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1.
Curr Med Chem ; 29(3): 526-590, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141212

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant is a complex lipoprotein mixture secreted into the alveolar lumen by type 2 pneumocytes, which is composed by tens of different lipids (approximately 90% of its entire mass) and surfactant proteins (approximately 10% of the mass). It is crucially involved in maintaining lung homeostasis by reducing the values of alveolar liquid surface tension close to zero at end-expiration, thereby avoiding the alveolar collapse, and assembling a chemical and physical barrier against inhaled pathogens. A deficient amount of surfactant or its functional inactivation is directly linked to a wide range of lung pathologies, including the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. This paper reviews the main biophysical concepts of surfactant activity and its inactivation mechanisms, and describes the past, present and future roles of surfactant replacement therapy, focusing on the exogenous surfactant preparations marketed worldwide and new formulations under development. The closing section describes the pulmonary surfactant in the context of drug delivery. Thanks to its peculiar composition, biocompatibility, and alveolar spreading capability, the surfactant may work not only as a shuttle to the branched anatomy of the lung for other drugs but also as a modulator for their release, leading to innovative therapeutic avenues for the treatment of several respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Surfactants , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/drug therapy
2.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(7): 267, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054055

ABSTRACT

Tissue engineering has emerged as an interesting field nowadays; it focuses on accelerating the auto-healing mechanism of tissues rather than organ transplantation. It involves implanting an In Vitro cultured initiative tissue or a scaffold loaded with tissue regenerating ingredients at the damaged area. Both techniques are based on the use of biodegradable, biocompatible polymers as scaffolding materials which are either derived from natural (e.g. alginates, celluloses, and zein) or synthetic sources (e.g. PLGA, PCL, and PLA). This review discusses in detail the recent applications of different biomaterials in tissue engineering highlighting the targeted tissues besides the in vitro and in vivo key findings. As well, smart biomaterials (e.g. chitosan) are fascinating candidates in the field as they are capable of elucidating a chemical or physical transformation as response to external stimuli (e.g. temperature, pH, magnetic or electric fields). Recent trends in tissue engineering are summarized in this review highlighting the use of stem cells, 3D printing techniques, and the most recent 4D printing approach which relies on the use of smart biomaterials to produce a dynamic scaffold resembling the natural tissue. Furthermore, the application of advanced tissue engineering techniques provides hope for the researchers to recognize COVID-19/host interaction, also, it presents a promising solution to rejuvenate the destroyed lung tissues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chitosan , Zein , Alginates , Biocompatible Materials , Humans , Polyesters , Polymers , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Tissue Engineering/methods , Tissue Scaffolds
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2032985

ABSTRACT

The nano-metal-treated PET films with anti-virus and anti-fogging ability were developed using sparking nano-metal particles of Ag, Zn, and Ti wires on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Ag nanoparticles were detected on the PET surface, while a continuous aggregate morphology was observed with Zn and Ti sparking. The color of the Ag-PET films changed to brown with increasing repeat sparking times, but not with the Zn-PET and Ti-PET films. The water contact angle of the nano-metal-treated PET films decreased with increasing repeat sparking times. The RT-PCR anti-virus test confirmed the high anti-virus efficiency of the nano-metal-treated PET films due to the fine particle distribution, high polarity, and binding of the nano-metal ions to the coronavirus, which was destroyed by heat after UV irradiation. A highly transparent, anti-fogging, and anti-virus face shield was prepared using the Zn-PET film. Sparking was an effective technique to prepare the alternative anti-virus and anti-fogging films for medical biomaterial applications because of their low cost, convenience, and fast processing.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Metal Nanoparticles , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polyethylene Terephthalates/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Surface Properties , Water
4.
5.
Acta Biomater ; 152: 19-46, 2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007368

ABSTRACT

The artificial lung (AL) technology is one of the membrane-based artificial organs that partly augments lung functions, i.e. blood oxygenation and CO2 removal. It is generally employed as an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) device to treat acute and chronic lung-failure patients, and the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has re-emphasized the importance of this technology. The principal component in AL is the polymeric membrane oxygenator that facilitates the O2/CO2 exchange with the blood. Despite the considerable improvement in anti-thrombogenic biomaterials in other applications (e.g., stents), AL research has not advanced at the same rate. This is partly because AL research requires interdisciplinary knowledge in biomaterials and membrane technology. Some of the promising biomaterials with reasonable hemocompatibility - such as emerging fluoropolymers of extremely low surface energy - must first be fabricated into membranes to exhibit effective gas exchange performance. As AL membranes must also demonstrate high hemocompatibility in tandem, it is essential to test the membranes using in-vitro hemocompatibility experiments before in-vivo test. Hence, it is vital to have a reliable in-vitro experimental protocol that can be reasonably correlated with the in-vivo results. However, current in-vitro AL studies are unsystematic to allow a consistent comparison with in-vivo results. More specifically, current literature on AL biomaterial in-vitro hemocompatibility data are not quantitatively comparable due to the use of unstandardized and unreliable protocols. Such a wide gap has been the main bottleneck in the improvement of AL research, preventing promising biomaterials from reaching clinical trials. This review summarizes the current state-of-the-art and status of AL technology from membrane researcher perspectives. Particularly, most of the reported in-vitro experiments to assess AL membrane hemocompatibility are compiled and critically compared to suggest the most reliable method suitable for AL biomaterial research. Also, a brief review of current approaches to improve AL hemocompatibility is summarized. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The importance of Artificial Lung (AL) technology has been re-emphasized in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. The utmost bottleneck in the current AL technology is the poor hemocompatibility of the polymer membrane used for O2/CO2 gas exchange, limiting its use in the long-term. Unfortunately, most of the in-vitro AL experiments are unsystematic, irreproducible, and unreliable. There are no standardized in-vitro hemocompatibility characterization protocols for quantitative comparison between AL biomaterials. In this review, we tackled this bottleneck by compiling the scattered in-vitro data and suggesting the most suitable experimental protocol to obtain reliable and comparable hemocompatibility results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review paper focusing on the hemocompatibility challenge of AL technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxygenators, Membrane , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Carbon Dioxide , Humans , Lung , Membranes, Artificial , Pandemics , Polymers , Technology
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 219: 694-708, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977349

ABSTRACT

A new biodegradable semi-interpenetrated polymer network (semi-IPN) of two US Food and Drug Administration approved materials, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-valerate) (PHBV) and calcium alginate (CA) was engineered to provide an alternative strategy to enhance the poor adhesion properties of CA. The synthesis procedure allows the additional incorporation of 10 % w/w of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), which have no cytotoxic effect on human keratinocytes. This quantity of multilayer graphene provides superior antiviral activity to the novel semi-IPN against a surrogate virus of SARS-CoV-2. Adding GNPs hardly affects the water absorption or electrical conductivity of the pure components of CA and PHBV. However, the semi-IPN's electrical conductivity increases dramatically after adding GNP due to molecular rearrangements of the intertwined polymer chains that continuously distribute the GNP nanosheets, This new hydrophilic composite biomaterial film shows great promise for skin biomedical applications, especially those that require antiviral and/or biodegradable electroconductive materials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graphite , 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid , Alginates , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Cell Adhesion , Graphite/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrogels/pharmacology , Methylgalactosides , Polyesters/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Engineering/methods , Valerates , Water
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963999

ABSTRACT

Oral candidiasis has a high rate of development, especially in immunocompromised patients. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic therapies in hospitalized HIV and cancer patients are known to induce the poor management of adverse reactions, where local and systemic candidiasis become highly resistant to conventional antifungal therapy. The development of oral candidiasis is triggered by several mechanisms that determine oral epithelium imbalances, resulting in poor local defense and a delayed immune system response. As a result, pathogenic fungi colonies disseminate and form resistant biofilms, promoting serious challenges in initiating a proper therapeutic protocol. Hence, this study of the literature aimed to discuss possibilities and new trends through antifungal therapy for buccal drug administration. A large number of studies explored the antifungal activity of new agents or synergic components that may enhance the effect of classic drugs. It was of significant interest to find connections between smart biomaterials and their activity, to find molecular responses and mechanisms that can conquer the multidrug resistance of fungi strains, and to transpose them into a molecular map. Overall, attention is focused on the nanocolloids domain, nanoparticles, nanocomposite synthesis, and the design of polymeric platforms to satisfy sustained antifungal activity and high biocompatibility with the oral mucosa.


Subject(s)
Candidiasis, Oral , Candidiasis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/drug therapy , Candidiasis, Oral/microbiology , Fungi , Humans
8.
Pathol Res Pract ; 237: 154011, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914928

ABSTRACT

Biobanking plays a critical role in diagnostics, biomarker research and development of novel treatment approaches for various diseases. In urgent need of understanding, preventing and treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the importance of biobanking including data sharing and management further increased. To provide high quality tissue biomaterials and data for research and public health, the COVID-19 Autopsy and Biosample Registry was established in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (BW) in Germany, combining expertise and technologies of the Institutes of Pathology of the five university hospitals in BW (Heidelberg, Tübingen, Ulm, Freiburg, Mannheim). The COVID-19 Autopsy and Biosample Registry BW comprises tissue samples from autopsies and associated data of deceased patients in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The aim is to collect autopsy biospecimens, associated clinical and diagnostic data in a timely manner, register them, make them accessible for research projects and thus to support especially tissue-related research addressing COVID-19. By now, the BW network holds multiple collaborations and supported numerous publications to increase the understanding of COVID-19 disease. The achievements of the BW network as a landmark biobanking model project represent a potential blueprint for future disease-related biobanking and registry effort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Autopsy , Biological Specimen Banks , Registries , Biocompatible Materials
9.
Biomaterials ; 286: 121585, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881707

ABSTRACT

Among all the biological entities involved in the immune response, galectins, a family of glycan-binding proteins, have been described as key in immune cell homeostasis and modulation. More importantly, only some galectin family members are crucial in the resolution of inflammation, while others perpetuate the immune response in a pathological context. As they are expressed in most major diseases, their potential as targets for new therapies seems promising. Most of the galectin family members' ubiquitous expression points to the need for targeted treatments to ensure effectiveness. Engineered biomaterials are emerging as a promising method to improve galectin-targeted strategies' therapeutic performance. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of galectins in health and disease and their potential as therapeutic targets, as well as the state-of-the-art and future directions of galectin-targeted biomaterials.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Galectins , Galectins/metabolism , Galectins/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation , Polysaccharides/metabolism
10.
Ter Arkh ; 94(3): 372-377, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1848072

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the inhalation of an active form of hydrogen effect to mucosal and system immunity in a rehabilitation program for health workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved patients that survived COVID-19 after therapy with inhaled hydrogen for 90 minutes (n=30), and a control group of patients treated according to standard protocol for managing patients that survived COVID-19 during the rehabilitation period (n=30). Biomaterial was carried out in 2 stages: on the first day of the study, before the accepted therapy and on the 10th day of the study. The indicators of humoral and cellular immunity were studied. The levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and IgG were investigated using the method of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Phagocytosis was assessed on a Beckman Coulter FC-500 flow cytometer. Statistical data processing was carried out in the GraphPad Prism 7.00 software using nonparametric methods. RESULTS: It was shown that the phagocytic index (PI) of monocytes in nasal scrapings after inhaled hydrogen treatment did not significantly change relative to the first day of treatment and control, while the PI of granulocytes in nasal scrapings significantly increased relative to the first day by 2.5 times (p=0.000189), as well as relative to the control by 1.1 times (p=0.047410). PI of monocytes in pharyngeal scrapings showed a significant increase relative to the first day of treatment by 2.8 times (p=0.041103), however, did not differ relative to the control. PI of granulocytes of pharyngeal scraping did not differ significantly relative to the first day and control. PI of granulocytes and blood monocytes of the studied group did not change significantly. PI of granulocytes and monocytes of peripheral blood relative to control during therapy did not change. The sIgA level in nasal scrapings significantly increased by 2.9 times, while in pharyngeal scrapings the level of sIgA significantly decreased by 2 times. Сonclusion. We have shown an increase in granulocytes PI in the nasal cavity and oral monocytes, as well as in the level of sIgA in the nasal cavity during therapy with active hydrogen. The data obtained indicate the effectiveness of therapy, which can be used both in the treatment of COVID-19, and in post-COVID syndrome as an additional therapy. The absence of changes in blood parameters, as well as individual links in nasal and pharyngeal scrapings, requires further study to develop ways to overcome treatment tolerance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Hydrogen , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , Immunoglobulin G , Biocompatible Materials
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818149

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 has rendered medical technology an important factor to maintain social stability and economic increase, where biomedicine has experienced rapid development and played a crucial part in fighting off the pandemic. Conductive hydrogels (CHs) are three-dimensional (3D) structured gels with excellent electrical conductivity and biocompatibility, which are very suitable for biomedical applications. CHs can mimic innate tissue's physical, chemical, and biological properties, which allows them to provide environmental conditions and structural stability for cell growth and serve as efficient delivery substrates for bioactive molecules. The customizability of CHs also allows additional functionality to be designed for different requirements in biomedical applications. This review introduces the basic functional characteristics and materials for preparing CHs and elaborates on their synthetic techniques. The development and applications of CHs in the field of biomedicine are highlighted, including regenerative medicine, artificial organs, biosensors, drug delivery systems, and some other application scenarios. Finally, this review discusses the future applications of CHs in the field of biomedicine. In summary, the current design and development of CHs extend their prospects for functioning as an intelligent and complex system in diverse biomedical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogels , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Electric Conductivity , Humans , Hydrogels/chemistry , Hydrogels/therapeutic use , Tissue Engineering/methods
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765730

ABSTRACT

Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymer materials that provide a wide range of physicochemical properties as well as are highly biocompatible. Biomedical researchers are adapting these materials for the ever-increasing range of design options and potential applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. Along with innovative hydrogel polymer backbone developments, designing polymer additives for these backbones has been a major contributor to the field, especially for expanding the functionality spectrum of hydrogels. For the past decade, researchers invented numerous hydrogel functionalities that emerge from the rational incorporation of additives such as nucleic acids, proteins, cells, and inorganic nanomaterials. Cases of successful commercialization of such functional hydrogels are being reported, thus driving more translational research with hydrogels. Among the many hydrogels, here we reviewed recently reported functional hydrogels incorporated with polymer additives. We focused on those that have potential in translational medicine applications which range from diagnostic sensors as well as assay and drug screening to therapeutic actuators as well as drug delivery and implant. We discussed the growing trend of facile point-of-care diagnostics and integrated smart platforms. Additionally, special emphasis was given to emerging bioinformatics functionalities stemming from the information technology field, such as DNA data storage and anti-counterfeiting strategies. We anticipate that these translational purpose-driven polymer additive research studies will continue to advance the field of functional hydrogel engineering.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels , Nucleic Acids , Biocompatible Materials , Drug Delivery Systems , Hydrogels/chemistry , Polymers , Tissue Engineering
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 283: 119160, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654130

ABSTRACT

With the forthcoming of the post-COVID-19 and the ageing era, the novel biomaterials and bioelectronic devices are attracting more and more attention and favor. Cellulose as one of the most globe-abundant natural macromolecules has multiple merits of biocompatibility, processability, carbon neutral feature and mechanical designability. Due to its progressive advancement of multi-scale design from macro to micro followed by new cognitions, cellulose shows a promising application prospect in developing bio-functional materials. In this review, we briefly discuss the role of cellulose from the "top-down" perspective of macro-scale fibers, micro-scale nanofibers, and molecular-scale macromolecular chains for the design of advanced cellulose-based functional materials. The focus then turns to the construction and development of emerging cellulose-based flexible bioelectronic devices including biosensors, biomimetic electronic skins, and biological detection devices. Finally, the dilemma and challenge of cellulose-based bioelectronic materials and their application prospects in basic biology and medical care have been prospected.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials , Biosensing Techniques , Cellulose , Wearable Electronic Devices , Nanofibers/chemistry
14.
J Mater Sci Mater Med ; 33(1): 8, 2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1602899

ABSTRACT

The collection capacity of common nasopharyngeal swabs and irregularities of medical personnel limit the accuracy of PCR testing. This study describes a newly designed 3D-printed swab that is combined with a 3D-printed cover to prevent the extraction of undesired nasal secretions. This swab improved the accuracy of PCR test results. The results of a series of experiments showed that, because of the mucus extraction effect, 3D-printed swabs can replace ordinary cotton swabs. The crisis of the worldwide medical supply shortage can be ameliorated to a certain extent by applying 3D printing technology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Specimen Handling/instrumentation , Biocompatible Materials , Biomechanical Phenomena , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Equipment Design , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Materials Testing , Nasopharynx/virology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Resins, Synthetic , Safety , Tensile Strength , Textiles
15.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(12): 8110-8128, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597218

ABSTRACT

The design of advanced nanobiomaterials to improve analytical accuracy and therapeutic efficacy has become an important prerequisite for the development of innovative nanomedicines. Recently, phospholipid nanobiomaterials including 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) have attracted great attention with remarkable characteristics such as resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion for various biomedical applications. Despite many recent reports, there is a lack of comprehensive review on the phospholipid nanobiomaterials from synthesis to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the synthesis and characterization of phospholipid nanobiomaterials focusing on MPC polymers and highlight their attractive potentials for applications in micro/nanofabricated fluidic devices, biosensors, lab-on-a-chip, drug delivery systems (DDSs), COVID-19 potential usages for early diagnosis and even treatment, and artificial extracellular matrix scaffolds for cellular engineering.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Nanostructures/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
J Liposome Res ; 32(1): 83-91, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550450

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study is the development and evaluation of the physicochemical properties of chimeric hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and egg phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) liposomes with incorporated triblock copolymer Poloxamer P407 (P407). The physicochemical assay was held in water HPLC-grade and Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS), in order to determine whether these systems can be used as drug or antigen delivery nanosystems. Dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering (DLS/ELS) techniques were used for the measurement of the hydrodynamic diameter, the polydispersity index, and the ζ-potential of the prepared nanosystems. The incorporation of the P407 resulted in a size reduction of all systems. A decrease in the hydrodynamic diameter and polydispersity index were also found as a result of increasing the storage temperature from 4 °C to 25 °C, attributed to P407. The experiments that were carried out in FBS, showed that the addition of P407 improved systems stealth properties. Concluding, we propose P407 as a promising alternative to PEG in the development of lipid nanoparticles with optimized bio- and shelf-stability.


Subject(s)
Liposomes , Nanoparticles , Biocompatible Materials , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Poloxamer/chemistry
17.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(12): 430, 2021 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530326

ABSTRACT

Recent experience with the COVID-19 pandemic should be a lesson learnt with respect to the effort we have to invest in the development of new strategies for the treatment of viral diseases, along with their cheap, easy, sensitive, and selective detection. Since we live in a globalized world where just hours can play a crucial role in the spread of a virus, its detection must be as quick as possible. Thanks to their chemical stability, photostability, and superior biocompatibility, carbon dots are a kind of nanomaterial showing great potential in both the detection of various virus strains and a broad-spectrum antiviral therapy. The biosensing and antiviral properties of carbon dots can be tuned by the selection of synthesis precursors as well as by easy post-synthetic functionalization. In this review, we will first summarize current options of virus detection utilizing carbon dots by either electrochemical or optical biosensing approaches. Secondly, we will cover and share the up-to-date knowledge of carbon dots' antiviral properties, which showed promising activity against various types of viruses including SARS-CoV-2. The mechanisms of their antiviral actions will be further adressed as well. Finally, we will discuss the advantages and distadvantages of the use of carbon dots in the tangled battle against viral infections in order to provide valuable informations for further research and development of new virus biosensors and antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Carbon/chemistry , Quantum Dots , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biocompatible Materials , Biosensing Techniques , Electrochemistry , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Nanostructures , Phototherapy , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases
18.
Mol Med Rep ; 25(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534301

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) is a global pandemic that can have a long­lasting impact on public health if not properly managed. Ongoing vaccine development trials involve classical molecular strategies based on inactivated or attenuated viruses, single peptides or viral vectors. However, there are multiple issues, such as the risk of reversion to virulence, inability to provide long­lasting protection and limited protective immunity. To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks of currently available COVID­19 vaccines, an alternative strategy is required to produce safe and efficacious vaccines that impart long­term immunity. Exosomes (key intercellular communicators characterized by low immunogenicity, high biocompatibility and innate cargo­loading capacity) offer a novel approach for effective COVID­19 vaccine development. An engineered exosome­based vaccine displaying the four primary structural proteins of SARS­CoV­2 (spike, membrane, nucleocapside and envelope proteins) induces humoral and cell mediated immunity and triggers long­lasting immunity. The present review investigated the prospective use of exosomes in the development of COVID­19 vaccines; moreover, exosome­based vaccines may be key to control the COVID­19 pandemic by providing enhanced protection compared with existing vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exosomes , Biocompatible Materials , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Exosomes/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Control Release ; 342: 170-188, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521253

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has wielded an enormous pressure on global health care systems, economics and politics. Ongoing vaccination campaigns effectively attenuate viral spreading, leading to a reduction of infected individuals, hospitalizations and mortality. Nevertheless, the development of safe and effective vaccines as well as their global deployment is time-consuming and challenging. In addition, such preventive measures have no effect on already infected individuals and can show reduced efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants that escape vaccine-induced host immune responses. Therefore, it is crucial to continue the development of specific COVID-19 targeting therapeutics, including small molecular drugs, antibodies and nucleic acids. However, despite clear advantages of local drug delivery to the lung, inhalation therapy of such antivirals remains difficult. This review aims to highlight the potential of pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of COVID-19. Since SARS-CoV-2 infection can progress to COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS), which is associated with PS deficiency and inflammation, replacement therapy with exogenous surfactant can be considered to counter lung dysfunction. In addition, due to its surface-active properties and membrane-interacting potential, PS can be repurposed to enhance drug spreading along the respiratory epithelium and to promote intracellular drug delivery. By merging these beneficial features, PS can be regarded as a versatile biomaterial to combat respiratory infections, in particular COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512380

ABSTRACT

Heparin and its derivatives are saving thousands of human lives annually, by successfully preventing and treating thromboembolic events. Although the mode of action during anticoagulation is well studied, their influence on cell behavior is not fully understood as is the risk of bleeding and other side effects. New applications in regenerative medicine have evolved supporting production of cell-based therapeutics or as a substrate for creating functionalized matrices in biotechnology. The currently resurgent interest in heparins is related to the expected combined anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic and anti-viral action against COVID-19. Based on a concise summary of key biochemical and clinical data, this review summarizes the impact for manufacturing and application of cell therapeutics and highlights the need for discriminating the different heparins.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/chemistry , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy/methods , Heparin/analogs & derivatives , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/therapeutic use , Cell Adhesion , Hemorrhage/etiology , Heparin/adverse effects , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Regenerative Medicine , Thromboembolism/drug therapy
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