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1.
J Addict Med ; 16(6): e412-e416, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117594

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Consumption of high potency alcohol is associated with greater healthcare burden, yet little attention has been placed on the change in types of alcohol consumed during the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimate the change in alcohol consumption by beverage type attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism provided apparent alcohol consumption ("consumption") by beverage type for 10 states for January 2017 through November 2020 based on sales and tax data. The 38-month period to February 2020 was used to train quasi-Poisson regression models. The models then predicted the monthly consumption based on the historical trends in the absence of the COVID-19 pandemic from March through November 2020. The difference between the observed and predicted is the change in consumption attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Beyond what was expected based on historical trends, spirits consumption increased significantly for 6 states (Colorado, Massachusetts, Missouri, North Dakota, Minnesota, and Tennessee) ranging from 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1%-6%) to 17% (95% CI 6%-28%) which is equivalent to 7 (95% CI 2-18) to 32 95% CI 12-48) excess standard spirits drinks per-capita; Alaska, Florida, Illinois, and Kentucky had no significant change. Wine consumption increased 10% (95% CI 3%-18%) in Colorado and 8% (95% CI 3%-12%) in Tennessee. Wine consumption in Alaska decreased 6% (95% CI, 3%-10%) and beer consumption decreased 8% (95% CI 4%-11%). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, spirits consumption increased relative to wine and beer. Increased consumption of higher potency alcohol beverages could lead to higher alcohol-related healthcare and societal burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Alcoholic Beverages/analysis , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Beverages , Ethanol/analysis
2.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(9): e370-e372, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2030117

ABSTRACT

The obesity epidemic remains a major public health issue worldwide, and it is pronounced in the United States. As rates of obesity continue to increase, children now experience obesity at younger ages, which predisposes them to early-onset obesity-related diseases. Of note, Black and Hispanic children experience obesity at higher rates compared with their White counterparts. Although there are many factors that contribute to higher rates of obesity, the increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is one such contributor. Despite the dire state of obesity in these populations, sugar-sweetened beverage companies continue to increase their advertisements to Black and Hispanic children, which can negatively influence the childhood obesity epidemic. This article discusses the effect that sugar-sweetened beverages and their advertisements have on children in underrepresented communities. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(9):e370-e372.].


Subject(s)
Advertising , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Beverages/adverse effects , Beverages/analysis , Child , Dietary Sucrose , Hispanic or Latino , Humans , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Pediatric Obesity/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Sugars/adverse effects , United States/epidemiology
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(9): 570-577, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022473

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization recommends economic measures such as taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods and beverages as part of a comprehensive strategy for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. However, progress in adopting these so-called health taxes has been hampered, in part, by different approaches and perceptions of key issues in different sectors of government. Health promotion is the responsibility of health policy-makers, while taxation is the mandate of finance ministries. Thus, strengthening cooperation between health and finance policy-makers is central to the successful adoption and implementation of effective health taxes. In this paper we identify the shared concerns of finance and health policy-makers about health taxes with the aim of enabling more effective cross-sector cooperation towards both additional financing for health systems and changes in unhealthy behaviours. For example, new approaches to supporting health taxation include the growing priority for health-system financing due to the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases, and the need to address the health and economic damage due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. As a result, high-level efforts to achieve progress on health taxes are gaining momentum and represent important progress towards using the combined expertise of health and finance policy-makers.


L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé recommande l'adoption de mesures économiques telles que des taxes sur le tabac, l'alcool ainsi que les boissons et aliments nocifs pour la santé dans le cadre d'une vaste stratégie de prévention des maladies non transmissibles. Cependant, les progrès en la matière ont rencontré des obstacles, notamment en raison de la différence d'approche et de perception des principaux enjeux à divers niveaux du gouvernement. La promotion de la santé relève de la politique sanitaire, tandis que la taxation est la mission du ministère des Finances. Accentuer la coopération entre les responsables de la santé et des finances est donc indispensable à la réussite de l'instauration et de la mise en œuvre de taxes sanitaires efficaces. Dans le présent document, nous identifions les préoccupations partagées tant par les responsables de la santé que par ceux des finances concernant les taxes sanitaires, dans le but d'intensifier la collaboration entre les secteurs. Objectif: débloquer des fonds supplémentaires pour les systèmes de santé et favoriser l'abandon des comportements nuisibles à la santé. Parmi les nouvelles approches de soutien aux taxes sanitaires, citons par exemple une plus grande priorité accordée au financement du système de santé afin de réduire la charge croissante que font peser les maladies non transmissibles, et la nécessité de réparer les dégâts économiques et sanitaires causés par la pandémie de maladie à coronavirus 2019. Ainsi, les efforts visant à développer les taxes sanitaires gagnent du terrain et représentent une avancée considérable vers une valorisation de l'expertise conjointe entre ministère de la Santé et ministère des Finances.


La Organización Mundial de la Salud recomienda la adopción de medidas económicas como los impuestos sobre el tabaco, el alcohol y los alimentos y bebidas poco saludables como parte de una estrategia global de prevención de las enfermedades no transmisibles. Sin embargo, los avances en la adopción de estos llamados impuestos saludables se han retrasado, en parte, por los diferentes enfoques y percepciones de las cuestiones clave en los distintos sectores del gobierno. La promoción de la salud es competencia de los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias, mientras que la fiscalidad es el mandato de los ministerios de Hacienda. Por lo tanto, el fortalecimiento de la cooperación entre los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias y financieras es fundamental para el éxito de la adopción y aplicación de sistemas fiscales sanitarios eficaces. En este documento, se identifican las preocupaciones que comparten los responsables de formular las políticas financieras y sanitarias en relación con los impuestos saludables, con el fin de permitir una cooperación intersectorial más eficaz, tanto en lo que respecta a la financiación adicional de los sistemas sanitarios como a la modificación de los comportamientos poco saludables. Por ejemplo, entre los enfoques nuevos para apoyar la fiscalidad sanitaria se encuentran la creciente prioridad de la financiación de los sistemas sanitarios debido a una mayor carga de enfermedades no transmisibles, y la necesidad de solucionar los daños sanitarios y económicos debidos a la pandemia de la enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019. En consecuencia, los esfuerzos de alto nivel para lograr avances en materia de impuestos saludables están cobrando impulso y representan un avance importante hacia el uso de la experiencia combinada de los responsables de formular las políticas sanitarias y financieras.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Beverages , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Food , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Taxes
4.
Nutrition ; 103-104: 111794, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015889

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore psychological distress, lifestyle, and demographic factors, as well as their relationship to discretionary choices in women of reproductive age during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Australia. METHODS: Reproductive-aged women (18-50 y) in Australia participated in a national online survey. Psychological distress score (using a validated 10-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale questionnaire) was the primary exposure of interest, and key outcomes were frequencies of discretionary choices (sugar-sweetened beverages [SSBs], alcohol, and discretionary foods). Sociodemographic and physical activity data were also collected. Logistic regression was used to report adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval to predict SSBs (less than weekly; most days/daily), total discretionary foods (none/<2 times/d; ≥3 times/d), and alcohol use (never/less than monthly; most weeks/daily). RESULTS: A total of 1005 women were included in the study, of whom 40% had a high level of psychological distress. Women with high psychological distress (aOR: 1.96; 95% CI, 1.32-2.91) and those who gained weight during the pandemic (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI, 1.10-2.65) were more likely to consume discretionary foods ≥3 times/d. There was no association between psychological distress and SSB intake or alcohol; however, Australian, New Zealander, or Pacific Islander background (aOR: 1.68; 95% CI, 1.21-2.33) and more hours of sitting time (aOR: 1.88; 95% CI, 1.07-3.29) were associated with SSB consumption on most days/daily. Older age (aOR: 1.70; 95% CI, 1.00-2.89), higher household income (aOR: 1.44; 95% CI, 1.08-1.92), and moderate or high physical activity (aOR: 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.80) were associated with alcohol intake on most weeks/daily. CONCLUSIONS: Public health messaging to promote healthy eating should take into account the effect of psychological distress on health behavior. Messages aimed at maintaining a positive relationship between food intake and mental wellbeing, particularly among vulnerable groups, are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Beverages , Australia/epidemiology
5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1557, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Taxes on discretionary foods and sugar-sweetened beverages have emerged as a strategy for health promotion. Between 2018-2019, the Bermuda government introduced a phased tax on imported sugar-sweetened beverages, confectionery, products containing cocoa and pure sugar, and eliminated import duties on select healthy food items. The aim of this study was to conduct an mixed methods evaluation of perceptions of the tax among the general population and key stakeholders. METHODS: We conducted a survey of the general population (N = 400), and semi-structured interviews with key informants (N = 14) from the government, food and beverage, and health sectors to understand awareness, acceptability, and perceived impact of the tax after implementation. Survey data was analysed using thematic analysis, summary statistics, and Chi-squared tests. Key informant interviews were analysed using the framework method. RESULTS: General population respondents had high awareness of the sugar tax (94%) but low awareness of the healthy food subsidy (32%). Most respondents (67%) felt the tax was not an appropriate way to motivate healthier consumption due to beliefs the tax would not be effective (44%), and because of the high price of healthy food (20%). However, nearly half (48%) reported consuming fewer taxed products, primarily for health reasons but also motivated by price increases. Key informants indicated there was high awareness but limited understanding of the tax policy. Informants expressed support for taxation as a health promotion strategy, conditional on policy implementation. The lack of clear price differentiation between taxed and un-taxed products and the absence of accompanying health education were key factors believed to affect the impact of the tax. No informants were aware of use of tax revenues for health purposes and tax revenue was reportedly re-directed to other priorities after implementation. CONCLUSIONS: There was high awareness, but limited acceptability of the Bermuda sugar tax as implemented. Clarity in the tax policy, appropriateness of the tax mechanism, and use of revenue in alignment with the tax aim are critical components for acceptance. The absence of complementary education and health promotion affected acceptance and may limit potential health impacts. The lessons learned in Bermuda can inform similar policies in other settings.


Subject(s)
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Sugars , Bermuda , Beverages , Commerce , Humans , Taxes
6.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e64, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972473

ABSTRACT

Marketing influences consumers' dietary purchases. However, little is known about marketing environments in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)-authorised stores. The present study explored SNAP-authorised store marketing environments in Louisiana by rurality, store ownership and store type (n 42). Sampling methods were designed to include randomly selected stores in each geographic area of the state. The GroPromo was used to measure placement, promotion, and child-focused aspects of marketing strategies used for healthier (fruits and vegetables) and less healthy products (chips, candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, child-focused cereal) in medium- and high-prominence marketing areas. In using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) (P < 0⋅05) for data analysis, variations in GroPromo scores were found among SNAP-authorised stores by rurality (P < 0⋅05) and store ownership (P < 0⋅001); no differences were found by store type (P > 0⋅05). Future research, practice and policy strategies are required to understand the influence of marketing environments on SNAP participants' dietary quality and to design responsive public health interventions.


Subject(s)
Food Assistance , Beverages , Commerce , Food Supply , Humans , Marketing , Poverty
7.
J Public Health Policy ; 43(2): 281-291, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908357

ABSTRACT

Increasing rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) (obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dental caries) are positively associated with the consumption of added sugars, particularly in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Governments worldwide have implemented SSB taxes to reduce the consumption of sugars added to beverages to reduce the prevalence of NCDs. There is a tax on manufactured products, including SSBs in Brazil. However, in 2016 and 2018, the Brazilian federal government decreased the tax rate, bucking global trends. The SSB industry has criticised such policies, and current tax levels are too low to reduce consumption sufficiently to prevent harm. Research supports positive public health impact potential for a higher SSB tax in Brazil. Sharing experience among countries and complementary policies (nutrition education and front of pack labelling) could increase the positive impacts of an SSB tax. We describe the history of SSB taxes in Brazil and the rationale it provides for specific SSB taxes across the country.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Beverages , Brazil/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Humans , Sugars , Taxes
8.
Intern Med J ; 52(6): 1089-1092, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861357

ABSTRACT

The post-COVID-19 care era is likely to see a burgeoning of metabolic dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Attention to self-care, including nutrition, will underpin the management of those affected. The damaging effects of sugar-sweetened beverages are well documented and profound and counter many accepted medical treatments. Government leadership is urgently required with explicit and strong messaging to avoid sugar-sweetened beverages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Beverages , Humans , Sugars
9.
Appetite ; 174: 106047, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850648

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to have altered parents' daily feeding practices, including what and how much they feed their children, which may have negative implications for children's weight. The primary aim of this study was to examine patterns of and variation in parents' daily food and beverage offerings at dinner across 10 days during the COVID-19 pandemic using descriptive analysis and non-parametric tests. Ninety-nine parents (Mage = 32.90, SDage = 5.60) of children ages 2-4 years (M = 2.82, SD = 0.78) completed an online baseline survey and 10 daily surveys (929 completed surveys) assessing their daily food and beverage offerings at dinner. On average, parents did not offer recommended foods and beverages on a daily basis; parents offered vegetables and protein most often across the 10 days, however, less than 50% of parents offered the recommended serving size for each group. The intraclass correlations and random sampling plots revealed considerable within-parent variation in food and beverage offerings. Eating dinner as a family, planning dinner in advance, and preparing a homemade dinner were associated with more vegetable and protein offerings, while processed, fast, or fried foods were offered less often when dinner was planned or homemade. Dairy, water, and refined grains were offered more often when dinner was homemade, while whole grains, processed, fast, or fried foods, and sugar-sweetened beverages were offered less often when dinner was homemade. The results provide documentation of parents' daily food and beverage offerings at dinner within the context of COVID-19 and point towards the importance of examining predictors and consequences of parents' daily feeding practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Beverages , Child , Child, Preschool , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Meals , Pandemics , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vegetables
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(8): 1203-1207, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821356

ABSTRACT

After lung transplantation, itraconazole (ITCZ) is used as a prophylaxis for aspergillosis. ITCZ is a weak base with high lipophilicity, and the dissolution and absorption of ITCZ tablets and capsules are pH dependent. Therefore, ITCZ may not achieve sufficient serum concentrations in patients with higher gastric pH because of its poor bioavailability. We report a case of a woman in fifties with post-COVID-19 respiratory failure who successfully underwent lung transplantation, followed by improved bioavailability of ITCZ tablets when given with acidic lemon beverages. The patient was initially administered ITCZ oral solution; this was discontinued because of its unpleasant taste, nausea, and vomiting. The ITCZ oral solution was replaced with ITCZ tablets 78 days after transplantation; however, serum concentrations of ITCZ and hydroxy-ITCZ were below the detection limit (100 ng/mL). We co-administered ITCZ tablets with commercially available lemon beverages. Subsequently, serum concentrations of ITCZ and hydroxy-ITCZ increased to 341 and 673 ng/mL, respectively, on the 125th day after transplantation. Infection with fungi, including Aspergillus spp., was not observed in this case. The patient had no adverse events such as gastric ulcer or hyperglycemia. These results suggest that the co-administration of lemon beverages and ITCZ tablets may help achieve better absorption of ITCZ in patients taking acid suppressants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Transplantation , Antifungal Agents , Beverages , Female , Humans , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Lung , Tablets , Transplant Recipients
11.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 10(2): 93-94, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665595

Subject(s)
Motivation , Taxes , Beverages , Humans
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 292: 114537, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500265

ABSTRACT

Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is associated with obesity and independently associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Not only is obesity a growing public health problem, but it is also most recently associated with increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. Taxes on SSBs are a policy tool used to help curb SSB consumption and are currently implemented in 7 U.S. cities and more than 40 countries. On July 1, 2017, Oakland, California, implemented a 1-cent/ounce tax on SSBs with ≥25 kilocalories/12 ounces. This study estimated the impact of the Oakland tax on prices, volume sold, and cross-border shopping two-years post-tax relative to one-year pre-tax. Universal product code-level Nielsen retail scanner data on non-alcoholic beverage sales were analyzed using a difference-in-differences design with Sacramento, California, as the comparison site. Taxed beverage prices increased by 0.67 cents/ounce, on average, in Oakland relative to Sacramento, corresponding to 67% pass-through. Taxed beverage volume sold decreased by 18% in Oakland relative to Sacramento, with a larger decrease for family-size beverages (23%) relative to individual-size beverages (8%). There was a 9% increase in volume sold of taxed beverages in the two-mile border area surrounding Oakland relative to the Sacramento border area, driven by a 12% increase for family-size taxed beverages. After accounting for this cross-border shopping, there was a net decrease of 6% in taxed beverage volume sold in Oakland. There was no significant change in untaxed beverage volume sold in either Oakland or its border area relative to their respective comparison sites, suggesting there was no substitution to untaxed beverages and cross-border shopping may have been limited to taxed beverages. This two-year post-tax study of the Oakland SSB tax adds to the limited number of longer-term evaluations of local U.S. SSB taxes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Beverages , Commerce , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Taxes
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 25(1): 1-12, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483067

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare and evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on the livestreaming platforms Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming, as well as examine growth of food and beverage marketing on these platforms over a 17-month period of data collection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were analysed across three livestreaming platforms and six food and beverage categories: alcohol, candy, energy drinks, snacks, sodas and restaurants. SETTING: Stream titles of livestreamed events as well as corresponding hours watched on Twitch, Facebook Gaming and YouTube Gaming. PARTICIPANTS: None. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the use of food and beverage brand mentions in stream titles across all three studied platforms (P < 0·05), as well as hours watched across platforms (P < 0·05). Energy drinks dominated food and beverage brand mentions across platforms, followed by restaurants, soda and snacks. All platforms demonstrated growth over the 17-month data collection period. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the COVID-19 pandemic impacted both immediate and sustained growth across all platforms, with the greatest impact observed on the Twitch platform. CONCLUSIONS: Food and beverage marketing as measured through stream titles is widely prevalent across the three most popular livestreaming platforms, particularly for energy drinks. Food marketing on these platforms experienced growth over the past 17 months which was accelerated substantially by the COVID-19 pandemic. Future work should assess the sustained impact this growth may have on marketing practices and eating behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Energy Drinks , Social Media , Video Games , Beverages , Candy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Marketing , Pandemics , Prevalence , Restaurants , SARS-CoV-2 , Snacks
15.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394978

ABSTRACT

The beverage hydration index (BHI) facilitates a comparison of relative hydration properties of beverages using water as the standard. The additive effects of electrolytes, carbohydrate, and protein on rehydration were assessed using BHI. Nineteen healthy young adults completed four test sessions in randomized order: deionized water (W), electrolytes only (E), carbohydrate-electrolytes (C + E), and 2 g/L dipeptide (alanyl-glutamine)-electrolytes (AG + E). One liter of beverage was consumed, after which urine and body mass were obtained every 60 min through 240 min. Compared to W, BHI was higher (p = 0.007) for C + E (1.15 ± 0.17) after 120 min and for AG + E (p = 0.021) at 240 min (1.15 ± 0.20). BHI did not differ (p > 0.05) among E, C + E, or AG + E; however, E contributed the greatest absolute net effect (>12%) on BHI relative to W. Net fluid balance was lower for W (p = 0.048) compared to C + E and AG + E after 120 min. AG + E and E elicited higher (p < 0.001) overall urine osmolality vs. W. W also elicited greater reports of stomach bloating (p = 0.02) compared to AG + E and C + E. The addition of electrolytes alone (in the range of sports drinks) did not consistently improve BHI versus water; however, the combination with carbohydrate or dipeptides increased fluid retention, although this occurred earlier for the sports drink than the dipeptide beverage. Electrolyte content appears to make the largest contribution in hydration properties of beverages for young adults when consumed at rest.


Subject(s)
Beverages/analysis , Dehydration/prevention & control , Dietary Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Dietary Proteins/pharmacology , Electrolytes/pharmacology , Water-Electrolyte Balance/physiology , Adult , Dietary Carbohydrates/urine , Dietary Proteins/urine , Double-Blind Method , Electrolytes/analysis , Electrolytes/urine , Female , Humans , Male , Time Factors , Water/administration & dosage , Young Adult
16.
Global Health ; 17(1): 91, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding how the development of obesogenic food environments and the consumption of ultra-processed foods and beverages influence each other can help policymakers to identify effective ways to curb the current obesity epidemic. This paper was designed to investigate whether, and to what extent, the consumption of soft drinks and the prevalence of obesity are linked through feedback effects. METHODS: An ecological study design and a simultaneous equation model were used to investigate the existence of a vicious cycle between the consumption of soft drinks and the prevalence of obesity. The analysis was based on a longitudinal dataset covering per capita sales of soft drinks, the age-standardised prevalence rate of obesity and several demographic and socio-economic control variables in a sample of 98 countries worldwide for the period 2005-2019. RESULTS: Using a Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) regression model with fixed effects, we documented a self-reinforcing process that links consumption and obesity. Changes in the spread of obesity were associated with changes in soft drink consumption: a one-unit increase in the age-adjusted prevalence rate of obesity increased consumption by about 2.39 l per person per year. Similarly, as the consumption of soft drinks rose, so did the prevalence of obesity: the age-adjusted rate of obesity increased by 0.07% for every additional litre consumed per capita. Computing the impact multipliers, we found that the outcome of a one-unit decrease in the average price of soft drinks was twofold: a) the prevalence of obesity increased by around 0.17%; and b) consumption increased by around 2.40 l per person, the sum of the increase directly caused by the price reduction (2 l) and the increase due to the interplay between consumption and obesity (0.4 l). CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified a feedback loop between unhealthy habits (i.e. the consumption of soft drinks) and health outcomes (i.e. the prevalence of obesity). This interplay amplifies the impact of any exogenous changes in the determinants of consumption and obesity. These feedback effects should be considered and exploited in planning effective strategies to tackle the burden of obesity and the global epidemic of non-​communicable diseases.


Subject(s)
Beverages , Carbonated Beverages , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Commerce , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Sweetening Agents
17.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(7): 704-708, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In early 2020, a global outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused high mortality rates and public panic. Worldwide demand for personal protective equipment has risen, with diminishing supplies and shortages reported. During the pandemic, charitable donations have been made by the public, aimed at helping medical staff. Based on the open data, we investigate the charitable in-kind donations received by a large medical center in northern Taiwan (Taipei Veterans General Hospital [TPEVGH]) in Taiwan during the pandemic. METHODS: The period of investigation was the first half of the year 2020. TPEVGH has received various public donations. The list of donations published on the hospital's official website was analyzed. The variables in the analysis were donation category, donation percentage, number of donations, and total donation amount. RESULTS: Most in-kind donations were food and beverages (55.1%), with a monetary value of 3 124 510 New Taiwan Dollars (NTD) (24.3%). Medical equipment accounted for the second-highest number of items (34.8%) but was the highest monetary value (70.6%; 9 275 945 of 12 875 855 NTD). Daily necessities accounted for the lowest number of items (10.1%) and had a total monetary value of 475 400 NTD (3.7%). Over two-thirds were beverages (68.4%), all of which were bottles or cans for easy storage. Despite only five items (13.2%) being juice, the donation size was the largest, accounting for nearly half (47.1%) of the total monetary value. Only one item was fruit, which was high-class organic apples. The monetary value of this item was the highest (7.8%) among all donated food. Most donated snacks were biscuits. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most public donations to TPEVGH were food and daily necessities. While every donation should be appreciated, accepting high volumes of donations might incur donation management problems. Further research could be focused on managerial aspects, for example, quality and safety checking, storage, and distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Beverages , Charities/statistics & numerical data , Food , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Taiwan/epidemiology
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302309

ABSTRACT

Background: in the context of the ongoing obesity epidemic and increase in cases of metabolic disorders among the population, it is significant, from the health, nutritional, and economic point of view, to a look at the habits of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption of adults in Poland. This study aims to determine the sweetened beverages, which are the most popular and most frequently consumed by Polish consumers in correlation with sex, age, income, and education of the studied group of adults. Methods: The survey study was based on the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) and was conducted on a representative sample of 500 adult Poles, within the period from May to June 2020. The fundamental stage of the survey included the question, which asked the respondents to assess the frequency of consuming selected eleven sweetened or unsweetened beverages. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were considered when evaluating whether these factors aligned with the behaviors regarding the frequency of beverage consumption. Results: The consumption of SSBs tends to decrease along with consumer's age. A decrease, which could be associated with level of consumers' education level and correlation with income could not be verified. Adults drink sugar sweetened beverages less often than younger consumers, and women drink them less often than men. Conclusions: Identification of the frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage intake can indicate directions for further national or regional action against the spread of obesity. Moreover, attention should be drawn to young males who consume beverages abundant in high sugar most often.


Subject(s)
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Adult , Beverages , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Sugars
19.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(15): 4812-4822, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the promotion of discretionary foods/beverages and marketing strategies employed by the top three online food delivery services' (OFDS) Instagram accounts in three countries before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: Publicly available data were extracted for the top three OFDS Instagram accounts for Australia, United Kingdom (UK) and the United States of America (USA) from March to May 2019 and 2020. Food/beverage items from posts were classified as 'discretionary' or from the five food groups (FFG) according to the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Marketing strategies were coded using an existing framework. Posts referring to COVID-19 were coded under four marketing strategies: (i) appropriating frontline workers; (ii) combatting the pandemic; (iii) selling social distancing; and (iv) accelerating digitalisation. RESULTS: From 581 posts, 618 food/beverage items were shown, of which 69 % (427/618) were classified as discretionary. In 2019, the most used marketing strategies were product imagery (unbranded) (137/195, 70 %), links (111/195, 57 %) and sponsorships/partnerships (58/195, 30 %). In 2020, the most used were links (252/386, 68 %), product imagery (unbranded) (179/386, 49 %) and branding elements (175/386, 45 %). The most common COVID-19 marketing strategy was combatting the pandemic (76/123, 62 %) followed by selling social distancing (53/123, 43 %), appropriating frontline workers (34/123, 28 %) and accelerating digitalisation (32/123, 26 %). CONCLUSIONS: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, OFDS adapted their marketing, creating content with the theme of 'combatting the pandemic'. Due to the growing number of discretionary foods/beverages promoted on Instagram, this highlights the need for policy action to counter the potential influence social media platforms have on dietary behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Australia/epidemiology , Beverages , Food , Humans , Marketing , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231469

ABSTRACT

There is no standardized or validated definition or measure of "child-appeal" used in food and beverage marketing policy or research, which can result in heterogeneous outcomes. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to develop and validate the child-appealing packaging (CAP) coding tool, which measures the presence, type, and power of child-appealing marketing on food packaging based on the marketing techniques displayed. Children (n = 15) participated in a mixed-methods validation study comprising a binary classification (child-appealing packaging? Yes/No) and ranking (order of preference/marketing power) activity using mock breakfast cereal packages (quantitative) and focus group discussions (qualitative). The percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa statistic, Spearman's Rank correlation, and cross-classification analyses tested the agreement between children's and the CAP tool's evaluation of packages' child-appeal and marketing power (criterion validity) and the content analysis tested the relevance of the CAP marketing techniques (content validity). There was an 80% agreement, and "moderate" pairwise agreement (κ [95% CI]: 0.54 [0.35, 0.73]) between children/CAP binary classifications and "strong" correlation (rs [95% CI]: 0.78 [0.63, 0.89]) between children/CAP rankings of packages, with 71.1% of packages ranked in the exact agreement. The marketing techniques included in the CAP tool corresponded to those children found pertinent. Pilot results suggest the criterion/content validity of the CAP tool for measuring child-appealing marketing on packaging in accordance with children's preferences.


Subject(s)
Food , Marketing , Beverages , Child , Food Packaging , Humans , Pilot Projects
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