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1.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534301

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is a global pandemic that can have a long­lasting impact on public health if not properly managed. Ongoing vaccine development trials involve classical molecular strategies based on inactivated or attenuated viruses, single peptides or viral vectors. However, there are multiple issues, such as the risk of reversion to virulence, inability to provide long­lasting protection and limited protective immunity. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of currently available COVID­19 vaccines, an alternative strategy is required to produce safe and efficacious vaccines that impart long­term immunity. Exosomes (key intercellular communicators characterized by low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and innate cargo­loading capacity) offer a novel approach for effective COVID­19 vaccine development. An engineered exosome­based vaccine displaying the four primary structural proteins of SARS­CoV­2 (spike, membrane, nucleocapside and envelope proteins) induces humoral and cell mediated immunity and triggers long­lasting immunity. The present review investigated the prospective use of exosomes in the development of COVID­19 vaccines; moreover, exosome­based vaccines may be key to control the COVID­19 pandemic by providing enhanced protection compared with existing vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exosomes , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512380

ABSTRACT

Heparin and its derivatives are saving thousands of human lives annually, by successfully preventing and treating thromboembolic events. Although the mode of action during anticoagulation is well studied, their influence on cell behavior is not fully understood as is the risk of bleeding and other side effects. New applications in regenerative medicine have evolved supporting production of cell-based therapeutics or as a substrate for creating functionalized matrices in biotechnology. The currently resurgent interest in heparins is related to the expected combined anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-viral action against COVID-19. Based on a concise summary of key biochemical and clinical data, this review summarizes the impact for manufacturing and application of cell therapeutics and highlights the need for discriminating the different heparins.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/chemistry , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Heparin/analogs & derivatives , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Cell Adhesion , Hemorrhage/etiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Regenerative Medicine , Thromboembolism/drug therapy
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20877, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479811

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vectors offer a platform technology for vaccine development. The value of the platform has been proven during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although good stability at 2-8 °C is an advantage of the platform, non-cold-chain distribution would have substantial advantages, in particular in low-income countries. We have previously reported a novel, potentially less expensive thermostabilisation approach using a combination of simple sugars and glass micro-fibrous matrix, achieving excellent recovery of adenovirus-vectored vaccines after storage at temperatures as high as 45 °C. This matrix is, however, prone to fragmentation and so not suitable for clinical translation. Here, we report an investigation of alternative fibrous matrices which might be suitable for clinical use. A number of commercially-available matrices permitted good protein recovery, quality of sugar glass and moisture content of the dried product but did not achieve the thermostabilisation performance of the original glass fibre matrix. We therefore further investigated physical and chemical characteristics of the glass fibre matrix and its components, finding that the polyvinyl alcohol present in the glass fibre matrix assists vaccine stability. This finding enabled us to identify a potentially biocompatible matrix with encouraging performance. We discuss remaining challenges for transfer of the technology into clinical use, including reliability of process performance.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenovirus Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Potency , Adenoviruses, Simian , Biocompatible Materials , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Glass , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Light , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Rabies Vaccines , Scattering, Radiation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sugars/chemistry , Temperature , Thermogravimetry , Trehalose/chemistry
4.
Adv Healthc Mater ; 10(22): e2101370, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449905

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demonstrates the importance of generating safe and efficacious vaccines that can be rapidly deployed against emerging pathogens. Subunit vaccines are considered among the safest, but proteins used in these typically lack strong immunogenicity, leading to poor immune responses. Here, a biomaterial COVID-19 vaccine based on a mesoporous silica rods (MSRs) platform is described. MSRs loaded with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), and SARS-CoV-2 viral protein antigens slowly release their cargo and form subcutaneous scaffolds that locally recruit and activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs) for the generation of adaptive immunity. MSR-based vaccines generate robust and durable cellular and humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including the poorly immunogenic receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. Persistent antibodies over the course of 8 months are found in all vaccine configurations tested and robust in vitro viral neutralization is observed both in a prime-boost and a single-dose regimen. These vaccines can be fully formulated ahead of time or stored lyophilized and reconstituted with an antigen mixture moments before injection, which can facilitate its rapid deployment against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants or new pathogens. Together, the data show a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate and a generally adaptable vaccine platform against infectious pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
5.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 42(10): 813-828, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370313

ABSTRACT

Vaccines have been used to train the immune system to recognize pathogens, and prevent and treat diseases, such as cancer, for decades. However, there are continuing challenges in their manufacturing, large-scale production, and storage. Some of them also show suboptimal immunogenicity, requiring additional adjuvants and booster doses. As an alternate vaccination strategy, a new class of biomimetic materials with unique functionalities has emerged in recent years. Here, we explore the current bioengineering techniques that make use of hydrogels, modified polymers, cell membranes, self-assembled proteins, virus-like particles (VLPs), and nucleic acids to deliver and develop biomaterial-based vaccines. We also review design principles and key regulatory issues associated with their development. Finally, we critically assess their limitations, explore approaches to overcome these limitations, and discuss potential future applications for clinical translation.


Subject(s)
Biomimetic Materials , Vaccines , Biocompatible Materials , Hydrogels , Polymers
6.
Adv Mater ; 33(23): e2006582, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208338

ABSTRACT

Light guiding and manipulation in photonics have become ubiquitous in events ranging from everyday communications to complex robotics and nanomedicine. The speed and sensitivity of light-matter interactions offer unprecedented advantages in biomedical optics, data transmission, photomedicine, and detection of multi-scale phenomena. Recently, hydrogels have emerged as a promising candidate for interfacing photonics and bioengineering by combining their light-guiding properties with live tissue compatibility in optical, chemical, physiological, and mechanical dimensions. Herein, the latest progress over hydrogel photonics and its applications in guidance and manipulation of light is reviewed. Physics of guiding light through hydrogels and living tissues, and existing technical challenges in translating these tools into biomedical settings are discussed. A comprehensive and thorough overview of materials, fabrication protocols, and design architectures used in hydrogel photonics is provided. Finally, recent examples of applying structures such as hydrogel optical fibers, living photonic constructs, and their use as light-driven hydrogel robots, photomedicine tools, and organ-on-a-chip models are described. By providing a critical and selective evaluation of the field's status, this work sets a foundation for the next generation of hydrogel photonic research.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels/chemistry , Hydrogels/metabolism , Optics and Photonics/instrumentation , Animals , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Cell Culture Techniques , Drug Delivery Systems , Elastic Tissue/chemistry , Equipment and Supplies , Humans , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Surface Properties , Tissue Engineering
7.
Cell ; 184(6): 1589-1603, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141229

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are critical tools for maintaining global health. Traditional vaccine technologies have been used across a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens, yet there are a number of examples where they have not been successful, such as for persistent infections, rapidly evolving pathogens with high sequence variability, complex viral antigens, and emerging pathogens. Novel technologies such as nucleic acid and viral vector vaccines offer the potential to revolutionize vaccine development as they are well-suited to address existing technology limitations. In this review, we discuss the current state of RNA vaccines, recombinant adenovirus vector-based vaccines, and advances from biomaterials and engineering that address these important public health challenges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19/virology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , RNA, Messenger/chemical synthesis , RNA, Messenger/immunology
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304670

ABSTRACT

Silk fibroin (SF) has attracted much attention due to its high, tunable mechanical strength and excellent biocompatibility. Imparting the ability to respond to external stimuli can further enhance its scope of application. In order to imbue stimuli-responsive behavior in silk fibroin, we propose a new conjugated material, namely cationic SF (CSF) obtained by chemical modification of silk fibroin with ε-Poly-(L-lysine) (ε-PLL). This pH-responsive CSF hydrogel was prepared by enzymatic crosslinking using horseradish peroxidase and H2O2. Zeta potential measurements and SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis show successful synthesis, with an increase in isoelectric point from 4.1 to 8.6. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the modification does not affect the crystalline structure of SF. Most importantly, the synthesized CSF hydrogel has an excellent pH response. At 10 wt.% ε-PLL, a significant change in swelling with pH is observed. We further demonstrate that the hydrogel can be glucose-responsive by the addition of glucose oxidase (GOx). At high glucose concentration (400 mg/dL), the swelling of CSF/GOx hydrogel is as high as 345 ± 16%, while swelling in 200 mg/dL, 100 mg/dL and 0 mg/dL glucose solutions is 237 ± 12%, 163 ± 12% and 98 ± 15%, respectively. This shows the responsive swelling of CSF/GOx hydrogels to glucose, thus providing sufficient conditions for rapid drug release. Together with the versatility and biological properties of fibroin, such stimuli-responsive silk hydrogels have great potential in intelligent drug delivery, as soft matter substrates for enzymatic reactions and in other biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Fibroins/chemistry , Glucose/metabolism , Hydrogels/chemical synthesis , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Fibroins/metabolism , Glucose/chemistry , Horseradish Peroxidase/chemistry , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Polylysine/chemistry , Silk/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/methods , X-Ray Diffraction
9.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 13(6): e1735, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283762

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are considered one of the most significant medical advancements in human history, as they have prevented hundreds of millions of deaths since their discovery; however, modern travel permits disease spread at unprecedented rates, and vaccine shortcomings like thermal sensitivity and required booster shots have been made evident by the COVID-19 pandemic. Approaches to overcoming these issues appear promising via the integration of vaccine technology with biomaterials, which offer sustained-release properties and preserve proteins, prevent conformational changes, and enable storage at room temperature. Sustained release and thermal stabilization of therapeutic biomacromolecules is an emerging area that integrates material science, chemistry, immunology, nanotechnology, and pathology to investigate different biocompatible materials. Biomaterials, including natural sugar polymers, synthetic polyesters produced from biologically derived monomers, hydrogel blends, protein-polymer blends, and metal-organic frameworks, have emerged as early players in the field. This overview will focus on significant advances of sustained release biomaterial in the context of vaccines against infectious disease and the progress made towards thermally stable "single-shot" formulations. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Delayed-Action Preparations , Nanostructures , Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(18): 2100316, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233162

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an unprecedented global health crisis, resulting in a critical need for effective vaccines that generate protective antibodies. Protein subunit vaccines represent a promising approach but often lack the immunogenicity required for strong immune stimulation. To overcome this challenge, it is first demonstrated that advanced biomaterials can be leveraged to boost the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines. Additionally, it is reported that oxygen is a powerful immunological co-adjuvant and has an ability to further potentiate vaccine potency. In preclinical studies, mice immunized with an oxygen-generating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cryogel-based vaccine (O2-CryogelVAX) exhibit a robust Th1 and Th2 immune response, leading to a sustained production of highly effective neutralizing antibodies against the virus. Even with a single immunization, O2-CryogelVAX achieves high antibody titers within 21 days, and both binding and neutralizing antibody levels are further increased after a second dose. Engineering a potent vaccine system that generates sufficient neutralizing antibodies after one dose is a preferred strategy amid vaccine shortage. The data suggest that this platform is a promising technology to reinforce vaccine-driven immunostimulation and is applicable to current and emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cryogels/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Oxygen/immunology , Animals , Biocompatible Materials , Female , Immunity/immunology , Mice , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 549-563, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208539

ABSTRACT

Biological polyesters of hydroxyacids are known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). They have proved to be an alternative, environmentally friendly and attractive candidate for the replacement of petroleum-based plastics in many applications. Many bacteria synthesize these compounds as an intracellular carbon and energy compound usually under unbalanced growth conditions. Biodegradability and biocompatibility of different PHA has been studied in cell culture systems or in an animal host during the last few decades. Such investigations have proposed that PHA can be used as biomaterials for applications in conventional medical devices such as sutures, patches, meshes, implants, and tissue engineering scaffolds as well. Moreover, findings related to encapsulation capability and degradation kinetics of some PHA polymers has paved their way for development of controlled drug delivery systems. The present review discusses about bio-plastics, their characteristics, examines the key findings and recent advances highlighting the usage of bio-plastics in different medical devices. The patents concerning to PHA application in biomedical field have been also enlisted that will provide a brief overview of the status of research in bio-plastic. This would help medical researchers and practitioners to replace the synthetic plastics aids that are currently being used. Simultaneously, it could also prove to be a strong step in reducing the plastic pollution that surged abruptly due to the COVID-19 medical waste.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , COVID-19 , Polyhydroxyalkanoates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Biodegradation, Environmental , Humans , Medical Waste , Medical Waste Disposal
12.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 20(4): 374-378, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1184134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have surfaced from the United States Food and Drug Administration hearings in December 2020 regarding the COVID-19 vaccines and study participants who developed facial and/or lip swelling after receiving the newly developed drug. Despite an incidence rate of 0.02% in the vaccine arm of the Moderna mRNA-1273 trial, concerns have been expressed about the association of adverse reactions following soft tissue filler injections and the COVID-19 vaccines. The International Society for Dermatologic and Aesthetic Surgery (ISDS) understands these concerns and has designed the following study. METHODS: A global survey was designed to capture the incidence of adverse events related to: (1) previous soft tissue filler injections, (2) soft tissue filler injections during positive testing for COVID-19, and (3) soft tissue filler injections during and after receiving any of the COVID-19 vaccines globally available. RESULTS: The information of 106 survey participants from 18 different countries was analyzed. 80.2% (n=85) never experienced any adverse reaction following their soft tissue filler injection whereas 15.1% (n=16) experienced swelling and 4.7% (n=5) experienced pain that lasted longer than two days. Of those who received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine (n=78), 94.9% reported not to have experienced any adverse reaction related to their previous soft tissue filler injection, whereas 5.1% (n=4) reported to have perceived pain that lasted longer than two days. CONCLUSION: The data collected does not support the concern for an increased risk of developing adverse reactions following soft tissue filler injections associated with the COVID-19 vaccines compared to that risk associated with other previously described triggers or the default risk following soft tissue filler injections. J Drugs Dermatol. 20(4):374-378. doi:10.36849/JDD.2021.6041.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Dermatology/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Edema/epidemiology , Edema/etiology , Face , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lip/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Surgery, Plastic , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7880, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180278

ABSTRACT

Since the pandemic outbreak of Covid-19 in December 2019, several lateral flow assay (LFA) devices were developed to enable the constant monitoring of regional and global infection processes. Additionally, innumerable lateral flow test devices are frequently used for determination of different clinical parameters, food safety, and environmental factors. Since common LFAs rely on non-biodegradable nitrocellulose membranes, we focused on their replacement by cellulose-composed, biodegradable papers. We report the development of cellulose paper-based lateral flow immunoassays using a carbohydrate-binding module-fused to detection antibodies. Studies regarding the protein binding capacity and potential protein wash-off effects on cellulose paper demonstrated a 2.7-fold protein binding capacity of CBM-fused antibody fragments compared to the sole antibody fragment. Furthermore, this strategy improved the spatial retention of CBM-fused detection antibodies to the test area, which resulted in an enhanced sensitivity and improved overall LFA-performance compared to the naked detection antibody. CBM-assisted antibodies were validated by implementation into two model lateral flow test devices (pregnancy detection and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies). The CBM-assisted pregnancy LFA demonstrated sensitive detection of human gonadotropin (hCG) in synthetic urine and the CBM-assisted Covid-19 antibody LFA was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies present in serum. Our findings pave the way to the more frequent use of cellulose-based papers instead of nitrocellulose in LFA devices and thus potentially improve the sustainability in the field of POC diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Collodion/chemistry , Immunoassay/methods , Biocompatible Materials , Chorionic Gonadotropin/chemistry , Clostridium thermocellum/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Point-of-Care Systems , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Urinalysis
14.
Adv Mater ; 33(20): e2100012, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173766

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused great impact on the global economy and people's daily life. In the clinic, most patients with COVID-19 show none or mild symptoms, while approximately 20% of them develop severe pneumonia, multiple organ failure, or septic shock due to infection-induced cytokine release syndrome (the so-called "cytokine storm"). Neutralizing antibodies targeting inflammatory cytokines may potentially curb immunopathology caused by COVID-19; however, the complexity of cytokine interactions and the multiplicity of cytokine targets make attenuating the cytokine storm challenging. Nonspecific in vivo biodistribution and dose-limiting side effects further limit the broad application of those free antibodies. Recent advances in biomaterials and nanotechnology have offered many promising opportunities for infectious and inflammatory diseases. Here, potential mechanisms of COVID-19 cytokine storm are first discussed, and relevant therapeutic strategies and ongoing clinical trials are then reviewed. Furthermore, recent research involving emerging biomaterials for improving antibody-based and broad-spectrum cytokine neutralization is summarized. It is anticipated that this work will provide insights on the development of novel therapeutics toward efficacious management of COVID-19 cytokine storm and other inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokines/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Biocompatible Materials/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/chemistry , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1129756

ABSTRACT

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been proposed to give a possible future to humankind. Due to the multidimensional characteristic of sustainability, SDGs need research activities with a multidisciplinary approach. This work aims to provide a critical review of the results concerning sustainable materials obtained by Italian researchers affiliated to the National Interuniversity Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM) and their contribution to reaching specific indicators of the 17 SDGs. Data were exposed by using the Web of Science (WoS) database. In the investigated period (from 2016 to 2020), 333 works about sustainable materials are found and grouped in one of the following categories: chemicals (33%), composites (11%), novel materials for pollutants sequestration (8%), bio-based and food-based materials (10%), materials for green building (8%), and materials for energy (29%). This review contributes to increasing the awareness of several of the issues concerning sustainable materials but also to encouraging the researchers to focus on SDGs' interconnections. Indeed, the mapping of the achievements can be relevant to the decision-makers to identify the opportunities that materials can offer to achieve the final goals. In this frame, a "Sustainable Materials Partnership for SDGs" is envisaged for more suitable resource management in the future.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Sustainable Development , Energy-Generating Resources , Environmental Pollutants/chemistry , Environmental Pollutants/isolation & purification , Food , Goals , Italy
16.
Adv Mater ; 33(16): e2100218, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121010

ABSTRACT

From typical electrical appliances to thriving intelligent robots, the exchange of information between humans and machines has mainly relied on the contact sensor medium. However, this kind of contact interaction can cause severe problems, such as inevitable mechanical wear and cross-infection of bacteria or viruses between the users, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, revolutionary noncontact human-machine interaction (HMI) is highly desired in remote online detection and noncontact control systems. In this study, a flexible high-sensitivity humidity sensor and array are presented, fabricated by anchoring multilayer graphene (MG) into electrospun polyamide (PA) 66. The sensor works in noncontact mode for asthma detection, via monitoring the respiration rate in real time, and remote alarm systems and provides touchless interfaces in medicine delivery for bedridden patients. The physical structure of the large specific surface area and the chemical structure of the abundant water-absorbing functional groups of the PA66 nanofiber networks contribute to the high performance synergistically. This work can lead to a new era of noncontact HMI without the risk of contagiousness and provide a general and effective strategy for the development of smart electronics that require noncontact interaction.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electronics , Asthma/diagnosis , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Electrodes , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Humidity , Internet of Things , Mobile Applications , Nanofibers/chemistry , Respiratory Rate , Wearable Electronic Devices
17.
Biomater Sci ; 9(8): 2804-2824, 2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118821

ABSTRACT

The effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on humanity has gained worldwide attention and importance due to the rapid transmission, lack of treatment options and high mortality rate of the virus. While scientists across the world are searching for vaccines/drugs that can control the spread of the virus and/or reduce the risks associated with infection, patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been reported to have tissue/organ damage. With most tissues/organs having limited regenerative potential, interventions that prevent further damage or facilitate healing would be helpful. In the past few decades, biomaterials have gained prominence in the field of tissue engineering, in view of their major role in the regenerative process. Here we describe the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on multiple tissues/organs, and provide evidence for the positive role of biomaterials in aiding tissue repair. These findings are further extrapolated to explore their prospects as a therapeutic platform to address the tissue/organ damage that is frequently observed during this viral outbreak. This study suggests that the biomaterial-based approach could be an effective strategy for regenerating tissues/organs damaged by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
EBioMedicine ; 64: 103232, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093020
19.
Curr Pharm Des ; 27(32): 3424-3434, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067522

ABSTRACT

In order to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), till now, no such specific treatment is available. Various coronaviruses (CoV) such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), and SARS-CoV-2 can infect humans and the name was implicated due to their crown shape. SARS-CoV-2 is also called COVID-19 which was found to be a novel strain of coronavirus and is transmitted primarily through small droplets of viral particles that target the human body through the open pathways. Researchers have observed that microbes can survive for a longer duration as they get adhered to any object or surface. Nanoparticles have the capability to disable these pathogens even before they enter the body. To eradicate conventional time consuming steps like quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of COVID-19, nanoparticles mediated sensing approaches provide great advances in rapid diagnosis. Nanoparticles- based biosensors are comparatively beneficial which offer tremendous potential for rapid medical diagnosis. Nanotechnology can be refined and optimized to attack a wide variety of pathogens. As compared to other large molecular structures, nanoparticles being small in size, have high sensitivity for bio-sensing and can move throughout the body without disruption of the immune function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Biocompatible Materials , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Drug Deliv Transl Res ; 11(4): 1340-1351, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1047033

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases, such as the coronavirus disease-19, SARS virus, Ebola virus, and AIDS, threaten the health of human beings globally. New viruses, drug-resistant bacteria, and fungi continue to challenge the human efficacious drug bank. Researchers have developed a variety of new antiviral and antibacterial drugs in response to the infectious disease crisis. Meanwhile, the development of functional materials has also improved therapeutic outcomes. As a natural material, chitosan possesses good biocompatibility, bioactivity, and biosafety. It has been proven that the cooperation between chitosan and traditional medicine greatly improves the ability of anti-infection. This review summarized the application and design considerations of chitosan-composed systems for the treatment of infectious diseases, looking forward to providing the idea of infectious disease therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Biocompatible Materials/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chitosan/administration & dosage , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/immunology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Infective Agents/immunology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Bandages/microbiology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacokinetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Chitosan/immunology , Chitosan/pharmacokinetics , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Wound Healing/drug effects , Wound Healing/physiology
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