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1.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(11-12): 479-489, 2022 11 16.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As a largely social behaviour, substance use may have decreased for some youth overall in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, continued use may indicate nonadherence to pandemic-related restrictions and social distancing measures. In a sample of Canadian adolescents (aged 12-19 years), our objective was to examine how substance use (cannabis, binge drinking, cigarettes, vaping) is associated with perceptions of, and adherence to, early COVID-19-related public health measures, taking into consideration sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were retrieved from online data collected during Year 8 of the COMPASS school-based study, during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic (May-July 2020) in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. We fitted two models using generalized estimating equations to examine how substance use was associated with separate measures of (1) perceptions of, and (2) adherence to early COVID-19 restrictions. RESULTS: In our sample, 10% of adolescents perceived COVID-19 restrictions as too weak and 14% perceived them as too strict. Nearly half (46%) reported taking restrictions very seriously, and 5% did not take them seriously at all. Binge drinking, cigarette use and vaping were associated with perceptions that restrictions were too strict and with nonadherence. However, adolescents who used cannabis were less likely to perceive COVID-19-related restrictions as too strict. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the association of adolescent substance use with perceptions of, and adherence to, COVID-19-related public health restrictions in Canada. Our findings emphasize a need for continual monitoring of substance use behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic to better characterize adolescent risk and further inform targeted public health strategies accordingly.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Canada/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , British Columbia
2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 240: 109620, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007656

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population-level statistics on pandemic-related change in substance use can obscure patterns of use (e.g., polysubstance use) within individuals. This longitudinal study used a person-centered approach to identify subgroups with respect to patterns of substance use prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to examine profile correlates (e.g., socio-demographic characteristics), which can inform tailored intervention. METHODS: The two youngest age cohorts of the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 938; 59.1 % Black, 40.9 % White; mean age= 26.2 (SD= 0.8)), a longitudinal community sample, provided data on past year frequency of cigarette/e-cigarette use, binge drinking (>4 drinks per occasion), and cannabis use prior to and during the pandemic, and perceived change in use. Latent profile analysis identified subgroups. Profile correlates were examined (e.g., sociodemographics, COVID-19 infection status and reported exposure, COVID-19 impacts on psychological health and finances). RESULTS: Seven profiles were identified: "Low use", "Occasional binge drinking", "Cannabis use", "Cigarette/e-cigarette & binge drinking", "Occasional binge drinking & cannabis", "Binge drinking & cannabis", and "Polysubstance use". Black women were overrepresented in "Low use", which was associated with fewer pandemic effects on health. Profiles associated with more frequent binge drinking were more likely to report COVID-19 infection, whereas "Cannabis use" had lower reported infection prevalence. "Polysubstance use" had more COVID-related depression and income loss, on average, than "Low use". CONCLUSIONS: Distinct subgroups representing single substance use, co-use, and polysubstance use prior to and during the pandemic were identified. The profiles show differential response to COVID-19 impacts, ranging from relative hardiness to specific needs to guide personalized treatment.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Humans , Adult , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Pandemics , Longitudinal Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Ethanol
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 854350, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952791

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Young adults have been overly affected by the containment measures against COVID-19 and, consequently, worsening in mental health and change in health behavior have been reported. Because the life phase of emerging adulthood is crucial for developing health behaviors, this study aims to examine increase in alcohol consumption, single and multiple binge drinking, and associated factors in students during lockdown and post-lockdown periods. Methods: A prospective open cohort study design with nine survey time points between April 2020 and June 2021 was conducted. The present study uses pooled data from the first survey T0 (3 April to 14 April) and follow-ups at T1 (30 April to 11 May 2020) and T2 (28 May to 8 June 2020). Students from all faculties of the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) (N = 12'431) were invited. Of the 1,300 students who participated at baseline and in at least one follow-up, 1,278 (98.3%) completed the questionnaires, final net sample size was 947. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models were used to investigate the factors associated with increases in alcohol consumption based on number of occasions/last 30 days; drinks/week, and binge drinking at T0, and respective changes at T1 and T2 (increases, decreases, no change). Results: Overall, 20% of Swiss university students reported an increased alcohol consumption and 26% engaged in binge drinking. Number of drinks at baseline was associated with a higher probability of increased alcohol consumption, as well as engaging in single and multiple binge drinking events. Higher anxiety scores were associated with a higher probability to increase the alcohol consumption and engaging at least once in binge drinking. Additional factors associated with any binge drinking were male gender, younger age and not living with parents. Higher perceived social support was only associated with engaging in heavy binge drinking. Conclusions: A substantial number of students developed a more risky health behavior regarding alcohol consumption. It is important to identify at risk students and design target prevention including factors such as age, gender and social norms. Further, health behavior and determinants of health behaviors of students should be carefully monitored during the further course of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/prevention & control , Binge Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
4.
Can J Public Health ; 113(5): 665-677, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine proportions and predictors of change in alcohol intake and binge drinking during the first 2 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic among middle-aged and older participants in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) COVID-19 Questionnaire Study. METHODS: A total of 28,559 (67.2% of the potential sample) CLSA participants consented to the study with 24,114 completing the exit survey (fall 2020). Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions to examine predictors of change (increase or decrease) in alcohol intake and binge drinking were performed. RESULTS: Among alcohol users, 26.3% reported a change in alcohol consumption during the first 10 months of the pandemic. Similar percentages increased (13.0%) or decreased (13.3%) consumption. In our mutually adjusted logistic regression model, odds of change in alcohol intake were greater for younger age, higher income, current cannabis smoker, positive screen for depression, anxiety, and loneliness. The magnitude of all associations for decreased intake was less than that of increased intake, and the directions were opposite for male sex and age. Predictors of current binge drinking (27.9% of alcohol users) included male sex, younger age, higher education and income, cannabis use, depression, and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Factors predictive of potentially worrisome alcohol use (i.e. increased intake, binge drinking) included younger age, sex, greater education and income, living alone, cannabis use, and worse mental health. Some of these factors were also associated with decreased intake, but the magnitudes of associations were smaller. This information may help direct screening efforts and interventions towards individuals at risk for problematic alcohol intake during the pandemic.


RéSUMé: OBJECTIF: Examiner les proportions et les prédicteurs des changements dans la consommation d'alcool et l'hyperalcoolisation rapide au cours des deux premières vagues de la pandémie de COVID-19 chez les personnes âgées et d'âge moyen ayant participé à l'étude par questionnaire sur la COVID-19 de l'Étude longitudinale canadienne sur le vieillissement (ELCV). MéTHODE: Un total de 28 559 participants de l'ELCV (67,2 % de l'échantillon potentiel) ont consenti à l'étude sur la COVID-19, et 24 114 ont répondu à l'enquête à la sortie (automne 2020). Nous avons procédé par statistique descriptive et par régression logistique pour examiner les prédicteurs des changements (augmentation ou diminution) dans la consommation d'alcool et l'hyperalcoolisation rapide. RéSULTATS: Chez les consommateurs d'alcool, 26,3 % ont déclaré un changement de leur consommation d'alcool au cours des 10 premiers mois de la pandémie. Un pourcentage semblable de consommateurs d'alcool avaient accru (13 %) ou diminué (13,3 %) leur consommation. Dans notre modèle de régression logistique mutuellement ajusté, la probabilité de changement dans la consommation d'alcool était plus élevée chez les répondants plus jeunes, les répondants au revenu élevé, les fumeurs de cannabis actuels et les répondants ayant fait état de dépression, d'anxiété ou de solitude. Les associations avec la diminution de la consommation étaient moins significatives qu'avec l'augmentation de la consommation, et elles allaient dans le sens opposé pour ce qui est du sexe masculin et de l'âge. Les prédicteurs de l'hyperalcoolisation rapide actuelle (27,9 % des consommateurs d'alcool) étaient le sexe masculin, l'âge plus jeune, l'instruction et le revenu élevés, la consommation de cannabis, la dépression et l'anxiété. CONCLUSION: Les facteurs pouvant prédire une consommation d'alcool potentiellement inquiétante (c.-à-d. consommation accrue, hyperalcoolisation rapide) étaient l'âge plus jeune, le sexe, l'instruction et le revenu élevés, le fait de vivre seul, la consommation de cannabis et la moins bonne santé mentale. Certains de ces facteurs étaient aussi associés à une consommation réduite, mais ces associations étaient moins significatives. Ces informations pourraient orienter les efforts de dépistage et les interventions auprès des personnes à risque de consommation problématique d'alcool durant la pandémie.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Aged , Aging/psychology , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(6): 1062-1072, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study characterized the prevalence, drinking patterns, and sociodemographic characteristics of U.S. adult subpopulations with distinct drinking trajectories during the COVID-19 pandemic's first 42 weeks. METHODS: Adult respondents (n = 8130) in a nationally representative prospective longitudinal study completed 21 biweekly web surveys (March 2020 to January 2021). Past-week alcohol drinking frequency (drinking days [range: 0 to 7]) and intensity (binge drinking on usual past-week drinking day [yes/no]) were assessed at each timepoint. Growth mixture models identified multiple subpopulations with homogenous drinking trajectories based on mean drinking days or binge drinking proportional probabilities across time. RESULTS: Four drinking frequency trajectories were identified: Minimal/stable (72.8% [95% CI = 71.8 to 73.8]) with <1 mean past-week drinking days throughout; Moderate/late decreasing (6.7% [95% CI = 6.2 to 7.3) with 3.13 mean March drinking days and reductions during summer, reaching 2.12 days by January 2021; Moderate/early increasing (12.9% [95% CI = 12.2 to 13.6) with 2.13 mean March drinking days that increased in April and then plateaued, ending with 3.20 mean days in January 2021; and Near daily/early increasing (7.6% [95% CI = 7.0 to 8.2]) with 5.58 mean March drinking days that continued increasing without returning to baseline. Four drinking intensity trajectories were identified: Minimal/stable (85.8% [95% CI = 85.0% to 86.5%]) with <0.01 binge drinking probabilities throughout; Low-to-moderate/fluctuating (7.4% [95% CI = 6.8% to 8%]) with varying binge probabilities across timepoints (range:0.12 to 0.26); Moderate/mid increasing (4.2% [95% CI = 3.7% to 4.6%]) with 0.39 April binge drinking probability rising to 0.65 during August-September without returning to baseline; High/early increasing trajectory (2.7% [95% CI = 2.3% to 3%]) with 0.84 binge drinking probability rising to 0.96 by June without returning to baseline. Males, Whites, middle-aged/older adults, college degree recipients, those consistently working, and those above the poverty limit were overrepresented in various increasing (vs. minimal/stable) frequency trajectories. Males, Whites, nonmarried, those without college degree, 18 to 39-year-olds, and middle aged were overrepresented in increasing (vs. minimal/stable) intensity trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Several distinct U.S. adult sociodemographic subpopulations appear to have acquired new drinking patterns during the pandemic's first 42 weeks. Frequent alcohol use assessment in the COVID-19 era could improve personalized medicine and population health efforts to reduce drinking.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethanol , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
6.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266422, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883668

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic exposure on changes in alcohol use and mood from years 1 to 2 after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) study design to analyze data from 1,059 individuals with moderate-to-severe TBI enrolled in the TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database. We defined COVID-19 pandemic exposure as participants who received their year 1 post-injury interviews prior to January 1, 2020, and their year 2 interview between April 1, 2020 and January 15, 2021. Pandemic-unexposed participants had both year 1 and 2 follow-up interviews before January 1, 2020. We measured current alcohol use as any past month alcohol use, average number of drinks per drinking occasion, and past month binge drinking. We measured depression symptoms using Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and anxiety symptoms using the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7. RESULTS: We found persons with TBI exposed to the pandemic had greater increases in the average number of drinks per occasion from year 1 to 2 post-injury compared to pandemic-unexposed individuals (ß = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.57, p = 0.001), with males, adults <65 years old, and Black and Hispanic subgroups showing the greatest increases in consumption. Though average consumption was elevated, changes in rates of any alcohol use or binge drinking by pandemic exposure were not observed. Overall, there were no significant changes in depressive and anxiety symptoms over time between pandemic exposed and unexposed groups; however, pandemic-exposed Hispanics with TBI reported significant increases in anxiety symptoms from year-1 to year-2 post-injury compared to pandemic-unexposed Hispanics (ß = 2.35, 95% CI: 0.25, 4.47, p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: Among persons living with TBI, those exposed to the pandemic had significant increases in average alcohol consumption. Pandemic-exposed Hispanics with TBI had large elevations in anxiety symptoms, perhaps reflecting health inequities exacerbated by the pandemic, and suggesting a need for targeted monitoring of psychosocial distress.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics
7.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 234: 109415, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is some evidence that alcohol use may have changed during the coronavirus pandemic. However, as yet, there has been comparatively little focus on heavy/excessive drinking. This study examined binge drinking (BD) in Japan during the coronavirus pandemic and its association with COVID-19 preventive behaviors. METHOD: Data were analyzed from an online sample of 1452 individuals aged 18 and above that were collected one year after the beginning of the pandemic. Self-reported information was obtained on current and pre-pandemic BD and a range of sociodemographic and health-related variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. RESULTS: Just under one-third of the sample (29.3%) reported past-month BD. More individuals reduced rather than increased BD during the pandemic (11.5% > 6.5%). Worsening household finances and depressive symptoms were associated with both current and increased BD, while young age (18-29) was linked to both increased and decreased BD. Individuals who binged had significantly lower odds for engaging in several COVID-19 preventive behaviors including wearing a mask (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.76), hand washing (OR: 0.58, 95%CI: 0.44-0.76) and avoiding crowds/staying at home (OR: 0.72, 95%CI: 0.55-0.93). CONCLUSION: BD is prevalent in Japan during the coronavirus pandemic and associated with poorer adherence to COVID-19 preventive behaviors. Increasing public awareness of the potentially detrimental effects of heavy alcohol use during the ongoing pandemic is now a public health priority.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Addict Behav ; 131: 107313, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827756

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drinking and nicotine use through June of 2021 in a community-based sample of young adults. METHOD: Data were from 348 individuals (49% female) enrolled in a long-term longitudinal study with an accelerated longitudinal design: the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) Study. Individuals completed pre-pandemic assessments biannually from 2016 to early 2020, then completed up to three web-based, during-pandemic surveys in June 2020, December 2020, and June 2021. Assessments when individuals were 18.8-22.4 years old (N = 1,458) were used to compare drinking and nicotine use pre-pandemic vs. at each of the three during-pandemic timepoints, adjusting for the age-related increases expected over time. RESULTS: Compared to pre-pandemic, participants were less likely to report past-month drinking in June or December 2020, but there was an increase in drinking days among drinkers in June 2020. By June 2021, both the prevalence of past-month drinking and number of drinking days among drinks were similar to pre-pandemic levels. On average, there were no statistically significant differences between pre-pandemic and during-pandemic time points for binge drinking, typical drinking quantity, or nicotine use. Young adults who reported an adverse financial impact of the pandemic showed increased nicotine use while their peers showed stable or decreased nicotine use. CONCLUSION: Initial effects of the pandemic on alcohol use faded by June 2021, and on average there was little effect of the pandemic on nicotine use.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Nicotine , Pandemics , Young Adult
9.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1139-1144, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805956

ABSTRACT

Background: Alcohol consumption in the U.S. is a public health problem that has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Relatedly, many states have responded to COVID-19 by relaxing their alcohol laws, making it possible for adults to have alcohol delivered to their homes. This study sought to understand the impact of allowing alcohol home delivery on self-reported adult alcohol consumption in the US. Methods: In May 2020, we surveyed a convenience sample of U.S. adults over 21 years of age recruited through social media and listservs. Eight hundred and thirty-two participants completed the online survey: 84% were female, 85% were White, and 72% were between the ages of 26 and 49. Results: Twenty-one percent of participants who consumed alcohol in the past month had at least some alcohol delivered, with 60% having it delivered from liquor stores, restaurants, or bars. The remainder of the participants purchased the alcohol in-person or owned it pre-COVID-19. Participants who reported having alcohol delivered also reported consuming more drinks (ß = 13.3; 95% CI [8.2, 18.4]; p < .000) and drinking on more days (ß = 5.0; 95% CI [2.9, 7.0]; p < .000) over the past month than participants who obtained alcohol through other methods. Participants who had alcohol delivered were nearly two times more likely to report engaging in binge drinking than those who obtained alcohol through other methods (OR = 1.96; 95% CI [1.3, 3.1]; p = .003). Conclusions: Obtaining alcohol through home delivery was associated with greater alcohol consumption including binge drinking. As states consider permanently allowing alcohol home delivery, it is important to consider the potential public health implications.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Social Media , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776231

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted many countries to issue far-reaching policy measures that may have led to increased substance use. Higher education students may have been disproportionally affected due to the rearrangement of educational life and their susceptibility to psychosocial distress and substance use. The current study examined associations between pandemic-related stressors, psychosocial distress, and self-reported alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use before and during the first wave of the pandemic. Data were collected in Belgium as part of the COVID-19 International Student Well-being Study (C19 ISWS) and analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses. The sample contained 18,346 higher education students aged 17 to 24 (75% women). Overall use of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis as well as binge drinking decreased during the pandemic, perhaps due to limited social gatherings. Moving back to the parental home was associated with decreased substance use, while depressive symptoms were associated with increased substance use. Perceived threat and academic stress were associated with increased binge drinking among heavy bingers and increased tobacco use. Decreases among students who moved back to their parental home may be explained by increased informal social control. Increased substance use was associated with a number of stressors and psychosocial distress, which suggests that some students may have been self-medicating to manage their mental health amidst the pandemic. Public health policy concerning substance use may prove to be less effective if not tailored to particular subgroups within the student population.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Belgium/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Drinking norms and motives accumulate with drinking experience; thus, it is likely that related drinking behaviors will differ with age. This study aimed to predict drinking behaviors by age based on drinking norms and motives in a sample of Korean women. METHODS: This exploratory study used a nationwide demographically stratified sample including 1057 women aged 19-59 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed participants' general drinking frequency and quantity, two drinking norms, and five dimensional motives. The data were analyzed using Spss 26. RESULTS: Descriptive and injunctive norms were the predictors that accounted for the greatest variance in drinking frequency, quantity, binge drinking, and high-risk drinking across all age groups (p < 0.001). Descriptive norms predicted all drinking behavior better than injunctive norms and all five motives for all age groups. The effects of each of the five motives differed with age. The enhancement motive was the strongest predictor of the motives for drinking frequency, binge drinking, and high-risk drinking across all age groups. Social and conformity motives predicted only binge drinking. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and enhancement motives predict drinking behaviors across all age groups, although the relative predictive strength of those variables differed by age.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 301: 114887, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740194

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study used U.S. national data to examine drinking trends prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, focusing on changes in U.S. young- and middle-adult alcohol prevalence, frequency, and drinking contexts and reasons, and whether they differed by age and college status. METHODS: Data from 2015 to 2020 from 16,987 young adults (ages 19-30) and 23,584 middle adults (ages 35-55) in the national Monitoring the Future study were used to model historical trends and potential 2020 shifts (data collection April 1 to November 30, 2020) in prevalence (30-day, daily, binge drinking) and frequency (30-day, binge drinking). For young adults, data on drinking contexts and negative affect reasons for drinking were examined. Moderation by age and college status was also tested. RESULTS: 2020 was associated with (1) downward deviation in 30-day (young and middle adults) and binge drinking (young adults) prevalence; (2) upward deviation in daily drinking prevalence (middle adults); (3) among drinkers, upward deviation in frequency of 30-day (young and middle adults) and binge drinking (young adults); and (4) changes in drinking contexts and reasons among drinkers. Among college students, in particular, 2020 was associated with a downward deviation from expected historical trends in drinking prevalence. Upward deviations in daily prevalence and both binge and 30-day drinking frequency were stronger at ages 25-30 (vs. 19-24) and 35-45 (vs. 50-55). CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. young and middle adults, deviations from expected historical trends in population alcohol use that occurred during the pandemic included decreases in alcohol use prevalence, increases in alcohol use frequency, and increases in the use of alcohol to relax/relieve tension and because of boredom. These shifts were likely due, in part, to drinking while alone and at home-which increased during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Universities , Young Adult
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 231: 109233, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, HIV experts suggested that an increase in mental health diagnoses and substance use among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may be an unintended consequence of COVID-19 mitigation efforts (e.g., limiting social contact). We evaluated short-term trajectories in binge drinking, marijuana, and recreational drug use in a prospective cohort of PLHIV. METHODS: Data (N = 2121 PLHIV) consist of survey responses on substance use behaviors from two pre-COVID-19 (October 2018-September 2019) and one COVID-19-era (April 2020-September 2020) timepoints within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). We conducted group-based trajectory models, triangulated with generalized linear mixed models, to assess changes in binge drinking, daily marijuana use, and recreational drug use at the start of the pandemic. Controlling for age and race/ethnicity, we tested whether trajectories differed by sex and early-pandemic depressive symptoms, loneliness, and social support. RESULTS: Group-based trajectory models yielded two trajectory groups for binge drinking (none vs. any), marijuana (none/infrequent vs. daily), and recreational drug use (none vs. any). Binge drinking and recreational drug use decreased at the beginning of the pandemic. Generalized linear mixed model supported these trends. Consistent with prior research, male sex and having depressive symptoms early pandemic were positively associated with each substance use outcomes. Social support was inversely associated with recreational drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to hypotheses, problematic substance use behaviors decreased from pre-pandemic to the post-pandemic follow-up in our sample of PLHIV. Ongoing surveillance is needed to assess whether this pattern persists as the pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Recreational Drug Use , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
14.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 36(7): 786-797, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702298

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Prospective research is needed to better-understand changes in substance use from before to during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, among emerging adults (18-25 years), a high-risk group for substance use. METHOD: N = 1,096 (weighted sample N = 1,080; 54% female) participants enrolled in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, who completed prepandemic (2019; 21 years) and COVID-19 (mid-March to mid-June 2020) surveys. COVID-19-related and preexisting factors were examined as moderators of change in substance use. RESULTS: Full sample analyses revealed decreased binge drinking (p < .001, Bayes factor [BF] = 22, Cohen's f² = 0.02), but no changes in alcohol and cannabis use. Stratified analyses revealed emerging adults who reported < monthly use prepandemic increased their alcohol use (p < .001, BF > 150, f² = 0.05) and binge drinking (p < .001, BF = 27, f² = 0.01), but not their cannabis use. Conversely, emerging adults who reported >monthly use prepandemic decreased their binge drinking (p < .001, BF > 150, f² = .12) and cannabis use (p < .001, BF > 150, f² = .06), but did not change their alcohol use frequency. Several factors moderated change in substance use, including employment loss (p = .005, BF > 39, f² = .03) and loneliness (p = .018, BF > 150, f² = .10) during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in alcohol and cannabis use frequency among emerging adults in the first 3 months of COVID-19 largely differed according to prepandemic substance use, COVID-19-related factors, and preexisting factors. While some youth with preexisting vulnerabilities (e.g., more frequent substance use prepandemic) remained stable or decreased their substance use during COVID-19, emerging adults who experienced employment loss, loneliness, and financial concerns during COVID-19 increased their substance use, highlighting the need for increased supports for vulnerable populations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Bayes Theorem , Birth Cohort , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
15.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 756-762, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe outbreak of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of Indians. AIM: The objective of this article was to find the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress and their socio-demographic correlates among Indian population during the lockdown to contain the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an electronic questionnaire. A total of 354 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), a 21-item self-reported questionnaire. RESULTS: In total, 25%, 28% and 11.6% of the participants were moderate to extremely severely depressed, anxious and stressed, respectively. Binary logistic regressions indicated employment status (odds ratio (OR) = 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.072-3.418) and binge drinking (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.045-3.945) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; gender (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.317-3.589), employment status (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.002-3.141) and binge drinking (OR = 2.62; 95% CI: 1.361-5.048) were significantly associated with anxiety symptoms; and binge drinking (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.544-7.583) was significantly associated with stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: Depression, anxiety and stress among Indian population during the lockdown were prevalent. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, mental health of citizens needs the urgent attention of the Indian government and mental health experts. Further large-scale studies should be conducted on different professions and communities such as health care professionals and migrant workers and incorporate other mental health indicators.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638680

ABSTRACT

Tobacco, alcohol and cannabis are commonly used among university students. However, student lives and their substance use have changed dramatically since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on (trends in) weekly smoking, weekly binge drinking and weekly cannabis use in Dutch university students and investigated associated student-, study- and COVID-19-related characteristics. Between April and June 2020, several Dutch higher educational institutes invited their students to participate in an online survey. Data of 9967 students (Mage = 22.0 (SD = 2.6); Nfemale = 7008 (70.3%)) were available for analyses. Overall, weekly smoking remained stable (±11.5%), weekly binge drinking decreased (from 27.8% to 13.9%) and weekly cannabis use increased (from 6.7% to 8.6%). Male gender, not living with parents, being a bachelor student, having less financial resources and less adherence to the COVID-19 measures were found to increase the risk of substance use (before/during the first COVID-19 lockdown). Additionally, male gender, not living with parents, being a bachelor student, not being born in the Netherlands and having a student loan contributed to the likelihood of increased substance use during COVID-19. Patterns of characteristics contributing to the likelihood of decreased weekly substance use during COVID-19 were less clear. The risk factors male gender, not living with parents and being a bachelor student do not only contribute to the likelihood of using substances but also contribute to the likelihood of increased use during a lockdown. Prevention and intervention programs should especially target these risk groups.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/epidemiology , Students , Young Adult
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430861

ABSTRACT

To "flatten the curve" of COVID-19 contagion, several countries ordered lockdowns amid the pandemic along with indications on social distancing. These social isolation measures could potentially bring alterations to healthy behavior, including to alcohol consumption. However, there is hardly any scientific evidence of the impact of such measures on alcohol consumption and binge drinking (BD) among young adults, and how they relate to alcohol craving, stress, anxiety, and depression levels. We addressed these questions by conducting a longitudinal study with 146 Portuguese college students-regular binge drinkers (regular BDs), infrequent binge drinkers (infrequent BDs) and non-binge drinkers (non-BDs)-in three moments: before the pandemic (Pre-Lockdown), during lockdown (Lockdown) and 6 months after (Post-Lockdown). Results revealed that regular BDs decreased alcohol use during Lockdown, a change in behavior that was even greater during Post-Lockdown, when regular BDs displayed similar levels of consumption to infrequent/non-BDs. Additionally, alcohol craving and living with friends were predictive of alcohol use during Lockdown, whereas stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms did not contribute to explain changes in drinking behavior. Collectively, the results suggest that BD in young Portuguese college students can be stopped when the contexts in which alcohol intake usually takes place are suppressed, which may have important implications for future prevention and intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Young Adult
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 656036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348571

ABSTRACT

Background: The health crisis associated with the COVID-19 pandemic is causally linked to negative mental health symptoms in the same way as other diseases such as Ebola. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the relationship between mental health symptoms, binge drinking, and the experience of abuse during the COVID-19 lockdown. Method: We surveyed 9,361 participants, all Mexican, with an average age of 33 years old (SD = 10.86). In this group of people, we found out that 59% were single (5,523), 71% were women (6,693). Forty-six percentage were complying with lockdown procedures (4,286), 50% were partially complying (4,682), and 4% were not complying at all (393). The invitation to participate was open from April 24th to April 30th during the second stage of the pandemic in Mexico, in 2020, characterized by voluntary complete lockdown staying at home. Thus, we used a cross-sectional online survey design to assess mental health risk factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was available on a WebApp designed by Linux®, PHP®, HTML®, CSS®, and JavaScript®. We calculated descriptive and inferential analysis to describe the mental health average distribution as a function of the lockdown, binge drinking, and experience of abuse. To calculate the reliability and validation of the subscales, we used Cronbach's Alpha and Factor Loading. We run the confirmatory factor loading analysis, and we described the relationship between each latent variable and its item factor load, obtained through structural modeling equations, derived from 179 iterations and 207 parameters (t [1,171] = 28,079.418, p < 0.001). We got a CFI of 0.947, a TLC of 0.940, an RMSEA of 0.049 (0.049-0.050), and an SRMR of 0.048. Findings: The results indicated that reported attitudes such as avoidance, sadness, withdrawal, anger, and anxiety were associated with acute stress, which was linked to an anxiety condition caused by uncertainty about achieving or maintaining overall good health. Discussion and Prospects: People in lockdown mentioned a sudden increase in alcohol consumption. They lived episodes of physical and emotional abuse, in contrast with those who stated that they did not go into lockdown or consume alcohol, or experienced abuse. Limitations: Further studies should diagnose mental health conditions as part of the impact of COVID-19, ensure their follow-up, and assess the effect of providing remote psychological care. There is a need to explore methods to curb the increase in the number of people affected by post-traumatic stress disorder.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adult , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Addict Behav ; 118: 106879, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095789

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with reports of increased substance use. College students are a population of concern for high risk binge drinking and their behavior may be particularly impacted by COVID-19 campus closures. Therefore, we examine first-year college students' binge drinking soon after their university's pandemic-related suspension of in-person operations. METHODS: Students from a single campus (N = 741; age: M = 18.05, SD = 0.22) completed one assessment in April-May 2020 post-campus closure (March 2020) including theoretically-informed measures (e.g., drinking motives, norms) and two items of self-reported pre- and post-closure binge drinking frequency, the focus of these analyses. RESULTS: About half of students consistently reported not binge drinking pre- and post-closure; 6.75% reported a consistent frequency of binge drinking pre- and post-closure. Many (39.41%) reported lower 30-day binge drinking post-campus closure compared to their pre-closure reports; few (4.18%) reported higher 30-day binge drinking frequency post-campus closure. Students reporting lower binge drinking post-closure showed differences in coping, social, and enhancement drinking motives and isolation. Students reporting greater post-closure binge drinking reported higher perceived drinking norms and were more likely to be in Greek life. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates self-reported patterns in binge drinking among first-year college students at the point of COVID-19 campus closures. Pandemic-related college closures may have been a temporary environmental intervention on this high-risk behavior for some students. Although many students were not binge drinking, some continued binge drinking after closure and may benefit from preventive interventions.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking in College , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Peer Group , Students , Universities
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108621, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085568

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence of changes in the frequency of self-reported heavy episodic drinking (HED) among drinkers in Latin America and Caribbean countries on alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to assess self-reported factors associated with the increased frequency of HED. METHODS: Data from 12,328 adults who responded to the cross-sectional survey conducted in 33 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean by Pan American Health Organization were used. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the effect of the sociodemographic characteristics, quarantine practices, and anxiety symptoms on the increase in frequency of HED among the 2019 drinkers. RESULTS: 65 % of drinkers in 2019 self-reported HED during the COVID-19 pandemic with 13.8 % of the drinkers reporting an increase in HED compared to a 33.38 % decrease in HED. Multivariable analysis indicated that male gender (aOR 1.29, 95 %CI 1.13; 1.49), higher income (aOR 1.64, 95 %CI 1.35; 1.99) and higher level of quarantine practices (aOR 1.10, 95 %CI 1.04; 1.16) were positively associated with increased frequency of HED; unemployment (aOR 0.78, 95 %CI 0.64; 0.96), student status (aOR 0.53, 95 %CI 0.43; 0.64) and living with children (aOR 0.91, 95 %CI 0.84; 0.99) were negatively associated with increased frequency of HED. A gradient of association was found between generalized anxiety disorder and an increase in HED frequency during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Along with other measures to decrease the spread of COVID-19, it is important to include measures to reduce alcohol consumption and address mental health conditions in the national response to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pan American Health Organization , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Self Report , Socioeconomic Factors , Young Adult
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