with their multiple responsibilities (collective, relational, and personal) and had to deal with the emotional cost of their choices. Results display three emerging themes describing the experience of ethical struggles: (1) Flight or fight: Struggling with collective responsibility; (2) Being torn apart: Assuming relational responsibility and (3) "Choosing" oneself: The cost of personal responsibility. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Results are discussed and interpreted using an ethical, humanistic, and existential conceptual framework.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Family/psychology , Caregivers/psychology
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 13(1): 2062998, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258003


Background: Acute grief appears more severe after COVID-19 deaths than natural deaths. Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) also appears prevalent following COVID-19 deaths. Researchers hypothesize that specific loss characteristics and pandemic-related circumstances may precipitate more severe grief following COVID-19 deaths compared to (other) natural deaths. Systematic research on these hypotheses may help identify those most at risk for severe grief reactions, yet it is scant. Objective: To compare loss characteristics, loss circumstances, and grief levels among people bereaved due to COVID-19, natural, and unnatural causes. Methods: Adults bereaved through COVID-19 (n = 99), natural causes (n = 1006), and unnatural causes (n = 161) completed an online survey. We administered self-report measures of demographic variables (i.e., age, gender), loss characteristics (i.e., time since loss, relationship with the deceased, intensive care admission, expectedness of death), loss circumstances (i.e., saying goodbye appropriately, COVID-19 infection, quarantine, financial setbacks, social support satisfaction, altered funeral arrangements, funeral satisfaction), and prolonged grief symptoms. Results: COVID-19 deaths (vs. other deaths) more often were parental deaths and less often child deaths. COVID-19 deaths (vs. natural deaths) were more often unexpected and characterized by an inability to say goodbye appropriately. People bereaved due to COVID-19 (vs. other deaths) were more often infected and quarantined. COVID-19 deaths (vs. other deaths) more often involved intensive care admission and altered funeral arrangements. COVID-19 deaths yielded higher grief levels than natural deaths (but not unnatural deaths). Expectedness of the death and the inability to say goodbye appropriately explained this effect. Conclusions: Bereavement due to COVID-19 is characterized by a unique set of loss characteristics and circumstances and elevated grief levels. Improving opportunities to say goodbye before and after death (e.g., by means of rituals) may provide an important means to prevent and reduce severe grief following COVID-19 deaths. HIGHLIGHTS: COVID-19 deaths have unique loss characteristics and circumstances and elicit more severe grief than natural deaths.Death expectedness and the ability to say goodbye appropriately appear important in understanding, preventing and treating grief following COVID-19 deaths.

Antecedentes: El duelo agudo es más severo después de las muertes por COVID-19 que las muertes naturales. El trastorno de duelo prolongado (PGD, por sus siglas en inglés) también parece ser prevalente después de las muertes por COVID-19. Los investigadores plantean la hipótesis de que las características específicas de la pérdida y las circunstancias relacionadas con la pandemia pueden precipitar un duelo más severo después de las muertes por COVID-19 en comparación con las muertes naturales. La investigación sistemática sobre estas hipótesis puede ayudar a identificar a las personas con mayor riesgo de sufrir reacciones de duelo graves, pero es escasa.Objetivo: Comparar las características de la pérdida, las circunstancias de la pérdida y los niveles de duelo entre las personas en duelo debido al COVID-19, causas naturales y no naturales.Métodos: Adultos en duelo por COVID-19 (n = 99), causas naturales (n = 1006) y causas no naturales (n = 161) completaron una encuesta en línea. Administramos medidas de autoinforme de variables demográficas, características de la pérdida (es decir, ingreso en cuidados intensivos, muerte inesperada), circunstancias de la pérdida (es decir, despedirse adecuadamente, infección por COVID-19, cuarentena, contratiempos financieros, satisfacción con el apoyo social, arreglos funerarios alterados, satisfacción con el funeral), y síntomas de trastorno de duelo prolongado.Resultados: Las muertes por COVID-19 (frente a otras muertes) fueron con mayor frecuencia muertes de padres y menos muertes de niños. Las muertes por COVID-19 (frente a las muertes naturales) fueron más a menudo inesperadas y se caracterizaron por la incapacidad de despedirse adecuadamente. Las personas en duelo debido al COVID-19 (frente a otras muertes) más frecuentemente se infectaron y tuvieron que hacer cuarentena. Las muertes por COVID-19 (en comparación con otras muertes) involucraron con mayor frecuencia la admisión a cuidados intensivos y la alteración de arreglos funerarios. Las muertes por COVID-19 produjeron niveles de duelo más altos que las muertes naturales (pero no las muertes no naturales). La expectativa de la muerte y la incapacidad de decir adiós explicaron apropiadamente este efecto.Conclusiones: El duelo por COVID-19 se caracteriza por un conjunto único de características y circunstancias de pérdida y niveles elevados de duelo. Mejorar las oportunidades para decir adiós antes y después de la muerte (p. ej., mediante rituales) puede proporcionar un medio importante para prevenir y reducir el duelo después de las muertes por COVID-19.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Grief , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
J Palliat Med ; 24(12): 1783-1788, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2212685


Background: Meeting the needs of people bereaved by COVID-19 poses a substantial challenge to palliative care. The Pandemic Grief Scale (PGS) is a 5-item mental health screener to identify probable cases of dysfunctional grief during the pandemic. Objective: The PGS has strong psychometric and diagnostic features. The objective was to examine the incremental validity of the PGS in identifying mourners at risk of harmful outcomes. Design: A cross-sectional survey design involving sociodemographic questions and self-report measures of pandemic grief, generalized anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, separation distress, functional impairment, meaning-making difficulties, and substance use coping. Setting/Subjects: A sample of people bereaved through COVID-19 (N = 1065) in the United States. Results: Fully 56.6% of participants scored above the cut score of ≥7 on the PGS for clinically dysfunctional pandemic grief and 69.7% coped with their loss using drugs or alcohol for at least several days in past two weeks. PGS scores were not associated with time since loss. Hierarchical multiple regression models demonstrated that the PGS uniquely explained variance in functional impairment, meaning-making difficulties, and substance use coping, over relevant background factors, bereavement-related psychopathology, and separation distress. In the final model, the standardized regression coefficients for the PGS were 2-15 times larger than for the other competing measures in explaining each of the three outcomes. Conclusions: The findings underscore the clinical utility of this short and easy-to-use measure in identifying risk of deleterious outcomes across a range of functional and behavioral domains.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Grief , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
J Prim Health Care ; 14(4): 345-351, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186678


Introduction Restrictions imposed to eliminate the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus had significant implications on peoples' experiences of caring for family/whanau at the end of life, and on their own bereavement process. Aim This qualitative research explored the impact of COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on experiences of loss, grief and bereavement in Aotearoa New Zealand. Methods This qualitative narrative research used semi-structured interviews with 10 participants who experienced the loss of a loved one during Levels 3 or 4 lockdown in Aotearoa New Zealand (23 March-13 May 2020). Interviews were coded using NVivo software and inductive thematic analysis was used to evaluate the data. Results Results were grouped into three themes: death experience; mourning in isolation; and availability of support. These themes provide insight into the challenges and difficulties participants faced when they experienced the death of a loved one during a COVID-19 lockdown, and the impact of these restrictions on their experiences of grief and bereavement. Discussion The findings from this research suggest there is an increased risk of prolonged grief among those bereaved during lockdown. Primary care professionals need to be aware of this increased risk in order to identify need and provide access to bereavement support.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Grief , SARS-CoV-2
Nursing ; 53(1): 30-33, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190717


ABSTRACT: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in physical and emotional tolls on healthcare workers and caregivers, which have caused prolonged grief disorder and persistent complex bereavement disorder. Highlighting key learnings from healthcare workers' experiences during the pandemic, this article outlines self-care strategies to help nurses better prepare for future healthcare emergencies.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Grief , Caregivers/psychology
Epilepsy Behav ; 139: 109071, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165963


PURPOSE: This study explores the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on people with lived experience of sudden bereavement as a consequence of an epilepsy-related death. METHOD: We developed an online survey with fixed choice and open-ended response formats to collect data on grief symptoms and well-being during the pandemic. A total of 275 people bereaved by epilepsy-related deaths between 1980-2020 participated in this study: with 79 participants providing free-text responses for inductive thematic analysis. RESULTS: In total, 84% of participants reported a bereavement following a sudden death of a person aged under 40, with 22% aged 19 and under. The majority (77% of participants) reported they had been thinking more about the person who died compared to before the COVID-19 outbreak and 54% had experienced more distressing flashbacks to the time of death. Additionally, 61% reported more difficulties falling asleep and staying asleep and 88% of participants reported that the outbreak and response measures had negatively impacted upon their mental health. Medication was being taken for a diagnosed mental health condition by 33% of participants at the time of the study. We categorized these negative experiences during COVID in to four main-themes - 'Family', 'Lifestyle', 'Personal Well-being' and 'Health Services and Shielding Populations'. The 'Personal Well-being' theme was inextricably linked to grief symptoms including 'reflection on the death', 're-exposure to feeling', 'grief', 'salience of sudden deaths in the media' and 'inability to commemorate anniversaries and rituals'. These findings were consistent for bereaved people irrespective of the recency of the death. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the impact of the disruption caused by the pandemic on the grief-management of those bereaved by epilepsy-related death. Grief is not static and its management is connected to the psychosocial and formal support structures that were disrupted during the pandemic. The removal of these supports had an adverse effect upon the mental health and well-being of many bereaved. There is an urgent need for a system-wide transformation of epilepsy and mental health services to be inclusive of the needs and experiences of people impacted by sudden deaths in epilepsy and the contribution of the specialist service developed by families and clinicians to meet this gap.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Humans , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Death, Sudden/epidemiology
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142781


Bereavement by suicide for people in later life is significantly under-researched. Research on ageing and suicide has yet to address the experiences of those bereaved by suicide and how such a devastating loss affects the ageing experience. Objectives: We explored the substantive issues involved in bereavement by suicide and its impact on later life. Methods: This was a co-produced qualitative study. Peer researchers with lived experience conducted in-depth interviews with twenty-four people aged 60-92 years. A phenomenological approach informed the data analysis. Main Findings: Themes described included (1) moral injury and trauma; (2) the rippling effect on wider family and networks; (3) transitions and adaptations of bereaved people and how their 'living experience' impacted on ageing. Conclusions: It is important to understand how individual experiences of suicide intersect with ageing and the significance of targeted assessment and intervention for those bereaved by suicide in ageing policies and support.

Bereavement , Suicide , Aging , Grief , Humans , Qualitative Research
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 212, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139253


BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a cancer death is a major risk factor for pathological bereavement. This systematic review of the literature aimed to identify biopsychosocial and existential determinants specific to the palliative phase of cancer that influence the grieving experience of the caregiving relative. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted without language or time restrictions. The Cairn, Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycArticle, PsychInfo, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection databases were explored. All studies assessing pre- and post-death measures and focusing on friends and relatives caring for adults with cancer in palliative care services were included in the review. RESULTS: Out of 645 articles identified, 18 full text studies were finally included in our systematic review of the literature. Many factors specific to the cancer palliative phase were identified as influencing the bereavement experience of caregivers, with factors relating to: 1) the caregiver (e.g. social support, psychological burden, preparation for loss, action and discussion related to death); 2) the patient (e.g. denial or acceptance); 3) the interactions between patient and their caregivers (e.g. tensions, communication difficulties, and presence at the time of death); and 4) the end-of-life context. The caregiver's grief experience can be described by the following terms: typical and pathological grief, anxiety, depression, guilt, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder and post-traumatic growth, and life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS:  Many contextual, sociodemographic, dispositional and transactional factors specific to the palliative cancer phase are involved in the caregiver's grieving experience. Avenues for reflection and recommendations are proposed including supporting communication and patient-relative relationships, evaluating the nature and degree of functionality of coping strategies, strengthening the robustness of methodologies, considering impact of COVID-19, and new lines of enquiry for research.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Palliative Care , Grief , Neoplasms/therapy
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 177, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064781


BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many children and young people have experienced the death of close family members, whilst also facing unprecedented disruption to their lives. This study aimed to investigate the experiences and support needs of bereaved children and young people from the perspective of their parents and guardians. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional qualitative free-text data from a survey of adults bereaved in the UK during the pandemic. Participants were recruited via media, social media, national associations and community/charitable organisations. Thematic analysis was conducted on free text data collected from parent/guardian participants in response to a survey question on the bereavement experiences and support needs of their children. RESULTS: Free-text data from 104 parent/guardian participants was included. Three main themes were identified: the pandemic-related challenges and struggles experienced by children and young people; family support and coping; and support from schools and services. Pandemic-challenges include the impacts of being separated from the relative prior to their death, isolation from peers and other family members, and disruption to daily routines and wider support networks. Examples were given of effective family coping and communication, but also of difficulties relating to parental grief and children's existing mental health problems. Schools and bereavement organisations' provision of specialist support was valued, but there was evidence of unmet need, with some participants reporting a lack of access to specialist grief or mental health support. CONCLUSION: Children and young people have faced additional strains and challenges associated with pandemic bereavement. We recommend resources and initiatives that facilitate supportive communication within family and school settings, adequate resourcing of school and community-based specialist bereavement/mental health services, and increased information and signposting to the support that is available.

Bereavement , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Grief , Humans , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Qualitative Research
Palliat Support Care ; 20(5): 759-760, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050232

Bereavement , Grief , Humans
Soins Psychiatr ; 43(340): 12-16, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028528


Bereavement has been debated among psychiatric experts since 2000. In addition to its precise manifestations, its duration is discussed: six months for the ICD-1, one year for the DSM-5-TR. Grief is not an illness but a process that can be blocked in the announcement phase of the death or in the depression phase following the absence. In all cases, acceptance of the loss is impossible. Psychiatric treatment can define a bereaved person who is suffering too much, and can reduce his or her suffering, but it cannot accelerate the process of remembering and then resuming a life without the loved one. Social rituals and psychosocial support have had this place for millennia in cultures throughout humanity.

Bereavement , Psychiatry , Female , Grief , Humans , Male , Psychotherapy
Lancet ; 399(10320): 136-137, 2022 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008197