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1.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(5): 4757-4765, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240047

ABSTRACT

Recently, special attention has been paid to marine origin compounds such as carbohydrates, peptides, lipids, and carotenoids, which are extracted from microalgae and have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial (e.g., anti-COVID-19 activity), and antioxidant properties in biomedicine and pharmaceutical biotechnology. In addition, these photosynthetic marine microorganisms have several applications in biotechnology and are suitable hosts for the production of recombinant proteins/peptides, such as monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. Silica-based nanoparticles obtained from diatoms (a microalgae group) are used as drug delivery carriers owing to their biodegradability, easy functionalization, low cost, and simple features compared to synthetics, which make these agents proper alternatives for synthetic silica nanoparticles. Therefore, diatom-based nanoparticles are a viable option for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs and reducing the side-effects of cancer chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biological Factors/chemistry , Drug Carriers , Nanoparticles , Photosynthesis
2.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234672

ABSTRACT

To date, more than 100 million people worldwide have recovered from COVID-19. Unfortunately, although the virus is eradicated in such patients, fibrotic irreversible interstitial lung disease (pulmonary fibrosis, PF) is clinically evident. Given the vast numbers of individuals affected, it is urgent to design a strategy to prevent a second wave of late mortality associated with COVID-19 PF as a long-term consequence of such a devastating pandemic. Available antifibrotic therapies, namely nintedanib and pirfenidone, might have a role in attenuating profibrotic pathways in SARS-CoV-2 infection but are not economically sustainable by national health systems and have critical adverse effects. It is our opinion that the mesenchymal stem cell secretome could offer a new therapeutic approach in treating COVID-19 fibrotic lungs through its anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic factors.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Biological Factors/metabolism , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Indoles/adverse effects , Indoles/economics , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/economics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , Pyridones/administration & dosage , Pyridones/adverse effects , Pyridones/economics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 68, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can induce an immune impairment and dysregulation, finally resulting in the massive release of inflammatory mediators (cytokine storm), strongly contributing to the pulmonary and systemic manifestations in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a consequence, different drugs active on the immune system have been proposed for the treatment of the disease in adults. ROLE OF THE ANTI-RHEUMATIC AGENTS IN CHILDREN: Children are more likely to develop a mild disease course, as the severe form of COVID-19 is identified in less than 5% of the pediatric patients. Moreover, in children a peculiar disease phenotype, defined as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is observed, representing the most severe expression of the inflammatory dysregulation caused by SARS-CoV-2. The limited experience with the severe pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C does not allow conclusions about the role of the immune pharmacological approach, and therefore the treatment of these conditions represents a considerable clinical challenge. The use of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and colchicine in the early disease stages is not sufficiently supported by evidence, and there is an increasing interest in the role of biologic agents, including anti-IL-1 and anti-IL-6 agents, in the prevention and treatment of the severe manifestations of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic approach to pediatric COVID-19 is multidisciplinary, and anti-rheumatic agents have a prominent role in severe disease. This paper reviews the rationale for the use of anti-rheumatic agents in pediatric COVID-19 and MIS-C and the clinical experience with the single drugs. Finally, the areas of potential improvement in the use of anti-rheumatic agents, including the optimization of the drug choice and the timing of administration, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/pharmacology , Biological Factors/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome
4.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(2): 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105918

ABSTRACT

This review provides results obtained by scientists from different countries on the antiviral activity of medicinal mushrooms against influenza viruses that can cause pandemics. Currently, the search for antiviral compounds is relevant in connection with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Medicinal mushrooms contain biologically active compounds (polysaccharides, proteins, terpenes, melanins, etc.) that exhibit an antiviral effect. The authors present the work carried out at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector in Russia, whose mission is to protect the population from biological threats. The research center possesses a collection of numerous pathogenic viruses, which allowed screening of water extracts, polysaccharides, and melanins from fruit bodies and fungal cultures. The results of investigations on different subtypes of influenza virus are presented, and special attention is paid to Inonotus obliquus (chaga mushroom). Compounds produced from this mushroom are characterized by the widest range of antiviral activity. Comparative data are presented on the antiviral activity of melanin from natural I. obliquus and submerged biomass of an effective strain isolated in culture against the pandemic strain of influenza virus A/California/07/09 (H1N1 pdm09).


Subject(s)
Agaricales/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Factors/pharmacology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biological Factors/isolation & purification , Humans , Inonotus/chemistry , Melanins/isolation & purification , Melanins/pharmacology , Orthomyxoviridae/classification , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
5.
Biologicals ; 68: 122-124, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733947

ABSTRACT

With the pandemic emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the exposure of cell substrates used for manufacturing of medicines has become a possibility. Cell lines used in biomanufacturing were thus evaluated for their SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in culture supernatants by routine adventitious virus testing of fermenter harvest tested.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Factors/pharmacology , CHO Cells , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cricetulus , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
6.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(8): 829-830, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574667

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In light of the current Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing, extensive debate about the use of biological agents in psoriatic patients, we felt compelled to relate our experience in the use of secukinumab in the same cohort before and during the lockdown in Italy. Areas covered: Secukinumab was not discontinued, and there were no cases of confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 in this cohort. Expert opinion: In our practice, there is no evidence favoring the discontinuation of secukinumab in these patients. We also present a brief commentary on the use of biological agents in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Biological Factors/pharmacology , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-17/immunology , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Psoriasis/complications , Psoriasis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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