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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 146: 112507, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556976

ABSTRACT

Lectins or clusters of carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin are distributed chiefly in the Plantae. Lectins have potent anti-infectivity properties for several RNA viruses including SARS-CoV-2. The primary purpose of this review is to review the ability of lectins mediated potential biotherapeutic and bioprophylactic strategy against coronavirus causing COVID-19. Lectins have binding affinity to the glycans of SARS-COV-2 Spike glycoprotein that has N-glycosylation sites. Apart from this, the complement lectin pathway is a "first line host defense" against the viral infection that is activated by mannose-binding lectins. Mannose-binding lectins deficiency in serum influences innate immunity of the host and facilitates infectious diseases including COVID-19. Our accumulated evidence obtained from scientific databases particularly PubMed and Google Scholar databases indicate that mannose-specific/mannose-binding lectins (MBL) have potent efficacies like anti-infectivity, complement cascade induction, immunoadjuvants, DC-SIGN antagonists, or glycomimetic approach, which can prove useful in the strategy of COVID-19 combat along with the glycobiological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infections and antiviral immunity. For example, plant-derived mannose-specific lectins BanLac, FRIL, Lentil, and GRFT from red algae can inhibit and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, as confirmed with in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-silico assessments. Furthermore, Bangladesh has a noteworthy resource of antiviral medicinal plants as well as plant lectins. Intensifying research on the antiviral plant lectins, adopting a glyco-biotechnological approach, and with deeper insights into the "glycovirological" aspects may result in the designing of alternative and potent blueprints against the 21st century's biological pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 causing COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Eradication/methods , Plant Lectins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Therapy/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/trends , Humans , Plant Lectins/isolation & purification , Plant Lectins/pharmacology
2.
Theranostics ; 11(20): 10012-10029, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512995

ABSTRACT

Various living organisms have proven to influence human health significantly, either in a commensal or pathogenic manner. Harnessing the creatures may remarkably improve human healthcare and cure the intractable illness that is challenged using traditional drugs or surgical approaches. However, issues including limited biocompatibility, poor biosafety, inconvenience for personal handling, and low patient compliance greatly hinder the biomedical and clinical applications of living organisms when adopting them for disease treatment. Microneedle arrays (MNAs), emerging as a promising candidate of biomedical devices with the functional diversity and minimal invasion, have exhibited great potential in the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases, which is expected to improve organism-based therapies. In this review, we systemically summarize the technologies employed for the integration of MNAs with specific living organisms including diverse viruses, bacteria, mammal cells and so on. Moreover, their applications such as vaccination, anti-infection, tumor therapy and tissue repairing are well illustrated. Challenges faced by current strategies, and the perspectives of integrating more living organisms, adopting smarter materials, and developing more advanced technologies in MNAs for future personalized and point-of-care medicine, are also discussed. It is believed that the combination of living organisms with functional MNAs would hold great promise in the near future due to the advantages of both biological and artificial species.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy/methods , Drug Delivery Systems/instrumentation , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Administration, Cutaneous , Bacteria , Biological Therapy/trends , Cells , Immunotherapy/methods , Immunotherapy/trends , Needles , Skin/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccination/trends , Viruses
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472414

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are rising in global prevalence and cause significant morbidity for patients. Current treatments are limited to slowing instead of stabilising or reversing disease progression. In this review, we describe mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their constituents, extracellular vesicles (EVs) as being a novel therapeutic for CKD. MSC-derived EVs (MSC-EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles, including exosomes, which carry genetic information that mimics the phenotype of their cell of origin. MSC-EVs deliver their cargo of mRNA, miRNA, cytokines, and growth factors to target cells as a form of paracrine communication. This genetically reprograms pathophysiological pathways, which are upregulated in renal failure. Since the method of exosome preparation significantly affects the quality and function of MSC-exosomes, this review compares the methodologies for isolating exosomes from MSCs and their role in tissue regeneration. More specifically, it summarises the therapeutic efficacy of MSC-EVs in 60 preclinical animal models of AKI and CKD and the cargo of biomolecules they deliver. MSC-EVs promote tubular proliferation and angiogenesis, and inhibit apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and fibrosis, to alleviate AKI and CKD. By reprogramming these pathophysiological pathways, MSC-EVs can slow or even reverse the progression of AKI to CKD, and therefore offer potential to transform clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/transplantation , Kidney Diseases/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Animals , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Therapy/methods , Cell Differentiation , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Self Renewal , Chemical Fractionation , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Protective Agents , Renal Insufficiency/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
5.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 21(2): 271-277, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939506

ABSTRACT

Background: The susceptibility of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and the risks or benefits related to the use of biological therapies for COVID-19 are unknown. Few data about prevalence, clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 among psoriatic patients were reported. The aims of this study were 1) to assess the prevalence and severity of COVID-19 in psoriatic patients treated with biologic agents during the first phase of the emergency (22 February to 22 April 2020) in Italy, and 2) to report the clinical outcomes of patients who have been exposed to individuals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Patients with moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis, aged ≥18 years and undergoing treatment with biologic agents as of 22 February 2020, were eligible to be included in PSO-BIO-COVID study. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients using any biologic for psoriasis treatment between 22 February and 22 April 2020 were registered. Results: A total of 12,807 psoriatic patients were included in the PSO-BIO-COVID study. In this cohort 26 patients (0.2%) had a swab confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eleven patients required hospitalization and two died. Conclusion: The incidence of COVID-19 observed in our cohort of psoriatic patients (0.2%) is similar to that seen in the general population (0.31%) in Italy. However, the course of the disease was mild in most patients. Biological therapies may likely lessen 'cytokine storm' of COVID-19, which sometimes lead to multiple organ failure, ARDS, and death.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psoriasis/diagnosis , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Receptors, Interleukin/antagonists & inhibitors , Risk Assessment/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Young Adult
6.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 55: 73-81, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908964

ABSTRACT

Treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) now increasingly target deep remission, yet the resultant more aggressive use of medical therapy is associated with potentially serious adverse events and significant costs. It is, therefore, of vital importance to consider when, how and in whom medical therapy may be safely de-escalated. This issue is of great potential relevance in the current SARS-Cov-2 pandemic. In this review, we first discuss the rationale for drug withdrawal in IBD, before considering the available data on withdrawal of 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA), immunomodulators (IM) and biological therapy in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's Disease (CD). We consider how to identify patients most appropriate for drug withdrawal and outline a potential monitoring strategy for the early detection of relapse following drug withdrawal. We conclude with important future perspectives in this challenging field, and highlight ongoing trials that are likely to shape practice in the years to come.


Subject(s)
Biological Therapy/methods , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Safety-Based Drug Withdrawals/methods , Humans , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Mesalamine/adverse effects
7.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(1): 25-33, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are scarce data about SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Our aim was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with IBD. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, observational study. We contacted all the patients being treated at our IBD unit to identify those patients with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, following the World Health Organization case definition. Data were obtained by patient electronical medical records and by phone interview. RESULTS: Eighty-two of 805 patients with IBD (10.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.3-12.5) were diagnosed as having confirmed (28 patients, 3.5%; 95% CI, 2.4-5.0) or suspected (54 patients, 6.7%) infection. Patient age was 46 ± 14 years, 44 patients were female (53.7%), 17.3% were smokers, 51.2% had Crohn disease (CD), and 39.0% had comorbidities. Digestive symptoms were reported in 41 patients (50.0%), with diarrhea as the most common (42.7%). One patient (1.2%) was diagnosed with IBD flare-up during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Twenty-two patients (26.8%) temporarily withdrew from their IBD treatment because of COVID-19. Most of the patients had mild disease (79.3%), and 1 patient died (1.2%). In the multivariate analysis, the presence of dyspnea was associated with moderate to severe infection (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.7; P = 0.01) and myalgias (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-17.9; P = 0.02) were related to a milder clinical course. Immunosuppression was not related to severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with IBD is not rare. Dyspnea is associated with a more severe infection. Therapy for IBD, including immunomodulators and biologic therapy, is not related to a greater severity of COVID-19, and SARS-CoV-2 infections do not appear to be related to IBD flare-ups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology
8.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 20(8): 829-830, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574667

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In light of the current Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing, extensive debate about the use of biological agents in psoriatic patients, we felt compelled to relate our experience in the use of secukinumab in the same cohort before and during the lockdown in Italy. Areas covered: Secukinumab was not discontinued, and there were no cases of confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 in this cohort. Expert opinion: In our practice, there is no evidence favoring the discontinuation of secukinumab in these patients. We also present a brief commentary on the use of biological agents in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Biological Factors/pharmacology , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-17/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-17/immunology , Italy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Psoriasis/complications , Psoriasis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
9.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(6): 604-605, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-45734

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 has been recently classified as pandemic infection by the World Health Organization. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are invited to follow the national recommendations as any other person. It is unclear whether a more aggressive clinical course might develop in asymptomatic COVID-19 infected subjects during biological therapy and current evidence does not support treatment suspension. However, during pandemic, the start of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and biologics should be postponed whenever possible and based on an individual risk assessment. When clinical conditions and the disease activity do not allow a treatment delay, before starting a biological therapy, screening of IBD patients for COVID-19 active infection by RT-PCR should be advisable, even in absence of clinical suspicion. Serum antibody testing, when available, could provide evidence of infection as well as identify patients already immune to the disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biological Therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Immunosuppressive Agents , Infection Control/methods , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Biological Therapy/adverse effects , Biological Therapy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diagnostic Screening Programs , Humans , Immunization/adverse effects , Immunization/methods , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/therapy , Italy/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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