Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 40
Filter
1.
Molecules ; 27(1)2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580565

ABSTRACT

Baricitinib (BTB) is an orally administered Janus kinase inhibitor, therapeutically used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Recently it has also been approved for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. In this study, four different BTB-loaded lipids (stearin)-polymer (Poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide)) hybrid nanoparticles (B-PLN1 to B-PLN4) were prepared by the single-step nanoprecipitation method. Next, they were characterised in terms of physicochemical properties such as particle size, zeta potential (ζP), polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug loading (DL). Based on preliminary evaluation, the B-PLN4 was regarded as the optimised formulation with particle size (272 ± 7.6 nm), PDI (0.225), ζP (-36.5 ± 3.1 mV), %EE (71.6 ± 1.5%) and %DL (2.87 ± 0.42%). This formulation (B-PLN4) was further assessed concerning morphology, in vitro release, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The in vitro release profile exhibited a sustained release pattern well-fitted by the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model (R2 = 0.879). The in vivo pharmacokinetic data showed an enhancement (2.92 times more) in bioavailability in comparison to the normal suspension of pure BTB. These data concluded that the formulated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery option to enhance the bioavailability of BTB. Overall, this study provides a scientific basis for future studies on the entrapment efficiency of lipid-polymer hybrid systems as promising carriers for overcoming pharmacokinetic limitations.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Liposomes/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Purines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrazoles/pharmacokinetics , Sulfonamides/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Oral , Animals , Azetidines/administration & dosage , Azetidines/chemistry , Biological Availability , Male , Purines/administration & dosage , Purines/chemistry , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Sulfonamides/chemistry
2.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 145: 112385, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565522

ABSTRACT

Chemically modified mRNA represents a unique, efficient, and straightforward approach to produce a class of biopharmaceutical agents. It has been already approved as a vaccination-based method for targeting SARS-CoV-2 virus. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the prospect of synthetic modified mRNA to efficiently and safely combat various diseases. Recently, various optimization advances have been adopted to overcome the limitations associated with conventional gene therapeutics leading to wide-ranging applications in different disease conditions. This review sheds light on emerging directions of chemically modified mRNAs to prevent and treat widespread chronic diseases, including metabolic disorders, cancer vaccination and immunotherapy, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and liver diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/prevention & control , Chronic Disease/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Immunotherapy/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Biological Availability , Drug Carriers , Forecasting , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunotherapy, Active , RNA Stability , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Messenger/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology
3.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
4.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 116: 111260, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452344

ABSTRACT

Polymeric nanoparticulate systems allow the encapsulation of bio-active substances, giving them protection against external agents and increasing the drug's bioavailability. The use of biocompatible and biodegradable polymers usually guarantees the harmless character of the formulation, and a controlled drug release is also assured. A relatively easy procedure to obtain polymeric formulations of bioactive agents is ionotropic gelation, which allows the synthesis of chitosan (CS) - sodium tri-polyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) loading encapsulated proteins. In this work, Bovine serum albumin (BSA) model protein and a recombinant porcine alpha interferon variant were used to obtain nanoparticulate formulations. The internalization of the encapsulated material by cells was studied using a BSA-fluorescein system; the fluorescent conjugate was observable inside the cells after 20 h of incubation. The therapeutic CS-alpha interferon formulation showed a maximum of protein released in vitro at around 90 h. This system was found to be safe in a cytotoxicity assay, while biological activity experiments in vitro showed antiviral protection of cells in the presence of encapsulated porcine alpha interferon. In vivo experiments in pigs revealed a significant and sustained antiviral response through overexpression of the antiviral markers OAS2 and PKR. This proves the preservation of porcine alpha interferon biological activity, and also that a lasting response was obtained. This procedure is an effective and safe method to formulate drugs in nanoparticulate systems, representing a significant contribution to the search for more effective drug delivery strategies.


Subject(s)
Chitosan , Nanoparticles , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , Cattle , Drug Carriers , Drug Delivery Systems , Interferon-alpha , Particle Size , Polymers , Swine
5.
Phytother Res ; 35(10): 5527-5563, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479440

ABSTRACT

Today, due to the prevalence of various diseases such as the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), diabetes, central nervous system diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and so on, extensive studies have been conducted on therapeutic properties of natural and synthetic agents. A literature review on herbal medicine and commercial products in the global market showed that curcumin (Cur) has many therapeutic benefits compared to other natural ingredients. Despite the unique properties of Cur, its use in clinical trials is very limited. The poor biopharmaceutical properties of Cur such as short half-life in plasma, low bioavailability, poor absorption, rapid metabolism, very low solubility (at acidic and physiological pH), and the chemical instability in body fluids are major concerns associated with the clinical applications of Cur. Recently, nanoformulations are emerging as approaches to develop and improve the therapeutic efficacy of various drugs. Many studies have shown that Cur nanoformulations have tremendous therapeutic potential against various diseases such as SARS-CoV-2, cancer, inflammatory, osteoporosis, and so on. These nanoformulations can inhibit many diseases through several cellular and molecular mechanisms. However, successful long-term clinical results are required to confirm their safety and clinical efficacy. The present review aims to update and explain the therapeutic potential of Cur nanoformulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Biological Availability , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153651, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although numerous medicinal herbal compounds demonstrate promising therapeutic potential, their clinical application is often limited by their poor oral bioavailability. To circumvent this barrier, various lipid-based herbal formulations have been developed and trialled with promising experimental results. PURPOSE: This scoping review aims to describe the effect of lipid-based formulations on the oral bioavailability of herbal compounds. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted across three electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library) between January 2010 and January 2021 to identify relevant studies. The articles were rigorously screened for eligibility. Data from eligible studies were then extracted and collated for synthesis and descriptive analysis using Covidence. RESULTS: A total of 109 studies were included in the present review: 105 animal studies and four clinical trials. Among the formulations investigated, 50% were emulsions, 34% lipid particulate systems, 12% vesicular systems, and 4% were other types of lipid-based formulations. Within the emulsion system classification, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems were observed to produce the best improvements in oral bioavailability, followed by mixed micellar formulations. The introduction of composite lipid-based formulations and the use of uncommon surfactants such as sodium oleate in emulsion preparation was shown to consistently enhance the bioavailability of herbal compounds with poor oral absorption. Interestingly, the lipid-based formulations of magnesium lithospermate B and Pulsatilla chinensis produced an absolute bioavailability greater than 100% indicating the possibility of prolonged systemic circulation. With respect to chemical conjugation, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was the most frequently used and significantly improved the bioavailability of its phytoconstituents. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is no distinct lipid-based formulation superior to the other. Bioavailability improvements were largely dependent on the nature of the phytoconstituents. This scoping review, however, provided a detailed summary of the most up-to-date evidence on phytoconstituents formulated into lipid preparations and their oral bioavailability. We conclude that a systematic review and meta-analysis between bioavailability improvements of individual phytoconstituents (such as kaempferol, morin and myricetin) in various lipid-based formulations will provide a more detailed association. Such a review will be highly beneficial for both researchers and herbal manufacturers.


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Drug Delivery Systems , Micelles , Plant Preparations/pharmacokinetics , Surface-Active Agents , Administration, Oral , Animals , Emulsions , Humans , Lipids , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Solubility
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374421

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of specialized metabolites in plants that largely aid in plant defense by deterring biotic stressors and alleviating abiotic stress. Polyphenols offer a wide range of medical applications, acting as preventative and active treatments for diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Recently, researchers have proposed that polyphenols may contribute to certain applications aimed at tackling challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the beneficial impacts of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, could potentially help prepare society for future pandemics. Thus far, most reviews have focused on polyphenols in cancer prevention and treatment. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the critical roles that polyphenols play in both plant chemical defense and human health based on the most recent studies while highlighting prospective avenues for future research, as well as the implications for phytochemical-based applications in both agricultural and medical fields.


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phytochemicals , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
8.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1150-1165, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271847

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to confine piperine, a poor oral bioavailable herbal drug into bile salt based nano vesicles for improving its aqueous solubility, hence, its therapeutic activity. Piperine-loaded bilosomes were fabricated adopting thin film hydration technique according to 32.21 full factorial design to investigate the impact of different formulation variables on the characters of bilosomes: entrapment efficiency (EE%), particle size, and % of drug released post 8 h (Q8hr). The selected optimum formula was F2 (enclosing 1% bile salt, brij72 as a surfactant, and ratio of surfactant:cholesterol was 9:1) with desirability value 0.801, exhibiting high EE% (97.2 ± 0.8%) nanosized spherical vesicles (220.2 ± 20.5 nm) and Q8hr (88.2%±5.6). The superiority of the optimized formula (F2) over the drug suspension was revealed via ex vivo permeation study, also pharmacokinetic study denoted to the boosted oral bioavailability of piperine-loaded bilosome compared to piperine suspension. Moreover, antiviral activity and safety margin of F2 was significantly higher than that of the drug suspension. The ability of piperine to interact with the key amino acids in the receptor binding domain 4L3N as indicated by its docking configuration, rationalized its observed activity. Furthermore, F2 significantly reduce oxidant markers, inflammatory cytokines in MERS-CoV-infected mice. Hence, bilosomes can be considered as a carrier of choice for piperine with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Benzodioxoles , Bile Acids and Salts/pharmacokinetics , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides , Administration, Oral , Alkaloids/administration & dosage , Alkaloids/pharmacokinetics , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Benzodioxoles/administration & dosage , Benzodioxoles/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , Drug Liberation , Liposomes , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nanostructures , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Plants, Medicinal , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/administration & dosage , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacokinetics , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacokinetics
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3661, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275912

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, has caused a global pandemic. Antibodies can be powerful biotherapeutics to fight viral infections. Here, we use the human apoferritin protomer as a modular subunit to drive oligomerization of antibody fragments and transform antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 into exceptionally potent neutralizers. Using this platform, half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values as low as 9 × 10-14 M are achieved as a result of up to 10,000-fold potency enhancements compared to corresponding IgGs. Combination of three different antibody specificities and the fragment crystallizable (Fc) domain on a single multivalent molecule conferred the ability to overcome viral sequence variability together with outstanding potency and IgG-like bioavailability. The MULTi-specific, multi-Affinity antiBODY (Multabody or MB) platform thus uniquely leverages binding avidity together with multi-specificity to deliver ultrapotent and broad neutralizers against SARS-CoV-2. The modularity of the platform also makes it relevant for rapid evaluation against other infectious diseases of global health importance. Neutralizing antibodies are a promising therapeutic for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Apoferritins/chemistry , Biological Availability , Epitope Mapping , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Engineering/methods , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Tissue Distribution
10.
Phytother Res ; 35(10): 5527-5563, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270488

ABSTRACT

Today, due to the prevalence of various diseases such as the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), diabetes, central nervous system diseases, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and so on, extensive studies have been conducted on therapeutic properties of natural and synthetic agents. A literature review on herbal medicine and commercial products in the global market showed that curcumin (Cur) has many therapeutic benefits compared to other natural ingredients. Despite the unique properties of Cur, its use in clinical trials is very limited. The poor biopharmaceutical properties of Cur such as short half-life in plasma, low bioavailability, poor absorption, rapid metabolism, very low solubility (at acidic and physiological pH), and the chemical instability in body fluids are major concerns associated with the clinical applications of Cur. Recently, nanoformulations are emerging as approaches to develop and improve the therapeutic efficacy of various drugs. Many studies have shown that Cur nanoformulations have tremendous therapeutic potential against various diseases such as SARS-CoV-2, cancer, inflammatory, osteoporosis, and so on. These nanoformulations can inhibit many diseases through several cellular and molecular mechanisms. However, successful long-term clinical results are required to confirm their safety and clinical efficacy. The present review aims to update and explain the therapeutic potential of Cur nanoformulations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Biological Availability , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Mol Recognit ; 34(10): e2918, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270481

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 has caused a worldwide pandemic. The fatal virus has affected the health of human beings as well as the socio-economic situation all over the world. To date, no concrete medicinal solution has been proposed to combat the viral infection, calling for an urgent, strategic, and cost-effective drug development approach that may be achievable by applying targeted computational and virtual screening protocols. Immunity is the body's natural defense against disease-causing pathogens, which can be boosted by consuming plant-based or natural food products. Active constituents derived from natural sources also scavenge the free radicals and have anti-inflammatory activities. Herbs and spices have been used for various medicinal purposes. In this study, 2,96 365 natural and synthetic derivatives (ligands) belonging to 102 classes of compounds were obtained from PubChem and assessed on Lipinski's parameters for their potential bioavailability. Out of all the derivatives, 3254 obeyed Lipinski's rule and were virtually screened. The 115 top derivatives were docked against SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and HCoV-HKV1 main proteases (Mpro s) as receptors using AutoDock Vina, AutoDock, and iGEMDOCK 2.1. The lowest binding energy was exhibited by ligands 2 and 6 against all the four Mpro s. The molecular dynamic simulation was also performed with ligand 6 using the GROMACS package. Good bioactivity scores, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity profile and drug-like pharmacokinetic parameters were also obtained. Hydroxychloroquine was used as the control drug.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 670955, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259347

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to an extraordinary threat to the global healthcare system. This infection disease, named COVID-19, is characterized by a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic or mild upper respiratory tract illness to severe viral pneumonia with fulminant cytokine storm, which leads to respiratory failure. To improve patient outcomes, both the inhibition of viral replication and of the unwarranted excessive inflammatory response are crucial. Since no specific antiviral drug has been proven effective for the treatment of patients and the only upcoming promising agents are monoclonal antibodies, inexpensive, safe, and widely available treatments are urgently needed. A potential anti-inflammatory molecule to be evaluated, which possesses antiviral activities in several experimental models, is the polyphenol resveratrol. This compound has been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in human primary bronchial epithelial cell cultures and to downregulate several pathogenetic mechanisms involved in COVID-19 severity. The use of resveratrol in clinical practice is limited by the low bioavailability following oral administration, due to the pharmacokinetic and metabolic characteristics of the molecule. Therefore, topical administration through inhaled formulations could allow us to achieve sufficiently high concentrations of the compound in the airways, the entry route of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Resveratrol/pharmacokinetics
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256557

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D, a fat-soluble prohormone, is endogenously synthesized in response to sunlight or taken from dietary supplements. Since vitamin D receptors are present in most tissues and cells in the body, the mounting understanding of the role of vitamin D in humans indicates that it does not only play an important role in the musculoskeletal system, but has beneficial effects elsewhere as well. This review summarizes the metabolism of vitamin D, the research regarding the possible risk factors leading to vitamin D deficiency, and the relationships between vitamin D deficiency and numerous illnesses, including rickets, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, muscle weakness and falls, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancers, and neurological disorders. The system-wide effects of vitamin D and the mechanisms of the diseases are also discussed. Although accumulating evidence supports associations of vitamin D deficiency with physical and mental disorders and beneficial effects of vitamin D with health maintenance and disease prevention, there continue to be controversies over the beneficial effects of vitamin D. Thus, more well-designed and statistically powered trials are required to enable the assessment of vitamin D's role in optimizing health and preventing disease.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal System/drug effects , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Animals , Biological Availability , Humans , Models, Biological , Muscle Weakness/complications , Vitamin D/chemistry , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/pathology
14.
J Nutr Biochem ; 97: 108787, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253236

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of mysterious pneumonia at the end of 2019 is associated with widespread research interest worldwide. The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) targets multiple organs through inflammatory, immune, and redox mechanisms, and no effective drug for its prophylaxis or treatment has been identified until now. The use of dietary bioactive compounds, such as phenolic compounds (PC), has emerged as a putative nutritional or therapeutic adjunct approach for COVID-19. In the present study, scientific data on the mechanisms underlying the bioactivity of PC and their usefulness in COVID-19 mitigation are reviewed. In addition, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects of dietary PC are studied. Moreover, the implications of digestion on the putative benefits of dietary PC against COVID-19 are presented by addressing the bioavailability and biotransformation of PC by the gut microbiota. Lastly, safety issues and possible drug interactions of PC and their implications in COVID-19 therapeutics are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Dietary Supplements , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Phenols/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Curcumin/pharmacokinetics , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/pharmacokinetics , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Phenols/pharmacokinetics , Phenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/pharmacokinetics , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Resveratrol/pharmacokinetics , Resveratrol/pharmacology , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
15.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224076

ABSTRACT

Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced by many plants as a defense mechanism against stress-inducing conditions. The richest dietary sources of resveratrol are berries and grapes, their juices and wines. Good bioavailability of resveratrol is not reflected in its high biological activity in vivo because of resveratrol isomerization and its poor solubility in aqueous solutions. Proteins, cyclodextrins and nanomaterials have been explored as innovative delivery vehicles for resveratrol to overcome this limitation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated beneficial effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Main beneficial effects of resveratrol intake are cardioprotective, anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, anti-diabetic, and improvement of lipid status. As resveratrol can alleviate the numerous factors associated with CVD, it has potential as a functional supplement to reduce COVID-19 illness severity in patients displaying poor prognosis due to cardio-vascular complications. Resveratrol was shown to mitigate the major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 including regulation of the renin-angiotensin system and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, stimulation of immune system and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Therefore, several studies already have anticipated potential implementation of resveratrol in COVID-19 treatment. Regular intake of a resveratrol rich diet, or resveratrol-based complementary medicaments, may contribute to a healthier cardio-vascular system, prevention and control of CVD, including COVID-19 disease related complications of CVD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases , Resveratrol , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Biological Availability , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Humans , Resveratrol/pharmacokinetics , Resveratrol/therapeutic use
16.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178369

ABSTRACT

Nicotinamide riboside (NR) has recently become one of the most studied nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) precursors, due to its numerous potential health benefits mediated via elevated NAD+ content in the body. NAD+ is an essential coenzyme that plays important roles in various metabolic pathways and increasing its overall content has been confirmed as a valuable strategy for treating a wide variety of pathophysiological conditions. Accumulating evidence on NRs' health benefits has validated its efficiency across numerous animal and human studies for the treatment of a number of cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and metabolic disorders. As the prevalence and morbidity of these conditions increases in modern society, the great necessity has arisen for a rapid translation of NR to therapeutic use and further establishment of its availability as a nutritional supplement. Here, we summarize currently available data on NR effects on metabolism, and several neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disorders, through to its application as a treatment for specific pathophysiological conditions. In addition, we have reviewed newly published research on the application of NR as a potential therapy against infections with several pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, to support rapid NR translation to therapeutics, the challenges related to its bioavailability and safety are addressed, together with the advantages of NR to other NAD+ precursors.


Subject(s)
Dietary Supplements , Niacinamide/analogs & derivatives , Aging , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Biological Availability , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Longevity , Metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Niacinamide/pharmacokinetics , Niacinamide/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pyridinium Compounds , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Mol Pharm ; 18(5): 1970-1984, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164785

ABSTRACT

Physicochemical properties, in particular solubility and the associated bioavailability, are key factors in determining efficacy of poorly water-soluble drugs, which constitute 40% of new drugs in the market, and improving them is an important challenge for modern pharmacy. A recent strategy to achieve this goal is formation of stable co-amorphous solid dispersions with co-formers of low molecular weight. Here, the amorphization strategy was applied for low-soluble anti-hypertensive valsartan (VAL), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and nicotinamide, which exhibits lung- and cardio-protective effects. Through interactions with the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system, VAL may be used to treat both hypertension and the current pandemic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using mechanochemical and liquid- and solid-state approaches, solvated co-amorphous solid dispersions of VAL with nicotinamide were obtained. They were characterized by spectroscopic, thermal, and X-ray analyses. The density functional theory, quantum theory of atoms in molecules, and non-covalent interaction index calculations revealed the presence of two types of hydrogen bonds between VAL and NIC (i.e., N-H···O and O-H···O). One of them had a partially covalent character, which caused conformational changes in the flexible VAL molecule, restricting contribution of the tetrazolyl N-H donor and thus limiting the possibility of co-crystal formation. The recognized VAL/NIC1- and VAL/NIC2-type heterodimeric interactions were responsible for the excellent durability of the solid compositions and up to 24-fold better solubility than VAL alone. The synthesized dispersions constitute a new class of dually acting drugs, containing an active pharmaceutical ingredient (VAL) and supporting nutraceutical (nicotinamide).


Subject(s)
Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Niacinamide/chemistry , Valsartan/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemical synthesis , Biological Availability , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Drug Compounding , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Quantum Theory , Solubility , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , X-Ray Diffraction
19.
Nature ; 593(7859): 418-423, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137788

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the third outbreak this century of a zoonotic disease caused by a coronavirus, following the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 20031 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 20122. Treatment options for coronaviruses are limited. Here we show that clofazimine-an anti-leprosy drug with a favourable safety profile3-possesses inhibitory activity against several coronaviruses, and can antagonize the replication of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV in a range of in vitro systems. We found that this molecule, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, inhibits cell fusion mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein, as well as activity of the viral helicase. Prophylactic or therapeutic administration of clofazimine in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis led to reduced viral loads in the lung and viral shedding in faeces, and also alleviated the inflammation associated with viral infection. Combinations of clofazimine and remdesivir exhibited antiviral synergy in vitro and in vivo, and restricted viral shedding from the upper respiratory tract. Clofazimine, which is orally bioavailable and comparatively cheap to manufacture, is an attractive clinical candidate for the treatment of outpatients and-when combined with remdesivir-in therapy for hospitalized patients with COVID-19, particularly in contexts in which costs are an important factor or specialized medical facilities are limited. Our data provide evidence that clofazimine may have a role in the control of the current pandemic of COVID-19 and-possibly more importantly-in dealing with coronavirus diseases that may emerge in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Clofazimine/pharmacology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Clofazimine/pharmacokinetics , Clofazimine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus/growth & development , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Cricetinae , DNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Synergism , Female , Humans , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Male , Mesocricetus , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects , Transcription, Genetic/genetics
20.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136523

ABSTRACT

With the emergence and global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the scientific community worldwide has focused on search for new therapeutic strategies against this disease. One such critical approach is targeting proteins such as helicases that regulate most of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA metabolism. The purpose of the current study was to predict a library of phytochemicals derived from diverse plant families with high binding affinity to SARS-CoV-2 helicase (Nsp13) enzyme. High throughput virtual screening of the Medicinal Plant Database for Drug Design (MPD3) database was performed on SARS-CoV-2 helicase using AutoDock Vina. Nilotinib, with a docking value of -9.6 kcal/mol, was chosen as a reference molecule. A compound (PubChem CID: 110143421, ZINC database ID: ZINC257223845, eMolecules: 43290531) was screened as the best binder (binding energy of -10.2 kcal/mol on average) to the enzyme by using repeated docking runs in the screening process. On inspection, the compound was disclosed to show different binding sites of the triangular pockets collectively formed by Rec1A, Rec2A, and 1B domains and a stalk domain at the base. The molecule is often bound to the ATP binding site (referred to as binding site 2) of the helicase enzyme. The compound was further discovered to fulfill drug-likeness and lead-likeness criteria, have good physicochemical and pharmacokinetics properties, and to be non-toxic. Molecular dynamic simulation analysis of the control/lead compound complexes demonstrated the formation of stable complexes with good intermolecular binding affinity. Lastly, affirmation of the docking simulation studies was accomplished by estimating the binding free energy by MMPB/GBSA technique. Taken together, these findings present further in silco investigation of plant-derived lead compounds to effectively address COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Helicases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Binding Sites , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Chemical , Drug Design , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/metabolism , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/drug effects , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Pyrimidines/metabolism , Pyrimidines/pharmacokinetics , Pyrimidines/toxicity , RNA Helicases/chemistry , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...