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1.
Nature ; 602(7896): 294-299, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532071

ABSTRACT

The B.1.1.7 variant (also known as Alpha) of SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic, emerged in the UK in the summer of 2020. The prevalence of this variant increased rapidly owing to an increase in infection and/or transmission efficiency1. The Alpha variant contains 19 nonsynonymous mutations across its viral genome, including 8 substitutions or deletions in the spike protein that interacts with cellular receptors to mediate infection and tropism. Here, using a reverse genetics approach, we show that of the 8 individual spike protein substitutions, only N501Y resulted in consistent fitness gains for replication in the upper airway in a hamster model as well as in primary human airway epithelial cells. The N501Y substitution recapitulated the enhanced viral transmission phenotype of the eight mutations in the Alpha spike protein, suggesting that it is a major determinant of the increased transmission of the Alpha variant. Mechanistically, the N501Y substitution increased the affinity of the viral spike protein for cellular receptors. As suggested by its convergent evolution in Brazil, South Africa and elsewhere2,3, our results indicate that N501Y substitution is an adaptive spike mutation of major concern.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding, Competitive , Bronchi/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
2.
Pharmacol Res ; 172: 105820, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531713

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which enter the host cells through the interaction between its receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike glycoprotein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the plasma membrane of host cell. Neutralizing antibodies and peptide binders of RBD can block viral infection, however, the concern of accessibility and affordability of viral infection inhibitors has been raised. Here, we report the identification of natural compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors using the molecular docking-based virtual screening coupled with bilayer interferometry (BLI). From a library of 1871 natural compounds, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 (RRg3), 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (SRg3), isobavachalcone (Ibvc), isochlorogenic A (IscA) and bakuchiol (Bkc) effectively inhibited pseudovirus entry at concentrations up to 100 µM. Among these compounds, four compounds, EGCG, Ibvc, salvianolic acid A (SalA), and isoliensinine (Isl), were effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-induced cytopathic effect and plaque formation in Vero E6 cells. The EGCG was further validated with no observable animal toxicity and certain antiviral effect against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus mutants (D614G, N501Y, N439K & Y453F). Interestingly, EGCG, Bkc and Ibvc bind to ACE2 receptor in BLI assay, suggesting a dual binding to RBD and ACE2. Current findings shed some insight into identifications and validations of SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors from natural compounds.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding, Competitive , Biological Products/pharmacology , Catechin/analogs & derivatives , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cell Membrane/ultrastructure , Chalcones/pharmacology , Chlorogenic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Humans , Interferometry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phenols/pharmacology , Protein Binding
3.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512993

ABSTRACT

Background: Administration of potent anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) monoclonal antibodies has been shown to curtail viral shedding and reduce hospitalization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the structure-function analysis of potent human anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies and its links to the formulation of antibody cocktails remains largely elusive. Methods: Previously, we isolated a panel of neutralizing anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies from convalescent patients and showed their neutralization efficacy in vitro. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of action of antibodies and dissect antibodies at the epitope level, which leads to a formation of a potent antibody cocktail. Results: We found that representative antibodies which target non-overlapping epitopes are effective against wild type virus and recently emerging variants of concern, whilst being encoded by antibody genes with few somatic mutations. Neutralization is associated with the inhibition of binding of viral RBD to ACE2 and possibly of the subsequent fusion process. Structural analysis of representative antibodies, by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography, reveals that they have some unique aspects that are of potential value while sharing some features in common with previously reported neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. For instance, one has a common VH 3-53 public variable region yet is unusually resilient to mutation at residue 501 of the RBD. We evaluate the in vivo efficacy of an antibody cocktail consisting of two potent non-competing anti-RBD antibodies in a Syrian hamster model. We demonstrate that the cocktail prevents weight loss, reduces lung viral load and attenuates pulmonary inflammation in hamsters in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Although neutralization of one of these antibodies is abrogated by the mutations of variant B.1.351, it is also possible to produce a bi-valent cocktail of antibodies both of which are resilient to variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and B.1.617.2. Conclusions: These findings support the up-to-date and rational design of an anti-RBD antibody cocktail as a therapeutic candidate against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Dogs , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(1): e2102181, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487434

ABSTRACT

Combinatorial antibody libraries not only effectively reduce antibody discovery to a numbers game, but enable documentation of the history of antibody responses in an individual. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has prompted a wider application of this technology to meet the public health challenge of pandemic threats in the modern era. Herein, a combinatorial human antibody library constructed 20 years before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is used to discover three highly potent antibodies that selectively bind SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. Compared to neutralizing antibodies from COVID-19 patients with generally low somatic hypermutation (SHM), these three antibodies contain over 13-22 SHMs, many of which are involved in specific interactions in their crystal structures with SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain. The identification of these somatically mutated antibodies in a pre-pandemic library raises intriguing questions about the origin and evolution of these antibodies with respect to their reactivity with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , Binding, Competitive , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Peptide Library , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
5.
Cell ; 184(15): 3936-3948.e10, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260677

ABSTRACT

In this study we profiled vaccine-induced polyclonal antibodies as well as plasmablast-derived mAbs from individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 spike mRNA vaccine. Polyclonal antibody responses in vaccinees were robust and comparable to or exceeded those seen after natural infection. However, the ratio of binding to neutralizing antibodies after vaccination was greater than that after natural infection and, at the monoclonal level, we found that the majority of vaccine-induced antibodies did not have neutralizing activity. We also found a co-dominance of mAbs targeting the NTD and RBD of SARS-CoV-2 spike and an original antigenic-sin like backboost to spikes of seasonal human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1. Neutralizing activity of NTD mAbs but not RBD mAbs against a clinical viral isolate carrying E484K as well as extensive changes in the NTD was abolished, suggesting that a proportion of vaccine-induced RBD binding antibodies may provide substantial protection against viral variants carrying single E484K RBD mutations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , RNA, Messenger/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Binding, Competitive , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Mutation/genetics , Protein Domains , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/genetics
7.
Cell ; 184(9): 2316-2331.e15, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135277

ABSTRACT

Most human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 recognize the spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain and block virus interactions with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. We describe a panel of human mAbs binding to diverse epitopes on the N-terminal domain (NTD) of S protein from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent donors and found a minority of these possessed neutralizing activity. Two mAbs (COV2-2676 and COV2-2489) inhibited infection of authentic SARS-CoV-2 and recombinant VSV/SARS-CoV-2 viruses. We mapped their binding epitopes by alanine-scanning mutagenesis and selection of functional SARS-CoV-2 S neutralization escape variants. Mechanistic studies showed that these antibodies neutralize in part by inhibiting a post-attachment step in the infection cycle. COV2-2676 and COV2-2489 offered protection either as prophylaxis or therapy, and Fc effector functions were required for optimal protection. Thus, natural infection induces a subset of potent NTD-specific mAbs that leverage neutralizing and Fc-mediated activities to protect against SARS-CoV-2 infection using multiple functional attributes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis/genetics , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Vero Cells
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 848, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069106

ABSTRACT

The causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, is steadily mutating during continuous transmission among humans. Such mutations can occur in the spike (S) protein that binds to the ACE2 receptor and is cleaved by TMPRSS2. However, whether S mutations affect SARS-CoV-2 cell entry remains unknown. Here, we show that naturally occurring S mutations can reduce or enhance cell entry via ACE2 and TMPRSS2. A SARS-CoV-2 S-pseudotyped lentivirus exhibits substantially lower entry than that of SARS-CoV S. Among S variants, the D614G mutant shows the highest cell entry, as supported by structural and binding analyses. Nevertheless, the D614G mutation does not affect neutralization by antisera against prototypic viruses. Taken together, we conclude that the D614G mutation increases cell entry by acquiring higher affinity to ACE2 while maintaining neutralization susceptibility. Based on these findings, further worldwide surveillance is required to understand SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility among humans.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 837, 2021 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065863

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses of bats and pangolins have been implicated in the origin and evolution of the pandemic SARS-CoV-2. We show that spikes from Guangdong Pangolin-CoVs, closely related to SARS-CoV-2, bind strongly to human and pangolin ACE2 receptors. We also report the cryo-EM structure of a Pangolin-CoV spike protein and show it adopts a fully-closed conformation and that, aside from the Receptor-Binding Domain, it resembles the spike of a bat coronavirus RaTG13 more than that of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Evolution, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pangolins/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
SLAS Discov ; 26(5): 620-627, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021348

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, evades the human immune system by capping its RNA. This process protects the viral RNA and is essential for its replication. Multiple viral proteins are involved in this RNA capping process, including the nonstructural protein 16 (nsp16), which is an S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent 2'-O-methyltransferase. Nsp16 is significantly active when in complex with another nonstructural protein, nsp10, which plays a key role in its stability and activity. Here we report the development of a fluorescence polarization (FP)-based RNA displacement assay for nsp10-nsp16 complex in a 384-well format with a Z' factor of 0.6, suitable for high-throughput screening. In this process, we purified the nsp10-nsp16 complex to higher than 95% purity and confirmed its binding to the methyl donor SAM, the product of the reaction, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH), and a common methyltransferase inhibitor, sinefungin, using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The assay was further validated by screening a library of 1124 drug-like compounds. This assay provides a cost-effective high-throughput method for screening the nsp10-nsp16 complex for RNA competitive inhibitors toward developing COVID-19 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/pharmacology , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Fluorescence Polarization , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Methyltransferases , Protein Binding , RNA Caps/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Caps/genetics , RNA Caps/metabolism , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/genetics , Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication
11.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1162: 122469, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947269

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of the novel pathogenic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is responsible for a worldwide pandemic. In sight of this, there has been growing interest in the use of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as potential treatments. In this study, we use angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) over-expressed cell membrane chromatography (CMC) to study the interaction of CQ and HCQ with ACE2 receptor. Both CQ and HCQ were retained on the ACE2/CMC column. Then we analyzed the binding character of CQ and HCQ to ACE2 by CMC frontal analysis, ionic force investigation and competitive binding experiment. Results showed that CQ and HCQ KD values obtained from the CMC frontal analysis method were 8.22(±0.61) × 10-7 M and 11.70(±2.44) × 10-7 M. Compare to CQ, HCQ has the weaker affinity with ACE2. The action force of CQ, HCQ and ACE2 is mainly ionic force. CQ and HCQ have different degrees of competitive binding relationship with ACE2. Our study revealed the interaction of CQ and HCQ with ACE2 receptor, which provides new insights for the use of CQ and HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19. Moreover, this biomimetic drug screening method is expected to open the door for rapid targeting and separating bioactive ingredients active towards ACE2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/drug effects , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Binding, Competitive/drug effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Chromatography/methods , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(48): 30610-30618, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922309

ABSTRACT

Peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) is a central component of the immune system, and understanding the mechanism behind stable peptide-MHC binding will aid the development of immunotherapies. While MHC binding is mostly influenced by the identity of the so-called anchor positions of the peptide, secondary interactions from nonanchor positions are known to play a role in complex stability. However, current MHC-binding prediction methods lack an analysis of the major conformational states and might underestimate the impact of secondary interactions. In this work, we present an atomically detailed analysis of peptide-MHC binding that can reveal the contributions of any interaction toward stability. We propose a simulation framework that uses both umbrella sampling and adaptive sampling to generate a Markov state model (MSM) for a coronavirus-derived peptide (QFKDNVILL), bound to one of the most prevalent MHC receptors in humans (HLA-A24:02). While our model reaffirms the importance of the anchor positions of the peptide in establishing stable interactions, our model also reveals the underestimated importance of position 4 (p4), a nonanchor position. We confirmed our results by simulating the impact of specific peptide mutations and validated these predictions through competitive binding assays. By comparing the MSM of the wild-type system with those of the D4A and D4P mutations, our modeling reveals stark differences in unbinding pathways. The analysis presented here can be applied to any peptide-MHC complex of interest with a structural model as input, representing an important step toward comprehensive modeling of the MHC class I pathway.


Subject(s)
Major Histocompatibility Complex , Markov Chains , Models, Molecular , Peptides/metabolism , Alanine/genetics , Binding, Competitive , Computer Simulation , DNA Mutational Analysis , Mutation/genetics , Proline/metabolism , Protein Binding
13.
Science ; 369(6508): 1261-1265, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697063

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on host cells to initiate entry, and soluble ACE2 is a therapeutic candidate that neutralizes infection by acting as a decoy. By using deep mutagenesis, mutations in ACE2 that increase S binding are found across the interaction surface, in the asparagine 90-glycosylation motif and at buried sites. The mutational landscape provides a blueprint for understanding the specificity of the interaction between ACE2 and S and for engineering high-affinity decoy receptors. Combining mutations gives ACE2 variants with affinities that rival those of monoclonal antibodies. A stable dimeric variant shows potent SARS-CoV-2 and -1 neutralization in vitro. The engineered receptor is catalytically active, and its close similarity with the native receptor may limit the potential for viral escape.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Engineering , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Binding Sites , Binding, Competitive , Cell Line , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutagenesis , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Multimerization , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
14.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(9): 846-854, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-653285

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is more transmissible than previous coronaviruses and causes a more serious illness than influenza. The SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor as a prelude to viral entry into the cell. Using a naive llama single-domain antibody library and PCR-based maturation, we have produced two closely related nanobodies, H11-D4 and H11-H4, that bind RBD (KD of 39 and 12 nM, respectively) and block its interaction with ACE2. Single-particle cryo-EM revealed that both nanobodies bind to all three RBDs in the spike trimer. Crystal structures of each nanobody-RBD complex revealed how both nanobodies recognize the same epitope, which partly overlaps with the ACE2 binding surface, explaining the blocking of the RBD-ACE2 interaction. Nanobody-Fc fusions showed neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 (4-6 nM for H11-H4, 18 nM for H11-D4) and additive neutralization with the SARS-CoV-1/2 antibody CR3022.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/ultrastructure , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Models, Molecular , Peptide Library , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/ultrastructure , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Receptors, Virus/ultrastructure , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Single-Domain Antibodies/metabolism , Single-Domain Antibodies/ultrastructure , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
15.
Nature ; 584(7821): 443-449, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647154

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health1 and the medical countermeasures available so far are limited2,3. Moreover, we currently lack a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-24. Here we analyse a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies that target the spike (S) glycoprotein5, and identify several that exhibit potent neutralizing activity and fully block the receptor-binding domain of the S protein (SRBD) from interacting with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Using competition-binding, structural and functional studies, we show that the monoclonal antibodies can be clustered into classes that recognize distinct epitopes on the SRBD, as well as distinct conformational states of the S trimer. Two potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, COV2-2196 and COV2-2130, which recognize non-overlapping sites, bound simultaneously to the S protein and neutralized wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus in a synergistic manner. In two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, passive transfer of COV2-2196, COV2-2130 or a combination of both of these antibodies protected mice from weight loss and reduced the viral burden and levels of inflammation in the lungs. In addition, passive transfer of either of two of the most potent ACE2-blocking monoclonal antibodies (COV2-2196 or COV2-2381) as monotherapy protected rhesus macaques from SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results identify protective epitopes on the SRBD and provide a structure-based framework for rational vaccine design and the selection of robust immunotherapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cross Reactions , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
Nature ; 584(7819): 120-124, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381744

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1-3, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)4, has spread globally. Countermeasures are needed to treat and prevent further dissemination of the virus. Here we report the isolation of two specific human monoclonal antibodies (termed CA1 and CB6) from a patient convalescing from COVID-19. CA1 and CB6 demonstrated potent SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralization activity in vitro. In addition, CB6 inhibited infection with SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus monkeys in both prophylactic and treatment settings. We also performed structural studies, which revealed that CB6 recognizes an epitope that overlaps with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-binding sites in the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain, and thereby interferes with virus-receptor interactions by both steric hindrance and direct competition for interface residues. Our results suggest that CB6 deserves further study as a candidate for translation to the clinic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Crystallization , Crystallography, X-Ray , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load/immunology
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2070, 2020 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116533

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019, and there are currently no specific antiviral treatments or vaccines available. SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to use the same cell entry receptor as SARS-CoV, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). In this report, we generate a recombinant protein by connecting the extracellular domain of human ACE2 to the Fc region of the human immunoglobulin IgG1. A fusion protein containing an ACE2 mutant with low catalytic activity is also used in this study. The fusion proteins are then characterized. Both fusion proteins have a high binding affinity for the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 and exhibit desirable pharmacological properties in mice. Moreover, the fusion proteins neutralize virus pseudotyped with SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins in vitro. As these fusion proteins exhibit cross-reactivity against coronaviruses, they have potential applications in the diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Neutralization Tests , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Binding, Competitive/drug effects , Cross Reactions , Drug Design , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Membrane Fusion/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/genetics , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/pharmacokinetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/pharmacology , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Stability , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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