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1.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 75(1): 7-11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581406

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that COVID-19 not only affects the lungs but beyond that the endothelial system. Recent studies showed that this can lead to microcirculatory impairments and in consequence to functional disorders of all inner organs. The combination of endothelial dysfunction with a generalized inflammatory state and complement elements may together contribute to the overall pro-coagulative state described in COVID-19 patients leading to venular as well as to arteriolar occlusions.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Elife ; 92020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497821
10.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(10): 1380-1385, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients because the SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to circulate in the population. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Adult COVID-19 cases from four hospitals in Zhejiang were enrolled and clustered into three groups based on epidemiological history. First-generation patients had a travel history to Hubei within 14 days before disease onset; second-generation patients had a contact history with first-generation patients; third-generation patients had a contact history with second-generation patients. Demographic, clinical characteristics, clinical outcomes and duration of viral shedding were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients were enrolled, with 83, 44 and 44 patients in the first-, second-, and third-generation, respectively. Compared with the first and second generations, third-generation patients were older (61.3 vs. 48.3 and 44.0 years, p < 0.001) and had more coexisting conditions (56.8% vs. 36.1% and 27.3%, p 0.013). At 7 ± 1 days from illness onset, third-generation patients had lower lymphocyte (0.6 vs. 0.8 and 0.8 × 109/L, p 0.007), higher C-reactive protein (29.7 vs. 17.1 and 13.8 mg/L, p 0.018) and D-dimer (1066 vs. 412.5 and 549 µg/L, p 0.002) and more lesions involving the pulmonary lobes (lobes ≥5, 81.8% vs. 53.0% and 34.1%, p < 0.001). The proportions of third-generation patients developing severe illness (72.7% vs. 32.5% and 27.3%, p < 0.001), critical illness (38.6% vs. 10.8% and 6.8%, p < 0.001) and receiving endotracheal intubation (20.5% vs. 3.6% and 2.3%, p 0.002) were higher than in the other two groups. DISCUSSION: Third-generation patients were older, had more underlying comorbidities and had a higher proportion of severe or critical illness than first- and second-generation patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/physiopathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lymphocytes/pathology , Lymphocytes/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/blood , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Virus Shedding
11.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making, Organizational , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telecommunications/standards , Workplace/standards
18.
Nature ; 583(7818): 834-838, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387423

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus with high nucleotide identity to SARS-CoV and to SARS-related coronaviruses that have been detected in horseshoe bats, has spread across the world and had a global effect on healthcare systems and economies1,2. A suitable small animal model is needed to support the development of vaccines and therapies. Here we report the pathogenesis and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 in golden (Syrian) hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Immunohistochemistry assay demonstrated the presence of viral antigens in nasal mucosa, bronchial epithelial cells and areas of lung consolidation on days 2 and 5 after inoculation with SARS-CoV-2, followed by rapid viral clearance and pneumocyte hyperplasia at 7 days after inoculation. We also found viral antigens in epithelial cells of the duodenum, and detected viral RNA in faeces. Notably, SARS-CoV-2 was transmitted efficiently from inoculated hamsters to naive hamsters by direct contact and via aerosols. Transmission via fomites in soiled cages was not as efficient. Although viral RNA was continuously detected in the nasal washes of inoculated hamsters for 14 days, the communicable period was short and correlated with the detection of infectious virus but not viral RNA. Inoculated and naturally infected hamsters showed apparent weight loss on days 6-7 post-inoculation or post-contact; all hamsters returned to their original weight within 14 days and developed neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that features associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in golden hamsters resemble those found in humans with mild SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mesocricetus/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aerosols , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/isolation & purification , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Duodenum/virology , Fomites/virology , Housing, Animal , Kidney/virology , Male , Mesocricetus/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load , Weight Loss
19.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 218, 2020 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387198

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cardiac Glycosides/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bufanolides/chemistry , Bufanolides/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cardiac Glycosides/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Digoxin/chemistry , Digoxin/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Phenanthrenes/chemistry , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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