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1.
Acta Biomed ; 93(S3): e2022053, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879758

ABSTRACT

Background and aim  It is still unclear whether patients with severe asthma are at greater risk of developing severe COVID-19, particularly pediatric allergic patients under biologic therapy. Studies targeting pediatric patients are currently limited; thus, this study aims to assess the clinical characteristics of young patients with severe asthma under biological therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We collected data from February 2020 to April 2021. Patients with severe asthma treated with biological therapies (omalizumab and mepolizumab) have been enrolled. We described demographic data, clinical features, therapies, comorbidities, and laboratory findings for each patient. For patients who got COVID-19, we also described the severity of the disease, the need for hospitalization, and specific therapy. Results A total of 14 patients were included in the study, 11 (78.6%) of them under treatment with omalizumab and 3 (21.6%) with mepolizumab. We identified four patients (28.6%) who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Two patients treated with mepolizumab had an asymptomatic disease, and two patients treated with omalizumab had mild disease. Only one patient with mild COVID-19 required hospitalization and specific therapy because of severe obesity. Conclusions No differences regarding the SARS-CoV-2 infection have been found between the two treatments groups. Furthermore, any poor outcome has been observed, confirming the safety of biological therapies. The limited number of patients enrolled and the lack of a control group did not establish a significant risk for infections for these patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/adverse effects , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Child , Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 44(8): 587-598, 2021 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626213

ABSTRACT

Patients with certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have an increased risk of severe infectious diseases than the general population, which are mainly associated with the immunosuppressive treatments that they receive. These treatments act on the immune system through different mechanisms, causing different degrees of immunosuppression and a variable risk depending on whether the pathogen is a virus, bacteria or fungus. This article reviews the most relevant literature on the subject, which was selected and discussed by a panel of experts. The aim of this article is to review the risk of infections in patients with IBD and RA, and the potential preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
6.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(11): 3050-3055, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1280343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Since the outbreak of COVID-19, concerns have been raised as to whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients under biologic therapy may be more susceptible to the disease. This study aimed to determine the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19 in a large cohort of IBD patients on biologic therapy. METHODS: This observational retrospective multicenter study collected data about COVID-19 in IBD patients on biologic therapy in Italy, between February and May 2020. The main end-points were (i) to assess both the cumulative incidence and clinical outcome of COVID-19, according to different biologic agents and (ii) to compare them with the general population and a cohort IBD patients undergoing non-biologic therapies. RESULTS: Among 1816 IBD patients, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was 3.9 per 1000 (7/1816) with a 57% hospitalization rate and a 29% case-fatality rate. The class of biologic agents was the only risk factor of developing COVID-19 (P = 0.01). Non-gut selective agents were associated with a lower incidence of COVID-19 cases, related symptoms, and hospitalization (P < 0.05). Compared with the general population of Lombardy, an overall lower incidence of COVID-19 was observed (3.9 vs 8.5 per 1000, P = 0.03). Compared with 565 IBD patients on non-biologic therapies, a lower rate of COVID-19 symptoms was observed in our cohort (7.5% vs 18%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the general population, IBD patients on biologic therapy are not exposed to a higher risk of COVID-19. Non-gut selective agents are associated with a lower incidence of symptomatic disease, supporting the decision of maintaining the ongoing treatment.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/administration & dosage , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Colitis , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 72(5): 736-741, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015411

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Retrospective, observational, single-center, cohort study investigating the safety profile of biological therapy in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: Retrospective, observational, cohort study of pediatric patients with IBD, receiving infliximab, adalimumab, vedolizumab, or ustekinumab for at least 2 months. Data related to the immediate and delayed adverse events (AEs) were collected, focusing on the reaction type and severity, the time of onset, the outcome and the temporary or definitive therapy discontinuation secondary to the AE. Number of suspected and confirmed coronavirus disease-209 (COVID-19) cases and their outcomes, as well as flu vaccination coverage were collected. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-five children were included (101 [55%] CD, 82 [44%] UC, and 2 [1%] IBDU): 149 received infliximab (IFX) (81%), 88 (48%) adalimumab (ADA), 18 (21%) vedolizumab, and 4 (2%) ustekinumab. The overall AE rates were 49%, 67% of whom likely medication-related. Eleven (6%) patients experienced more than 1 AE, 18 patients (10%) presented an immediate reaction, and 82 (45%) a delayed AE. Among the 90 patients experiencing at least 1 AE, 97% had mild-to-moderate AEs. Only 4 SAEs were reported (4%). Treatment discontinuation because of AE occurred in 25 patients (14%). Four COVID-19 cases were reported, all with a mild course. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm a good safety profile of biologics. Infusion reactions to IFX administration remain one of the main issues, significantly linked to its immunogenicity and consequently with an impact on its efficacy and durability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Adalimumab/adverse effects , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Child , Cohort Studies , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Infliximab/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(6): 604-605, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45734

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 has been recently classified as pandemic infection by the World Health Organization. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are invited to follow the national recommendations as any other person. It is unclear whether a more aggressive clinical course might develop in asymptomatic COVID-19 infected subjects during biological therapy and current evidence does not support treatment suspension. However, during pandemic, the start of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and biologics should be postponed whenever possible and based on an individual risk assessment. When clinical conditions and the disease activity do not allow a treatment delay, before starting a biological therapy, screening of IBD patients for COVID-19 active infection by RT-PCR should be advisable, even in absence of clinical suspicion. Serum antibody testing, when available, could provide evidence of infection as well as identify patients already immune to the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biological Therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Immunosuppressive Agents , Infection Control/methods , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Humans , Immunization/adverse effects , Immunization/methods , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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