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1.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to reassess the relationship between phototherapy and cancer in an extended version of a previous cohort and to replicate a report from Quebec of increased cancer risk after phototherapy beginning at age 4 years. METHODS: This cohort study included 139 100 children born at ≥35 weeks' gestation from 1995 to 2017, followed through March 16, 2019, in Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals who had a qualifying bilirubin level from -3 mg/dL to +4.9 mg/dL from the American Academy of Pediatrics phototherapy threshold; an additional 40 780 children and 5 years of follow-up from our previous report. The exposure was inpatient phototherapy (yes or no), and the outcomes were various types of childhood cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard models, controlling for propensity-score quintiles, and allowed for time-dependent exposure effects to assess for the risk of cancer after a latent period. RESULTS: Over a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.2 (5.7) years, the crude incidence of cancer per 100 000 person-years was 25.1 among those exposed to phototherapy and 19.2 among those not exposed (233 cases of cancer). After propensity adjustment, phototherapy was not associated with any cancer (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.54), hematopoietic cancer (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.74-1.83), or solid tumors (HR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.65-1.58). We also found no association with cancer diagnoses at age ≥4 years. CONCLUSIONS: We did not confirm previous, concerning associations between phototherapy and adjusted risk of any cancer, nonlymphocytic leukemia, or brain and/or central nervous systems tumors in later childhood.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms/etiology , Phototherapy/adverse effects , Bilirubin/blood , California/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Epidemiologic Methods , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Negative Results , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Time Factors
2.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(5): 570-587, 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver chemistries are common findings in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association of these abnormalities with the severity of COVID-19 and clinical outcomes is poorly understood. AIM: We aimed to assess the prevalence of elevated liver chemistries in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and compare the serum liver chemistries to predict the severity and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included 3380 patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized in the Johns Hopkins Health System (Baltimore, MD, United States). Demographic data, clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment measures, and outcome data were collected. Cox regression modeling was used to explore variables associated with abnormal liver chemistries on admission with disease severity and prognosis. RESULTS: A total of 2698 (70.4%) had abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT) at the time of admission. Other more prevalent abnormal liver chemistries were aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (44.4%), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (16.1%), and total bilirubin (T-Bil) (5.9%). Factors associated with liver injury were older age, Asian ethnicity, other race, being overweight, and obesity. Higher ALT, AST, T-Bil, and ALP levels were more commonly associated with disease severity. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that abnormal AST and T-Bil were associated with the highest mortality risk than other liver injury indicators during hospitalization. Abnormal AST, T-Bil, and ALP were associated with a need for vasopressor drugs, whereas higher levels of AST, T-Bil, and a decreased albumin levels were associated with mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: Abnormal liver chemistries are common at the time of hospital admission in COVID-19 patients and can be closely related to the patient's severity and prognosis. Elevated liver chemistries, specifically ALT, AST, ALP, and T-Bil levels, can be used to stratify risk and predict the need for advanced therapies in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver/chemistry , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Baltimore , Bilirubin , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Pulm Med ; 2021: 4496488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495709

ABSTRACT

When managing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, radiological imaging complements clinical evaluation and laboratory parameters. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of chest radiography findings in detecting COVID-19, describe those findings, and assess the association of positive chest radiography findings with clinical and laboratory findings. A multicentre, cross-sectional study was conducted involving all primary health care corporation-registered patients (2485 patients) enrolled over a 1-month period during the peak of the 2020 pandemic wave in Qatar. These patients had reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 and underwent chest radiography within 72 hours of the swab test. A positive result on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was the gold standard for diagnosing COVID-19. The sensitivity of chest radiography was calculated. The airspace opacities were mostly distributed in the peripheral and lower lung zones, and most of the patients had bilateral involvement. Pleural effusion was detected in some cases. The risk of having positive chest X-ray findings increased with age, Southeast Asian nationality, fever, or a history of fever and diarrhoea. Patients with cardiac disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease were at a higher risk of having positive chest X-ray findings. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean serum albumin, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and serum C-reactive protein, hepatic enzymes, and total bilirubin with an increase in the radiographic severity score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Fever , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/metabolism , Noncommunicable Diseases , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Primary Health Care , Qatar/epidemiology , Race Factors , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serum Albumin , X-Rays , Young Adult
4.
J Autoimmun ; 125: 102741, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482678

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is still raging across the world and vaccination is expected to lead us out of this pandemic. Although the efficacy of the vaccines is beyond doubt, safety still remains a concern. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who experienced acute severe autoimmune hepatitis two weeks after receiving the first dose of Moderna-COVID-19 vaccine. Serum immunoglobulin G was elevated and antinuclear antibody was positive (1:100, speckled pattern). Liver histology showed a marked expansion of the portal tracts, severe interface hepatitis and multiple confluent foci of lobular necrosis. She started treatment with prednisolone, with a favorable clinical and analytical evolution. Some recent reports have been suggested that COVID-19 vaccination can lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. It is speculated that the vaccine can disturb self-tolerance and trigger autoimmune responses through cross-reactivity with host cells. Therefore, healthcare providers must remain vigilant during mass COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/etiology , Jaundice/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Antibodies, Antinuclear/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Female , Fibrosis/pathology , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/immunology , Humans , Jaundice/diagnosis , Liver/enzymology , Middle Aged , Molecular Mimicry/immunology , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388491
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(22)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388434

ABSTRACT

The coronaviral spike is the dominant viral antigen and the target of neutralizing antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 spike binds biliverdin and bilirubin, the tetrapyrrole products of heme metabolism, with nanomolar affinity. Using cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography, we mapped the tetrapyrrole interaction pocket to a deep cleft on the spike N-terminal domain (NTD). At physiological concentrations, biliverdin significantly dampened the reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 spike with immune sera and inhibited a subset of neutralizing antibodies. Access to the tetrapyrrole-sensitive epitope is gated by a flexible loop on the distal face of the NTD. Accompanied by profound conformational changes in the NTD, antibody binding requires relocation of the gating loop, which folds into the cleft vacated by the metabolite. Our results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 spike NTD harbors a dominant epitope, access to which can be controlled by an allosteric mechanism that is regulated through recruitment of a metabolite.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Heme/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Bilirubin/metabolism , Biliverdine/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes , Humans , Immune Sera , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14557, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280317

ABSTRACT

AIM: An urgent need to define clinical and laboratory parameters to predict progression to the severe and lethal forms of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To investigate the direct/total bilirubin ratio (D/TBil), as a novel parameter, to predict the poor survival of COVID-19 Pneumonia. METHODS: The clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters of hospitalised COVID-19 pneumonia patients were analysed from 20 March to August 1, 2020, in a tertiary hospital, retrospectively. All remarkable variables were selected for a forward stepwise binary logistic regression analysis to define the independent risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: 537 (248 women and 289 men) patients were separated into two groups for analysis: survivors vs deceased. The mean age of the deceased group was statistically significantly higher than the survivor group 72 (30-92) years vs 50 (18-97) years (P < .001). D/TBil, age, gender, hypertension and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) variables contributed significantly to the binary logistic regression model. The mortality risk increased 14.6 times in patients with D/TBil > 0.5, and 2.4 times in patients with NLR > 4. CONCLUSION: D/TBil > 0.5 was associated with a novel parameter to poor survival of COVID-19 on admission. Also, the combination of age, gender, the presence of hypertension, D/TBil and NLR contributed significantly to predicting the poor survival of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bilirubin , Female , Humans , Male , Neutrophils , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomaterials ; 275: 120986, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275155

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is an irreparable and life-threatening disease with only limited therapeutic options. The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has caused a sharp rise in the incidence of pulmonary fibrosis owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection-mediated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The considerable oxidative damage caused by locally infiltrated immune cells plays a crucial role in ARDS, suggesting the potential use of antioxidative therapeutics. Here, we report the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles derived from the endogenous antioxidant and anti-inflammatory bile acid, bilirubin (BRNPs), in treating pulmonary fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced mouse model of the disease. Our results demonstrate that BRNPs can effectively reduce clinical signs in mice, as shown by histological, disease index evaluations, and detection of biomarkers. Our findings suggest that BRNPs, with their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, long blood circulation half-life, and preferential accumulation at the inflamed site, are potentially a viable clinical option for preventing Covid-19 infection-associated pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Bilirubin , Humans , Mice , Nanomedicine , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(4): 713-718, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225362

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed at providing evidence to consider sex differences in interpretations of laboratory parameters of severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: For 118 diabetic patients, laboratory measurements and clinical outcomes were compared between males and females. This study also compared inflammatory ratios obtained from combinations of six inflammatory markers between the two groups. The risk factors for mortality were identified through logistic regression. RESULTS: Males were 54 (45.8%) and females were 64 (54.2%). Males showed a significant increase in ALT (P = 0.003), CRP (P = 0.03), mean platelet volume (MPV)-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.001), and C-reactive protein-to-albumin ratio (P = 0.044), whereas females had a significant increase in lymphocytes (P < 0.005) and MPV (P = 0.01). In all participants, multivariate analysis illustrated that older age, male sex, increased serum total bilirubin, and decreased PO2 were significant independent predictors of mortality (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In severe COVID-19 patients with diabetes, there were significant sex differences in many laboratory characteristics with a higher risk of mortality among males.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Health Status Disparities , Age Factors , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Male , Mean Platelet Volume , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors
11.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(5): e23767, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different disease severities of COVID-19 patients could be reflected on clinical laboratory findings. METHODS: In this single-centered retrospective study, demographic, clinical, and laboratory indicators on and during admission were compared among 74 participants with mild, moderate, critical severe, or severe classification. Risk factors associated with disease severity were analyzed by multivariate analyses. The AUC and 95% CI of the ROC curve were calculated. RESULTS: The most common manifestations of these patients were fever and cough. Critical severe or severe group owned the longest length of stay (23 (19,31), p < 0.001). After multivariate logistic regression, independent influence factors on admission for severity of disease were CK-MB (OR 0.674; 95% CI 0.489-0.928; p = 0.016), LDH (OR 1.111 or 1.107; 95% CI 1.026-1.204 or 1.022-1.199; p = 0.009 or 0.013), normal T-BIL (OR 4.58 × 10-8 ; 95% CI 3.05 × 10-9 -6.88 × 10-7 ; p < 0.001), LYM% (OR 0.008; 95% CI 0-0.602; p = 0.029), and normal ESR (OR 0.016; 95% CI 0-0.498; p = 0.019). Factors during hospitalization were normal T-BIL (OR 8.56 × 10-9 ; 95% CI 8.30 × 10-10 -8.83 × 10-8 ; p < 0.001), LYM (OR 0.068; 95% CI 0.005-0.934; p = 0.044), albumin (OR 0.565; 95% CI 0.327-0.977; p = 0.041), and normal NEU% (OR 0.013; 95% CI 0.000-0.967; p = 0.048). Combined indicators of AUC were 0.860 (LYM, LDH, and normal ESR on admission, p < 0.001) and 0.750 (CK-MB, LDH, and normal T-BIL during hospitalization, p = 0.020) when predicting for severe or critical severe patients. CONCLUSION: To pay close attention to the progression of COVID-19 and take measures promptly, we should be cautious of the laboratory indicators when patients on admission especially CK-MB, LDH, LYM%, T-BIL as well as ESR; and T-BIL, LYM, albumin, NEU% with the process of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , Blood Sedimentation , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107701, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 or Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak which caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome, has rapidly spread over the world. The exact mechanism how this virus will affect the liver remained elusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the liver function in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and potential causes of hepatic enzymes disease in these patients. Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings were collected from patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the corona center in Erbil city/Kurdistan region of Iraq, from March 10 to July 10, 2020. Serum was collected from patients with COVID-19 and liver enzyme tests were measured. Liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TBIL) were analyzed in these patients. Of the 74 patients, 25 (34.7%) had abnormal ALT activity, 28 (40%) had abnormal AST activity, 12 (20.3%) had abnormal ALP activity, and 39 (52.7%) had abnormal total bilirubin P-value < 0.05. The inflammatory biomarkers CRP and IL-6 in COVID-19 patients with abnormal liver function test (4.9 ± 1.0 mg/dl) and (231.2 ± 35.7 pg/ml) respectively. The levels of both biomarkers were statistically significantly higher than COVID-19 patients with normal liver function test (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) and (2.1 ± 0.5 mg/dl) respectively, P-value < 0.05. However, CRP and IL-6 were not statistically significant different between male and female COVID-19 patients P-value < 0.05. In conclusion, we found that most of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 have abnormal hepatic enzyme activities and that is might related to virus replication in the liver.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/virology , Liver/enzymology , Liver/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Carrier State/blood , Child , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/enzymology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/virology , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Young Adult
13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 640529, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190303

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study examined changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels during hospitalization and their effect on risk of death for Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients without previously diagnosed diabetes. A model with low- and high-stable pattern trajectories was established based on a longitudinal change in FBG levels. We analyzed FBG trajectory-associated clinical features and risk factors for death due to COVID-19. Of the 230 enrolled patients, 44 died and 87.83% had a low-stable pattern (average FBG range: 6.63-7.54 mmol/L), and 12.17% had a high-stable pattern (average FBG range: 12.59-14.02 mmol/L). There were statistical differences in laboratory findings and case fatality between the two FBG patterns. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that increased neutrophil count (odds ratio [OR], 25.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.07, 313.03), elevated direct bilirubin (OR, 5.80; 95%CI: 1.72, 19.58), elevated creatinine (OR, 26.69; 95% CI: 5.82, 122.29), lymphopenia (OR, 8.07; 95% CI: 2.70, 24.14), and high-stable FBG pattern (OR, 8.79; 95% CI: 2.39, 32.29) were independent risk factors for higher case fatality in patients with COVID-19 and hyperglycemia but no history of diabetes. FBG trajectories were significantly associated with death risk in patients with COVID-19 and no diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Female , Glycemic Control , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hyperglycemia/blood , Hyperglycemia/mortality , Leukocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
14.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 672-680, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) has largely abated in China; however, sporadic or imported cases are still a concern, while in other countries, the COVID-19 pandemic persists as a major health crisis. METHODS: All patients enrolled in this study were diagnosed with COVID-19 from February 21, 2020 to April 14, 2020 in Wuhan. We retrospectively analyzed the patients admitted to the ICU (137 patients) and general wards (114 patients) of Wuhan Leishenshan Hospital in China. The population characteristics, symptoms, and laboratory examination results between the patients in the ICU and those in the general wards were compared. Furthermore, the differences between the deceased patients in the ICU and those discharged from the ICU were compared. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of symptoms, including fever, shortness of breath, no presence of complications, presence of 1 complication, and presence of 3 or more complications (P<0.05). There were also significant differences between the patients in terms of the laboratory examination results including elevated urea nitrogen, creatinine, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, total protein, albumin, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, procalcitonin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cells, C-reactive protein, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, interleukin 2 receptor, tumor necrosis factor-α, troponin I, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets, lymphocyte absolute value, and eosinophil absolute value (<0.05). There were 45 patients who died in ICU and 57 improved and discharged patients. There were significant differences between the two groups in the number of patients that had 1 complication and 3 or more complications (P<0.05). There were also significant differences in the laboratory examination results between the patients including elevated urea nitrogen, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, procalcitonin, white blood cells, interleukin 8, interleukin 10, phosphokinase isoenzyme-MB, and B-type natriuretic peptide; and decreased platelets and eosinophil absolute value (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight that the identified determinants may help to improve treatment of COVID-19 patients, to predict the risk of developing severe illness and to optimizing arrangement of health resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , Blood Cell Count , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Proteins/analysis , Blood Sedimentation , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/analysis , Cytokines/blood , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 64, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102335

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify high-risk factors for disease progression and fatality for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: We enrolled 2433 COVID-19 patients and used LASSO regression and multivariable cause-specific Cox proportional hazard models to identify the risk factors for disease progression and fatality. RESULTS: The median time for progression from mild-to-moderate, moderate-to-severe, severe-to-critical, and critical-to-death were 3.0 (interquartile range: 1.8-5.5), 3.0 (1.0-7.0), 3.0 (1.0-8.0), and 6.5 (4.0-16.3) days, respectively. Among 1,758 mild or moderate patients at admission, 474 (27.0%) progressed to a severe or critical stage. Age above 60 years, elevated levels of blood glucose, respiratory rate, fever, chest tightness, c-reaction protein, lactate dehydrogenase, direct bilirubin, and low albumin and lymphocyte count were significant risk factors for progression. Of 675 severe or critical patients at admission, 41 (6.1%) died. Age above 74 years, elevated levels of blood glucose, fibrinogen and creatine kinase-MB, and low plateleta count were significant risk factors for fatality. Patients with elevated blood glucose level were 58% more likely to progress and 3.22 times more likely to die of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, elevated glucose level, and clinical indicators related to systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organ failures, predict both the disease progression and the fatality of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Hyperglycemia/blood , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bilirubin/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , China/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin/metabolism , Time Factors
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 149: 110534, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082320

ABSTRACT

Bilirubin has been proven to possess significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Recently, it has been postulated as a metabolic hormone. Further, moderately higher levels of bilirubin are positively associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. However, due to poor solubility the therapeutic delivery of bilirubin remains a challenge. Nanotechnology offers unique advantages which may be exploited for improved delivery of bilirubin to the target organ with reduced risk of systemic toxicity. Herein, we postulate the use of intravenous administration or inhalational delivery of bilirubin nanomedicine (BNM) to combat systemic dysfunctions associated with COVID-19, owing to the remarkable preclinical efficacy and optimistic results of various clinical studies of bilirubin in non-communicable disorders. BNM may be used to harness the proven preclinical pharmacological efficacy of bilirubin against COVID-19 related systemic complications.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Nanomedicine/methods , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biliverdine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammation , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Models, Theoretical , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/metabolism , Risk , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1951-1954, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: - COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 leads to myriad range of organ involvement including liver dysfunction. AIM: To analyse the liver function in patients with COVID-19 and their association with respect to age, sex, severity of disease and clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study done at Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi. 91 patients admitted with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study and divided into asymptomatic, mild, moderate and severe groups. Liver function tests were compared among different severity groups. RESULTS: Of 91 patients with COVID-19, 70 (76.9%) had abnormal liver function. Aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin levels was 1-2 × ULN in 33(36.3%), 34(37.3%), 12(13.2%), 6(6.6%) cases and >2 × ULN in 20(22%), 18(19.8%), 7(7.7%) and 2 (2.2%) cases respectively. Mean AST and ALP levels among different severity groups of COVID-19 was statistically significant (p < 0.05) whereas mean ALT and total bilirubin levels was statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). There was no statistical difference between males and females with regard to abnormal liver function. Liver injury was seen in 64.3% cases of hypertension and 73.3% cases of diabetes. Fever, myalgia, headache and breathlessness were found to be correlated significantly with severity of disease. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is common in SARS-CoV-2 infection and is more prevalent in the severe disease group. Aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase are better indicators of covid-19 induced liver injury than alanine transaminase and total bilirubin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Liver Diseases/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Complications/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Female , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/complications , India , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
18.
Dig Dis ; 39(1): 52-57, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Abnormal liver function has been reported in patients with COVID-19 infection. The aim of our study was to report on the prevalence of liver injury in our cohort, to evaluate the association of mild versus severe liver injury with mortality in COVID-19 patients and to scrutinize the temporal pattern of viral detection and liver injury. METHODS: We present data from a German cohort of 147 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to their liver status during treatment. The first group included patients without elevated alanine aminotransferase or bilirubin, the third group patients meeting the biochemical criteria of acute liver failure (ALF), and the second group all other patients. RESULTS: Liver injury was detected in 75 (50.7%) and 93 (63%) patients by admission and during treatment, respectively. ALF was associated with the male sex, younger age, and higher BMI. Mortality was associated with the presence of ALF (OR = 9.423, 95% CI: 2.410-36.858) in contrast to milder liver injury (OR 1.101, 95% CI: 0.435-2.791). In 30% of patients with mild liver injury and in 50% of ALF patients, peak liver injury was observed at a time point when the virus was no longer detectable in the respiratory tract. CONCLUSION: Mild liver injury was not associated with worse outcome in our cohort, and the pattern of liver injury did not fit well to the theory of SARS-CoV-2 directly causing liver impairment. Instead, severe liver injury in our cohort was associated multiple-organ failure and acute vascular events.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Correlation of Data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/blood , Liver Failure, Acute/epidemiology , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/virology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(2): 106260, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a worldwide pandemic. However, the hazard to newborns in pregnancy remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the vertical transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from mother to child and developmental toxicity in the fetus. METHODS: All clinical information was recorded on 22 neonates born to mothers with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia in Tongji Hospital. RESULTS: The average birth weight of the 22 newborns (16 males and 6 females) was 2980 g, and the mean gestational week was 37W+3. The birth weight of three babies was <2500 g, and the gestational week of all three low-birth-weight neonates was less than 36W. Three newborns had minor lesions of infection in the lungs as shown by computed tomography (CT) scans. Furthermore, three newborns had elevated SARS-CoV-2-related immunoglobin M (IgM) antibodies, and 11 newborns (52.4%) had positive immunoglobin G (IgG) antibodies. Notably, both cystatin C and ß2-microglobulin were increased in all newborns. Five of the 21 tested newborns had leukocytosis, and 11 had increased neutrophil levels. In addition, the aspartate aminotransferase of 18 newborns and the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase of 19 newborns were increased. Total bilirubin was elevated in all newborns and serum albumin was reduced in 20 of 22 newborns. CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to discover that COVID-19 infection in the third trimester of pregnancy could cause fetal kidney developmental injury, as indicated by increased cystatin C and ß2-microglobulin in all neonates. Furthermore, there is the possibility of maternal-fetal transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Kidney Diseases/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Kidney Diseases/embryology , Male , Neutrophils , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/etiology , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Retrospective Studies , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(24): 13072-13088, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000854

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Liver involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been reported in several papers, but without homogeneous findings. We aimed to systematically review the prevalence of liver involvement in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection at their hospital admission, and its correlation with disease severity and clinical outcomes in patients with or without pre-existing chronic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, PMC, clinical trial registries, and other Coronavirus family publications for studies reporting data on SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 and liver function tests (LFTs) alterations, as well as clinical course of patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis. Case reports, preprints, editorials, reviews were excluded. We also revised literature to describe the background of liver involvement during SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: 36 studies, including 20724 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, were included. The pooled prevalence of LFTs abnormalities at admission was 46.9% (AST 26.5%, ALT 22.8%, GGT 22.5%, ALP 5.7%, tBIL 8.0%). ALT, AST, tBIL were independent predictors of disease severity (ALT OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.17-2.03; AST OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.10-4.77; tBIL OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.18-4.58) and in-hospital mortality (ALT OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.96; AST OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.68-7.18; tBIL OR 7.75, 95% CI 2.28-26.40). Heterogeneity among studies was high. The few available data also reported that COVID-19 was associated with increased risk of liver decompensation and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: LFTs alterations were reported in up to 47% of unselected patients with COVID-19 and were associated with severe disease or in-hospital mortality. In cirrhotic patients, COVID-19 was associated with high risk of liver decompensation or mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Alkaline Phosphatase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Function Tests , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , gamma-Glutamyltransferase/blood
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