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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 131-146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844264

ABSTRACT

A number of viral quantification methods are used to measure the concentration of infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While the traditional plaque-based assay allows for direct enumeration of replication competent lytic virions and remains the gold standard for the quantification of infectious virus, the 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) endpoint dilution assay allows for a more rapid, large-scale analysis of experimental samples. In this chapter, we describe a well-established TCID50 assay protocol to measure the SARS-CoV-2 infectious titer in viral stocks, in vitro cell or organoid models, and animal tissue. We also present alternative assays for scoring the cytopathic effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture and comparable methods to calculate the 50% endpoint by serial dilution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Animals , Biological Assay/methods , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
mBio ; 12(6): e0293621, 2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518122

ABSTRACT

Methods for detecting and dissecting the interactions of virally encoded proteins are essential for probing basic viral biology and providing a foundation for therapeutic advances. The dearth of targeted therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an ongoing global health crisis, underscores the importance of gaining a deeper understanding of the interactions of proteins encoded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here, we describe the use of a convenient bacterial cell-based two-hybrid (B2H) system to analyze the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. We identified 16 distinct intraviral protein-protein interactions (PPIs), involving 16 proteins. We found that many of the identified proteins interact with more than one partner. Further, our system facilitates the genetic dissection of these interactions, enabling the identification of selectively disruptive mutations. We also describe a modified B2H system that permits the detection of disulfide bond-dependent PPIs in the normally reducing Escherichia coli cytoplasm, and we used this system to detect the interaction of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) with its cognate cell surface receptor ACE2. We then examined how the RBD-ACE2 interaction is perturbed by several RBD amino acid substitutions found in currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our findings illustrate the utility of a genetically tractable bacterial system for probing the interactions of viral proteins and investigating the effects of emerging mutations. In principle, the system could also facilitate the identification of potential therapeutics that disrupt specific interactions of virally encoded proteins. More generally, our findings establish the feasibility of using a B2H system to detect and dissect disulfide bond-dependent interactions of eukaryotic proteins. IMPORTANCE Understanding how virally encoded proteins interact with one another is essential in elucidating basic viral biology, providing a foundation for therapeutic discovery. Here, we describe the use of a versatile bacterial cell-based system to investigate the interactions of the protein set encoded by SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We identified 16 distinct intraviral protein-protein interactions, involving 16 proteins, many of which interact with more than one partner. Our system facilitates the genetic dissection of these interactions, enabling the identification of selectively disruptive mutations. We also describe a modified version of our bacterial cell-based system that permits detection of the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (specifically, its receptor-binding domain) and its cognate human cell surface receptor ACE2, and we investigated the effects of spike mutations found in currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our findings illustrate the general utility of our system for probing the interactions of virally encoded proteins.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Assay/methods , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Binding Sites , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Protein Binding , Proteome , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
3.
Bioanalysis ; 13(23): 1723-1729, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497587

ABSTRACT

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is widely used in various fields of laboratory testing, ranging from forensic, molecular biology, medical and diagnostic applications to a wide array of basic research purposes. COVID-19 infection testing has brought the three-letter PCR abbreviation into the vocabulary of billions of people, making it likely the most well-known laboratory test worldwide. With new modalities and translational medicine gaining importance in pharmaceutical research and development, PCR or more specifically, quantitative PCR (qPCR) is now becoming a standard tool in the (regulated) bioanalytical laboratory, driving the bioanalytical community to define best practices for method development, characterization and validation. In absence of specific guidance from health authorities, qPCR may be vulnerable to scope creep from pharmacokinetics (PK) assay validation as defined in bioanalytical method validation guidance/guidelines. In this manuscript, the European Bioanalysis Forum builds a rationale for applying context of use principles when defining requirements for qPCR assay performance and validation criteria.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Europe , Humans , Research Design
4.
EBioMedicine ; 70: 103502, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2020 SARS-CoV-2 spreads pandemically, infecting more than 119 million people, causing >2·6 million fatalities. Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection vary greatly, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal. Different populations react differently to the disease, making it very hard to track the spread of the infection in a population. Measuring specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is an important tool to assess the spread of the infection or successful vaccinations. To achieve sufficient sample numbers, alternatives to venous blood sampling are needed not requiring medical personnel or cold-chains. Dried-blood-spots (DBS) on filter-cards have been used for different studies, but not routinely for serology. METHODS: We developed a semi-automated protocol using self-sampled DBS for SARS-CoV-2 serology. It was validated in a cohort of matched DBS and venous-blood samples (n = 1710). Feasibility is demonstrated with two large serosurveys with 10247 company employees and a population cohort of 4465 participants. FINDINGS: Sensitivity and specificity reached 99·20% and 98·65%, respectively. Providing written instructions and video tutorials, 99·87% (4465/4471) of the unsupervised home sampling DBS cards could be analysed. INTERPRETATION: DBS-sampling is a valid and highly reliable tool for large scale serosurveys. We demonstrate feasibility and accuracy with a large validation cohort including unsupervised home sampling. This protocol might be of big importance for surveillance in resource-limited settings, providing low-cost highly accurate serology data. FUNDING: Provided by Bavarian State Ministry of Science and the Arts, LMU University-Hospital; Helmholtz-Centre-Munich, German Ministry for Education and Research (project01KI20271); University of Bonn; University of Bielefeld; the Medical Biodefense Research Program of Bundeswehr-Medical-Service; Euroimmun, RocheDiagnostics provided discounted kits and machines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specimen Handling/methods , Vaccination/methods
5.
Bioanalysis ; 13(15): 1205-1211, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317298

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic challenged pharmaceutical and bioanalytical communities at large, in the development of vaccines and therapeutics as well as supporting ongoing drug development efforts. Existing processes were challenged to manage loss of staffing at facilities along with added workloads for COVID-19-related study support including conducting preclinical testing, initiating clinical trials, conducting bioanalysis and interactions with regulatory agencies, all in an ultra-rapid timeframes. A key factor of success was creative rethinking of processes and removing barriers - some of which hitherto had been considered immovable. This article describes how bioanalysis was crippled at the onset of the pandemic but how innovative and highly collaborative efforts across teams within and outside of both pharma, bioanalytical labs and regulatory agencies worked together remarkably well.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Development/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Bioanalysis ; 13(15): 1195-1203, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317297

ABSTRACT

Thousands of clinical trials all over the world were stopped, disrupted or delayed while countries grappled to contain the pandemic and research resources were redeployed. The long-term effects of the turbulence caused by the pandemic have yet to be fully understood, but it should already be clear that the increased focus on participant needs and on the logistical challenges of current models are not likely to fade away quickly. This disruption is opening doors for rethinking traditional approaches to clinical trial conduct - including decentralizing site visits, introducing new methods of sample collection, rethinking matrix selection, reducing sample volumes and collaborating on device development. These approaches reduce participant burden while improving critical trial data.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302394

ABSTRACT

A series of 27 compounds of general structure 2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]oxazin-4-yl)-2-{4-[3-(1H-3indolyl)-propyl]-1-piperazinyl}-ethanamides, Series I: 7(a-o) and (2-{4-[3-(1H-3-indolyl)-propyl]-1-piperazinyl}-acetylamine)-N-(2-morfolin-4-yl-ethyl)-fluorinated benzamides Series II: 13(a-l) were synthesized and evaluated as novel multitarget ligands towards dopamine D2 receptor, serotonin transporter (SERT), and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) directed to the management of major depressive disorder (MDD). All the assayed compounds showed affinity for SERT in the nanomolar range, with five of them displaying Ki values from 5 to 10 nM. Compounds 7k, Ki = 5.63 ± 0.82 nM, and 13c, Ki = 6.85 ± 0.19 nM, showed the highest potencies. The affinities for D2 ranged from micro to nanomolar, while MAO-A inhibition was more discrete. Nevertheless, compounds 7m and 7n showed affinities for the D2 receptor in the nanomolar range (7n: Ki = 307 ± 6 nM and 7m: Ki = 593 ± 62 nM). Compound 7n was the only derivative displaying comparable affinities for SERT and D2 receptor (D2/SERT ratio = 3.6) and could be considered as a multitarget lead for further optimization. In addition, docking studies aimed to rationalize the molecular interactions and binding modes of the designed compounds in the most relevant protein targets were carried out. Furthermore, in order to obtain information on the structure-activity relationship of the synthesized series, a 3-D-QSAR CoMFA and CoMSIA study was conducted and validated internally and externally (q2 = 0.625, 0.523 for CoMFA and CoMSIA and r2ncv = 0.967, 0.959 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively).


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Receptors, Dopamine D2/metabolism , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Receptors, Dopamine D2/genetics , Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins/genetics , Structure-Activity Relationship
8.
SLAS Discov ; 26(6): 783-797, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293079

ABSTRACT

Classical high-throughput screening (HTS) technologies for the analysis of ionic currents across biological membranes can be performed using fluorescence-based, radioactive, and mass spectrometry (MS)-based uptake assays. These assays provide rapid results for pharmacological HTS, but the underlying, indirect analytical character of these assays can be linked to high false-positive hit rates. Thus, orthogonal and secondary assays using more biological target-based technologies are indispensable for further compound validation and optimization. Direct assay technologies for transporter proteins are electrophysiology-based, but are also complex, time-consuming, and not well applicable for automated profiling purposes. In contrast to conventional patch clamp systems, solid supported membrane (SSM)-based electrophysiology is a sensitive, membrane-based method for transporter analysis, and current technical developments target the demand for automated, accelerated, and sensitive assays for transporter-directed compound screening. In this study, the suitability of the SSM-based technique for pharmacological compound identification and optimization was evaluated performing cell-free SSM-based measurements with the electrogenic amino acid transporter B0AT1 (SLC6A19). Electrophysiological characterization of leucine-induced currents demonstrated that the observed signals were specific to B0AT1. Moreover, B0AT1-dependent responses were successfully inhibited using an established in-house tool compound. Evaluation of current stability and data reproducibility verified the robustness and reliability of the applied assay. Active compounds from primary screens of large compound libraries were validated, and false-positive hits were identified. These results clearly demonstrate the suitability of the SSM-based technique as a direct electrophysiological method for rapid and automated identification of small molecules that can inhibit B0AT1 activity.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/metabolism , Electrophysiological Phenomena , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/agonists , Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral/antagonists & inhibitors , Animals , Biological Assay/methods , Biological Transport/drug effects , CHO Cells , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cricetulus , Humans , Mice , Patch-Clamp Techniques/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology
9.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288957

ABSTRACT

In the current work, a simple, economical, accurate, and precise HPLC method with UV detection was developed to quantify Favipiravir (FVIR) in spiked human plasma using acyclovir (ACVR) as an internal standard in the COVID-19 pandemic time. Both FVIR and ACVR were well separated and resolved on the C18 column using the mobile phase blend of methanol:acetonitrile:20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 3.1) in an isocratic mode flow rate of 1 mL/min with a proportion of 30:10:60 %, v/v/v. The detector wavelength was set at 242 nm. Maximum recovery of FVIR and ACVR from plasma was obtained with dichloromethane (DCM) as extracting solvent. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 3.1-60.0 µg/mL with regression coefficient (r2) = 0.9976. However, with acceptable r2, the calibration data's heteroscedasticity was observed, which was further reduced using weighted linear regression with weighting factor 1/x. Finally, the method was validated concerning sensitivity, accuracy (Inter and Intraday's % RE and RSD were 0.28, 0.65 and 1.00, 0.12 respectively), precision, recovery (89.99%, 89.09%, and 90.81% for LQC, MQC, and HQC, respectively), stability (% RSD for 30-day were 3.04 and 1.71 for LQC and HQC, respectively at -20 °C), and carry-over US-FDA guidance for Bioanalytical Method Validation for researchers in the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Furthermore, there was no significant difference for selectivity when evaluated at LLOQ concentration of 3 µg/mL of FVIR and relative to the blank.


Subject(s)
Amides/analysis , Amides/blood , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/blood , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Liquid-Liquid Extraction/methods , Pyrazines/analysis , Pyrazines/blood , Acyclovir/analysis , Acyclovir/blood , COVID-19/blood , Calibration , Drug Stability , Freezing , Humans , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results , Solvents/chemistry
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009683, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282318

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a global crisis of unimagined dimensions. Currently, Remedesivir is only fully licensed FDA therapeutic. A major target of the vaccine effort is the SARS-CoV-2 spike-hACE2 interaction, and assessment of efficacy relies on time consuming neutralization assay. Here, we developed a cell fusion assay based upon spike-hACE2 interaction. The system was tested by transient co-transfection of 293T cells, which demonstrated good correlation with standard spike pseudotyping for inhibition by sera and biologics. Then established stable cell lines were very well behaved and gave even better correlation with pseudotyping results, after a short, overnight co-incubation. Results with the stable cell fusion assay also correlated well with those of a live virus assay. In summary we have established a rapid, reliable, and reproducible cell fusion assay that will serve to complement the other neutralization assays currently in use, is easy to implement in most laboratories, and may serve as the basis for high throughput screens to identify inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 virus-cell binding and entry.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/blood , Cell Fusion , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Receptors, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection , Virus Attachment
11.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(9): 1592-1599, 2021 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206211

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to validate a commercially available automated assay for the measurement of total adenosine deaminase (tADA) and its isoenzymes (ADA1 and ADA2) in saliva in a fast and accurate way, and evaluate the possible changes of these analytes in individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: The validation, in addition to the evaluation of precision and accuracy, included the analysis of the effects of the main procedures that are currently being used for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation in saliva and a pilot study to evaluate the possible changes in salivary tADA and isoenzymes in individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The automated assay proved to be accurate and precise, with intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation below 8.2%, linearity under dilution linear regression with R2 close to 1, and recovery percentage between 80 and 120% in all cases. This assay was affected when the sample is treated with heat or SDS for virus inactivation but tolerated Triton X-100 and NP-40. Individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection (n=71) and who recovered from infection (n=11) had higher mean values of activity of tADA and its isoenzymes than healthy individuals (n=35). CONCLUSIONS: tADA and its isoenzymes ADA1 and ADA2 can be measured accurately and precisely in saliva samples in a rapid, economical, and reproducible way and can be analyzed after chemical inactivation with Triton X-100 and NP-40. Besides, the changes observed in tADA and isoenzymes in individuals with COVID-19 open the possibility of their potential use as non-invasive biomarkers in this disease.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Deaminase/metabolism , Biological Assay/methods , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Saliva/enzymology , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Isoenzymes , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Young Adult
12.
J Appl Lab Med ; 6(4): 942-952, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 serological responses may have a vital role in controlling the spread of the disease. However, the comparative performance of automated serological assays has not been determined in susceptible patients with significant comorbidities. METHODS: In this study, we used large numbers of samples from patients who were negative (n = 2030) or positive (n = 112) for COVID-19 to compare the performance of 4 serological assay platforms: Siemens Healthineers Atellica IM Analyzer, Siemens Healthineers Dimension EXL Systems, Abbott ARCHITECT, and Roche cobas. RESULTS: All 4 serology assay platforms exhibited comparable negative percentage of agreement with negative COVID-19 status ranging from 99.2% to 99.7% and positive percentage of agreement from 84.8% to 87.5% with positive real-time reverse transcriptase PCR results. Of the 2142 total samples, only 38 samples (1.8%) yielded discordant results on one or more platforms. However, only 1.1% (23/2030) of results from the COVID-19-negative cohort were discordant. whereas discordance was 10-fold higher for the COVID-19-positive cohort, at 11.3% (15/112). Of the total 38 discordant results, 34 were discordant on only one platform. CONCLUSIONS: Serology assay performance was comparable across the 4 platforms assessed in a large population of patients who were COVID-19 negative with relevant comorbidities. The pattern of discordance shows that samples were discordant on a single assay platform, and the discordance rate was 10-fold higher in the population that was COVID-19 positive.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biological Assay/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 196: 113924, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051793

ABSTRACT

Owing to its simplicity and low cost, the lateral flow assay (LFA) is one of the most commonly used point-of-care diagnostic techniques, despite its low sensitivity and poor quantification. Here, we report a newly developed LFA-NanoSuit method (LNSM) combined with a desktop scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the direct observation of immunocomplexes labeled with a colloidal metal instead of signal enhancement strategies, such as using color, electrochemical signals, silver enhancement, magnetic properties, luminescent, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The proposed LNSM suppresses cellulose deformity, thereby allowing the acquisition of high-resolution images of gold/platinum-labeled immunocomplexed pathogens such as influenza A, without conductive treatment as in conventional SEM. Electron microscopy-based diagnosis of influenza A exhibited 94 % clinical sensitivity (29/31; 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 79.3-98.2 %) and 100 % clinical specificity (95 % CI: 98.1-100 %), which was more sensitive (71.4 %) than visual detection (14.3 %), especially in the lower influenza A-RNA copy number group. The detection ability of our method was nearly comparable to that of real-time reverse transcription-PCR. This is the first report on the diagnosis of clinical diseases using LFA equipped with a desktop SEM. This simple and highly sensitive quantitative analysis method involving LFA can be used to diagnose various diseases in humans and livestock, including highly infectious diseases such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Assay/methods , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Platinum/chemistry , Animals , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Humans , Limit of Detection , Livestock , Point-of-Care Testing , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1873, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043028

ABSTRACT

The development of alternative isothermal amplification assays including multiple cross displacement amplification (MCDA) may address speed and portability limitations of real-time PCR (rt-PCR) methods for SARS-CoV-2 detection. We developed a novel SARS-CoV-2 MCDA assay and compared its speed and sensitivity to loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and rt-PCR. Two MCDA assays targeting SARS-CoV-2 N gene and ORF1ab were designed. The fastest time to detection and sensitivity of MCDA was compared to LAMP and rt-PCR using DNA standards and transcribed RNA. For the N gene, MCDA was faster than LAMP and rt-PCR by 10 and 20 min, respectively with fastest time to detection at 5.2 min. rt-PCR had the highest sensitivity with the limit of detection at 10 copies/µl compared with MCDA (100 copies/µl) and LAMP (500 copies/µl). For ORF1ab, MCDA and LAMP had similar speed with fastest time to detection at 9.7 and 8.4 min, respectively. LAMP was more sensitive for ORF1ab detection with 50 copies/µl compared to MCDA (500 copies/µl). In conclusion, different nucleic acid amplification methods provide different advantages. MCDA is the fastest nucleic acid amplification method for SARS-CoV-2 while rt-PCR is the most sensitive. These advantages should be considered when determining the most suitable nucleic acid amplification methods for different applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biological Assay/methods , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Proteins/genetics
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