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1.
Vopr Virusol ; 67(6): 465-474, 2023 02 07.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) are causative agents of diarrhea, respiratory diseases in calves and winter cow dysentery. The study of genetic diversity of these viruses is topical issue. The purpose of the research is studying the genetic diversity of BCoV isolates circulating among dairy cattle in Siberia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens used in this study were collected from animals that died or was forcedly slaughtered before the start of the study. The target for amplification were nucleotide sequences of S and N gene regions. RESULTS: Based on the results of RT-PCR testing, virus genome was present in 16.3% of samples from calves with diarrheal syndrome and in 9.9% with respiratory syndrome. The nucleotide sequences of S gene region were determined for 18 isolates, and N gene sequences - for 12 isolates. Based on S gene, isolates were divided into two clades each containing two subclades. First subclade of first clade (European line) included 11 isolates. Second one included classic strains Quebec and Mebus, strains from Europe, USA and Korea, but none of sequences from this study belonged to this subclade. 6 isolates belonged to first subclade of second clade (American-Asian line). Second subclade (mixed line) included one isolate. N gene sequences formed two clades, one of them included two subclades. First subclade included 3 isolates (American-Asian line), and second subclade (mixed) included one isolate. Second clade (mixed) included 8 sequences. No differences in phylogenetic grouping between intestinal and respiratory isolates, as well as according to their geographic origin were identified. CONCLUSION: The studied population of BCoV isolates is heterogeneous. Nucleotide sequence analysis is a useful tool for studying molecular epidemiology of BCoV. It can be beneficial for choice of vaccines to be used in a particular geographic region.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Cattle Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus, Bovine , Coronavirus , Female , Cattle , Animals , Coronavirus, Bovine/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Phylogeny , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology
2.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 39(1): 55-71, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277137

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In equids, equine coronavirus has been associated with diarrhea in foals and lethargy, fever, anorexia, and occasional gastrointestinal signs in adult horses. Although horses seem to be susceptible to the human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on the high homology to the ACE-2 receptor, they seem to be incidental hosts because of occasional SARS-CoV-2 spillover from humans. However, until more clinical and seroepidemiological data are available, it remains important to monitor equids for possible transmission from humans with clinical or asymptomatic COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , COVID-19 , Horse Diseases , Horses , Animals , Humans , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Mammals
4.
mBio ; 14(1): e0305422, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268953

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a member of the family Coronaviridae, genus Betacoronavirus, and subgenus Embecovirus that causes neurological disorders, vomiting and wasting disease (VWD), or influenza-like illness (ILI) in pigs. Exosomes regulate nearby or distant cells as a means of intercellular communication; however, whether they are involved in the transmission of viral reference materials during PHEV infection is unknown. Here, we collected exosomes derived from PHEV-infected neural cells (PHEV-exos) and validated their morphological, structural, and content characteristics. High-resolution mass spectrometry indicated that PHEV-exos carry a variety of cargoes, including host innate immunity sensors and viral ingredients. Furthermore, transwell analysis revealed that viral ingredients, such as proteins and RNA fragments, could be encapsulated in the exosomes of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) to nonpermissive microglia. Inhibition of exosome secretion could suppress PHEV infection. Therefore, we concluded that the mode of infectious transmission of PHEV is likely through a mixture of virus-modified exosomes and virions and that exosomal export acts as a host strategy to induce an innate response in replicating nonpermissive bystander cells free of immune system recognition. IMPORTANCE The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a large number of deaths worldwide. Clinical neurological complications have occurred in some cases; however, knowledge of the natural history of coronavirus in the central nervous system (CNS) is thus far limited. PHEV is a typical neurotropic betacoronavirus (ß-CoV) that propagates via neural circuits in the host CNS after peripheral incubation rather than through the bloodstream. It is therefore a good prototype pathogen to investigate the neuropathological pathogenesis of acute human coronavirus infection. In this study, we demonstrate a new association between host vesicle-based secretion and PHEV infection, showing that multivesicular-derived exosomes are one of the modes of infectious transmission and that they mediate the transfer of immunostimulatory cargo to uninfected neuroimmune cells. These findings provide novel insights into the treatment and monitoring of neurological consequences associated with ß-CoV, similar to those associated with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , COVID-19 , Exosomes , Swine , Animals , Humans , Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Virol J ; 19(1): 226, 2022 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a member of the genus Betacoronavirus, is the causative agent of neurological disease in pigs. No effective therapeutics are currently available for PHEV infection. Resveratrol has been shown to exert neuroprotective and antiviral effects. Here resveratrol was investigated for its ability to inhibit PHEV replication in nerve cells and central nervous system tissues. METHODS: Anti-PHEV effect of resveratrol was evaluated using an in vitro cell-based PHEV infection model and employing a mouse PHEV infection model. The collected cells or tissues were used for quantitative PCR analysis, western blot analysis, or indirect immunofluorescence assay. The supernatants were collected to quantify viral loads by TCID50 assay in vitro. EC50 and CC50 were determined by dose-response experiments, and the ratio (EC50/CC50) was used as a selectivity index (SI) to measure the antiviral versus cytotoxic activity. RESULTS: Our results showed that resveratrol treatment reduced PHEV titer in a dose-dependent manner, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 6.24 µM. A reduction of > 70% of viral protein expression and mRNA copy number and a 19-fold reduction of virus titer were achieved when infected cells were treated with 10 µM resveratrol in a pre-treatment assay. Quantitative PCR analysis and TCID50 assay results revealed that the addition of 10 µM resveratrol to cells after adsorption of PHEV significantly reduced 56% PHEV mRNA copy number and eightfold virus titer. 10 µM resveratrol treatment reduced 46% PHEV mRNA copy number and fourfold virus titer in virus inactivation assay. Moreover, the in vivo data obtained in this work also demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited PHEV replication, and anti-PHEV activities of resveratrol treatment via intranasal installation displayed better than oral gavage. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that resveratrol exerted antiviral effects under various drug treatment and virus infection conditions in vitro and holds promise as a treatment for PHEV infection in vivo.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Mice , Swine , Animals , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/metabolism , Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Neurons , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Virus Replication
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(6): e1010667, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910704

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurotropic coronavirus belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus. Similar to pathogenic coronaviruses to which humans are susceptible, such as SARS-CoV-2, PHEV is transmitted primarily through respiratory droplets and close contact, entering the central nervous system (CNS) from the peripheral nerves at the site of initial infection. However, the neuroinvasion route of PHEV are poorly understood. Here, we found that BALB/c mice are susceptible to intranasal PHEV infection and showed distinct neurological manifestations. The behavioral study and histopathological examination revealed that PHEV attacks neurons in the CNS and causes significant smell and taste dysfunction in mice. By tracking neuroinvasion, we identified that PHEV invades the CNS via the olfactory nerve and trigeminal nerve located in the nasal cavity, and olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) were susceptible to viral infection. Immunofluorescence staining and ultrastructural observations revealed that viral materials traveling along axons, suggesting axonal transport may engage in rapid viral transmission in the CNS. Moreover, viral replication in the olfactory system and CNS is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, tissue disorganization and dysfunction. Overall, we proposed that PHEV may serve as a potential prototype for elucidating the pathogenesis of coronavirus-associated neurological complications and olfactory and taste disorders.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Olfaction Disorders , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Humans , Mice , Olfaction Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Swine
7.
Arch Virol ; 167(8): 1611-1618, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872441

ABSTRACT

Equine coronavirus (ECoV) causes pyrexia, anorexia, lethargy, and sometimes diarrhoea. Infected horses excrete the virus in their faeces, and ECoV is also detected in nasal samples from febrile horses. However, details about ECoV infection sites in the intestinal and respiratory tracts are lacking. To identify the ECoV infection sites in the intestinal and respiratory tracts, we performed an experimental infection study and analysed intestinal and respiratory samples collected from four infected horses at 3, 5, 7, and 14 days post-inoculation (dpi) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH). Two horses became febrile, but the other two did not. None of the horses had diarrhoea or respiratory signs, and severe cases were not observed in this study. None of the horses showed obvious abnormalities in their intestinal or respiratory tracts. Real-time RT-PCR and ISH showed that ECoV RNA was present throughout the intestinal tract, and ECoV-positive cells were mainly detected on the surface of the intestine. In one horse showing viremia at 3 dpi, ECoV RNA was detected in the lung by real-time RT-PCR, but not by ISH. This suggests that the lung cells themselves were not infected with ECoV and that real-time RT-PCR detected viremia in the lung. The other three horses were positive for ECoV RNA in nasal swabs but were negative in the trachea and lung by real-time RT-PCR and ISH. This study suggests that ECoV broadly infects the intestinal tract and is less likely to infect the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Coronavirus Infections , Horse Diseases , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea , Fever , Horses , Intestines , RNA , Respiratory System , Viremia
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 269: 109448, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829627

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a typical neurotropic betacoronavirus causing digestive disease and/or neurological dysfunction in neonatal pigs. Actin filaments have been identified to implicate in PHEV invasion, but the effects of viral infection on microtubules (MTs) cytoskeleton are unknown. Here, we observed that PHEV infection induced MT depolymerization and was accompanied by the disappearance of microtubule organizing centers. Depolymerization of MTs induced by nocodazole significantly inhibited viral RNA replication, but over-polymerization of MTs induced by paclitaxel did not substantially affect PHEV infection. The expression of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), an important regulator of MT acetylation, progressively increased during PHEV infection. Tramstatin A could alter HDAC6 deacetylase activity to enhance the acetylation of the substrate α-tubulin and MT polymerization, but does not increase PHEV proliferation. These findings suggest that PHEV could subvert host MT cytoskeleton to facilitate infection, and that MT depolymerization negatively affects viral replication independently of HDAC6 activity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Coronavirus Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Microtubules , Swine , Tubulin/genetics , Tubulin/metabolism , Virus Replication
9.
J Virol ; 96(1): e0169521, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816694

ABSTRACT

The replication of coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of infected cells. The unfolded protein response (UPR), which is mediated by ER stress (ERS), is a typical outcome in coronavirus-infected cells and is closely associated with the characteristics of coronaviruses. However, the interaction between virus-induced ERS and coronavirus replication is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that infection with the betacoronavirus porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) induced ERS and triggered all three branches of the UPR signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, ERS suppressed PHEV replication in mouse neuro-2a (N2a) cells primarily by activating the protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) axis of the UPR. Moreover, another eIF2α phosphorylation kinase, interferon (IFN)-induced double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), was also activated and acted cooperatively with PERK to decrease PHEV replication. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PERK/PKR-eIF2α pathways negatively regulated PHEV replication by attenuating global protein translation. Phosphorylated eIF2α also promoted the formation of stress granules (SGs), which in turn repressed PHEV replication. In summary, our study presents a vital aspect of the host innate response to invading pathogens and reveals attractive host targets (e.g., PERK, PKR, and eIF2α) for antiviral drugs. IMPORTANCE Coronavirus diseases are caused by different coronaviruses of importance in humans and animals, and specific treatments are extremely limited. ERS, which can activate the UPR to modulate viral replication and the host innate response, is a frequent occurrence in coronavirus-infected cells. PHEV, a neurotropic betacoronavirus, causes nerve cell damage, which accounts for the high mortality rates in suckling piglets. However, it remains incompletely understood whether the highly developed ER in nerve cells plays an antiviral role in ERS and how ERS regulates viral proliferation. In this study, we found that PHEV infection induced ERS and activated the UPR both in vitro and in vivo and that the activated PERK/PKR-eIF2α axis inhibited PHEV replication through attenuating global protein translation and promoting SG formation. A better understanding of coronavirus-induced ERS and UPR activation may reveal the pathogenic mechanism of coronavirus and facilitate the development of new treatment strategies for these diseases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Stress Granules/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Mice , Phosphorylation , Protein Biosynthesis , Signal Transduction , Unfolded Protein Response
10.
Arch Virol ; 167(5): 1381-1385, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782822

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a member of the subgenus Embecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus, and it is ubiquitously distributed in most pig-farming countries worldwide with low clinical incidence. Here, we report the full-length genome sequence and molecular characterization of a novel PHEV strain identified in diarrheic neonates in South Korea. The complete genome of the Korean PHEV strain GNU-2113 was sequenced and analyzed to characterize PHEV circulating in South Korea. The GNU-2113 genome was determined to be 29,982 nucleotides in length, with large unique deletions in the regions encoding nonstructural protein 3 and NS2. It was found to share 95.1-96.9% sequence identity with other global strains. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the GNU-2113 strain is distantly related to the existing PHEV genotypes, implying that the virus appears to undergo substantial evolution under endemic pressure. This study provides important information about the genetic diversity of PHEV circulating subclinically in swine herds, which may ensure viral fitness in the enzootic environment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Swine Diseases , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Genome, Viral , Genotype , Phylogeny , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1010-1013, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750052

ABSTRACT

Equine coronavirus (ECoV) was first identified in the USA and has been previously described in several countries. In order to test the presence of ECoV in China, we collected 51 small intestinal samples from donkey foals with diarrhoea from a donkey farm in Shandong Province, China between August 2020 and April 2021. Two samples tested positive for ECoV and full-length genome sequences were successfully obtained using next-generation sequencing, one of which was further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The two strains shared 100% sequence identity at the scale of whole genome. Bioinformatics analyses further showed that the two Chinese strains represent a novel genetic variant of ECoV and shared the highest sequence identity of 97.05% with the first identified ECoV strain - NC99. In addition, it may be a recombinant, with the recombination region around the NS2 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first documented report of ECoV in China, highlighting its risk to horse/donkey breeding. In addition, its potential risk to public health also warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Coronavirus Infections , Horse Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Equidae , Horse Diseases/epidemiology , Horses , Phylogeny
12.
J Virol ; 95(19): e0085121, 2021 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403028

ABSTRACT

Uncoordinated 51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) is a well-characterized initiator of canonical autophagy under basal or pathological conditions. Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a neurotropic betacoronavirus (ß-CoV), impairs ULK1 kinase but hijacks autophagy to facilitate viral proliferation. However, the machinery of PHEV-induced autophagy initiation upon ULK1 kinase deficiency remains unclear. Here, the time course of PHEV infection showed a significant accumulation of autophagosomes (APs) in nerve cells in vivo and in vitro. Utilizing ULK1-knockout neuroblastoma cells, we have identified that ULK1 is not essential for productive AP formation induced by PHEV. In vitro phosphorylation studies discovered that mTORC1-regulated ULK1 activation stalls during PHEV infection, whereas AP biogenesis was controlled by AMPK-driven BECN1 phosphorylation. A lack of BECN1 is sufficient to block LC3 lipidation and disrupt recruitment of the LC3-ATG14 complex. Moreover, BECN1 acts as a bona fide substrate for ULK1-independent neural autophagy, and ectopic expression of BECN1 somewhat enhances PHEV replication. These findings highlight a novel machinery of noncanonical autophagy independent of ULK1 that bypasses the conserved initiation circuit of AMPK-mTORC1-ULK1, providing new insights into the interplay between neurotropic ß-CoV and the host. IMPORTANCE The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic alongside the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) pose Betacoronavirus (ß-CoV) as a global public health challenge. Coronaviruses subvert, hijack, or utilize autophagy to promote proliferation, and thus, exploring the cross talk between ß-CoV and autophagy is of great significance in confronting future ß-CoV outbreaks. Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a highly neurotropic ß-CoV that invades the central nervous system (CNS) in pigs, but understanding of the pathogenesis for PHEV-induced neurological dysfunction is yet limited. Here, we discovered a novel regulatory principle of neural autophagy initiation during PHEV infection, where productive autophagosome (AP) biogenesis bypasses the multifaceted regulation of ULK1 kinase. The PHEV-triggered noncanonical autophagy underscores the complex interactions of virus and host and will help in the development of therapeutic strategies targeting noncanonical autophagy to treat ß-CoV disease.


Subject(s)
Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/genetics , Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog/metabolism , Autophagy/physiology , Betacoronavirus 1/metabolism , Animals , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Beclin-1/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Gene Knockout Techniques , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Male , Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neurons/metabolism , Phosphorylation , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2021. (WHO/EURO: 2021-2913-42671-59457).
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-343396
14.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153652

ABSTRACT

Members of family Coronaviridae cause a variety of diseases in birds and mammals. Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a lesser-researched coronavirus, can infect naive pigs of any age, but clinical disease is observed in pigs ≤4 weeks of age. No commercial PHEV vaccines are available, and neonatal protection from PHEV-associated disease is presumably dependent on lactogenic immunity. Although subclinical PHEV infections are thought to be common, PHEV ecology in commercial swine herds is unknown. To begin to address this gap in knowledge, a serum IgG antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the S1 protein was developed and evaluated on known-status samples and then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds. Assessment of the diagnostic performance of the PHEV S1 ELISA using serum samples (n = 924) collected from 7-week-old pigs (n = 84; 12 pigs per group) inoculated with PHEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, or porcine deltacoronavirus showed that a sample-to-positive cutoff value of ≥0.6 was both sensitive and specific, i.e., all PHEV-inoculated pigs were seropositive from days postinoculation 10 to 42, and no cross-reactivity was observed in samples from other groups. The PHEV S1 ELISA was then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds (19 states) using 2,756 serum samples from breeding females (>28 weeks old) on commercial farms (n = 104) with no history of PHEV-associated disease. The overall seroprevalence was 53.35% (confidence interval [CI], ±1.86%) and herd seroprevalence was 96.15% (CI, ±3.70%).IMPORTANCE There is a paucity of information concerning the ecology of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) in commercial swine herds. This study provided evidence that PHEV infection is endemic and highly prevalent in U.S. swine herds. These results raised questions for future studies regarding the impact of endemic PHEV on swine health and the mechanisms by which this virus circulates in endemically infected populations. Regardless, the availability of the validated PHEV S1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provides the means for swine producers to detect and monitor PHEV infections, confirm prior exposure to the virus, and to evaluate the immune status of breeding herds.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus 1/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus 1/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/immunology , United States/epidemiology
15.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2021. (WHO/EURO:2021-2083-41838-57383).
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-339914

ABSTRACT

Evidence on the impact of school closures on children and the effectiveness of infection prevention and control measures being implemented in schools is now emerging. The WHO Regional Office for Europe and the Government of Italy jointly convened a high-level meeting on 31 August 2020 to discuss the situation and share experiences. Member States agreed to establish a network of experts to collate and review the emerging evidence on best practices and the potential negative effects of school reopening. A technical advisory group (TAG) was convened to review the evidence and make recommendations for a second high-level meeting, held in early December 2020. Member States reconvened at this meeting to review lessons learned and further emerging evidence, adjust interventions accordingly and recommend the way forward. This report is of the third TAG meeting, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 26 January 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Betacoronavirus 1 , Schools , School Teachers , Infection Control
16.
Copenhagen; World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe; 2021. (WHO/EURO:2021-1835-41586-56785).
in English | WHOIRIS | ID: gwh-338854

ABSTRACT

This document is part of a series of operational guidance modules developed to support WHO Member States in the European Region in preparing for and implementing COVID-19 vaccination. The modules were developed by a working group convened by the WHO Regional Office for Europe and consisting of experts from WHO, partner agencies, academia, Member States and other stakeholders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus 1 , Disease Outbreaks , Vaccines
17.
Vet Microbiol ; 252: 108918, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909094

ABSTRACT

Porcine haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a member of coronavirus that causes acute infectious disease and high mortality in piglets. The transcription factor IRF3 is a central regulator of type I interferon (IFN) innate immune signalling. Here, we report that PHEV infection of RAW264.7 cells results in strong suppression of IFN-ß production in the early stage. A comparative analysis of the upstream effector of IFN-ß transcription demonstrated that deactivation of IRF3, but not p65 or ATF-2 proteins, is uniquely attributed to failure of early IFN-ß induction. Moreover, the RIG-I/MDA5/MAVS/TBK1-dependent protective response that regulates the IRF3 pathway is not disrupted by PHEV and works well underlying the deactivated IRF3-mediated IFN-ß inhibition. After challenge with poly(I:C), a synthetic analogue of dsRNA used to stimulate IFN-ß secretion in the TLR-controlled pathway, we show that PHEV and poly(I:C) regulate IFN-ß-induction via two different pathways. Collectively, our findings reveal that deactivation of IRF3 is a specific mechanism that contributes to termination of type I IFN signalling during early infection with PHEV independent of the conserved RIG-I/MAVS/MDA5/TBK1-mediated innate immune response.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/genetics , Interferon-beta/immunology , Animals , Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/immunology , Mice , Poly I-C/pharmacology , RAW 264.7 Cells , Signal Transduction/immunology
18.
J Equine Vet Sci ; 87: 102906, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-828485

ABSTRACT

Equine coronavirus (ECoV) is a known cause of fever, anorexia, and lethargy in adult horses. Although there are multiple reports of ECoV outbreaks, less is known about the clinical presentation of individual horses during a nonoutbreak situation. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical presentation of horses diagnosed with ECoV infection that were not associated with an outbreak. Medical records of all horses admitted to Washington State University, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, during an 8-year period were reviewed (2010-2018). The five horses included in this study were older than 1 year of age, were diagnosed with colitis, tested positive for ECoV using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and were negative to other enteric pathogens. Interestingly, 4 of 5 horses had moderate to severe diarrhea, 3 had abnormal large colon ultrasonography, 2 had transient ventricular tachycardia and 2 had clinicopathologic evidence of liver dysfunction. ECoV should be included as a differential diagnosis for individual horses presenting with anorexia, fever, lethargy, and colitis. Early identification of ECoV cases is key to implement appropriate biosecurity measures to prevent the potential spread of this disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1 , Colitis/veterinary , Horse Diseases , Animals , Horses , Retrospective Studies , Washington
19.
Arch Virol ; 165(2): 345-354, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824852

ABSTRACT

Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) is a typical neurotropic coronavirus that mainly invades the central nervous system (CNS) in piglets and causes vomiting and wasting disease. Emerging evidence suggests that PHEV alters microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles, and miRNA has also been postulated to be involved in its pathogenesis, but the mechanisms underlying this process have not been fully explored. In this study, we found that PHEV infection upregulates miR-142a-3p RNA expression in N2a cells and in the CNS of mice. Downregulation of miR-142a-3p by an miRNA inhibitor led to a significant repression of viral proliferation, implying that it acts as a positive regulator of PHEV proliferation. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, miR-142a-3p was found to bind directly bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of Rab3a mRNA and downregulate its expression. Knockdown of Rab3a expression by transfection with an miR-142a-3p mimic or Rab3a siRNA significantly increased PHEV replication in N2a cells. Conversely, the use of an miR-142a-3p inhibitor or overexpression of Rab3a resulted in a marked restriction of viral production at both the mRNA and protein level. Our data demonstrate that miR-142a-3p promotes PHEV proliferation by directly targeting Rab3a mRNA, and this provides new insights into the mechanisms of PHEV-related pathogenesis and virus-host interactions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus 1/genetics , Cell Proliferation/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , MicroRNAs/genetics , Swine/virology , rab3A GTP-Binding Protein/genetics , 3' Untranslated Regions/genetics , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Down-Regulation/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Up-Regulation/genetics
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