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1.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(6): 879-882.e2, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719463

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory response to SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is thought to underpin COVID-19 pathogenesis. We conducted daily transcriptomic profiling of three COVID-19 cases and found that the early immune response in COVID-19 patients is highly dynamic. Patient throat swabs were tested daily for SARS-CoV-2, with the virus persisting for 3 to 4 weeks in all three patients. Cytokine analyses of whole blood revealed increased cytokine expression in the single most severe case. However, most inflammatory gene expression peaked after respiratory function nadir, except expression in the IL1 pathway. Parallel analyses of CD4 and CD8 expression suggested that the pro-inflammatory response may be intertwined with T cell activation that could exacerbate disease or prolong the infection. Collectively, these findings hint at the possibility that IL1 and related pro-inflammatory pathways may be prognostic and serve as therapeutic targets for COVID-19. This work may also guide future studies to illuminate COVID-19 pathogenesis and develop host-directed therapies.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19 , Cluster Analysis , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation
2.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2234, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574124

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (Covid-19) pandemic is the most serious event of the year 2020, causing considerable global morbidity and mortality. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of reported associations between inter-individual immunogenic variants and disease susceptibility or symptoms caused by the coronavirus strains severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2, and two of the main respiratory viruses, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza virus. The results suggest that the genetic background of the host could affect the levels of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and might modulate the progression of Covid-19 in affected patients. Notably, genetic variations in innate immune components such as toll-like receptors and mannose-binding lectin 2 play critical roles in the ability of the immune system to recognize coronavirus and initiate an early immune response to clear the virus and prevent the development of severe symptoms. This review provides promising clues related to the potential benefits of using immunotherapy and immune modulation for respiratory infectious disease treatment in a personalized manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Influenza, Human/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mannose-Binding Lectin/genetics , Mannose-Binding Lectin/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology
3.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356198

ABSTRACT

Treatment related fluctuation (TRF) poses a special challenge in the treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Many cases of GBS following COVID-19 infection have been reported in literature till date, but treatment related fluctuation (TRF) in post COVID-19 GBS has not been reported till date. We report a 35-year-old male patient who developed GBS following COVID-19 infection and had TRF after intravenous immunoglobulin (IV-IG) therapy. He required ventilator support but repeat IV-IG therapy led to complete recovery. Significant proximal muscle involvement, cranial nerve palsy, no antecedent diarrhea and absence of anti-GM1 antibodies are important predictors of TRF in GBS and need to be recognized early in the course of this illness. Early recognition of TRF and differentiating it from other forms of immune mediated neuropathy such as acute onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (A-CIDP) are important for prognostication and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Adult , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , India , Male , Motor Neurons/physiology , Neural Conduction/physiology , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Ulnar Neuropathies/diagnosis , Ulnar Neuropathies/etiology , Ulnar Neuropathies/therapy
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 760-765, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196398

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in China in December 2019 and then rapidly spread worldwide. Why COVID-19 patients with the same clinical condition have different outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the differences in the phenotype and functions of major populations of immune cells between COVID-19 patients with same severity but different outcomes. Four common type adult inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 from Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups based on whether or not COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative conversion occurred within 3 weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected to compare the differences in the phenotype and functions of major populations of immune cells between the two groups of patients. The result shows that the proportions of CD3+ CD8+ CD38+ HLA-DR+ CD27- effector T killer cells generally declined, whereas that of CD3+ CD4+ CD8+ double-positive T cells (DPTs) increased in the persistently PCR-positive patients. In summary, considering the imbalance between effector T killer cells/CD3+CD4+CD8+ DPTs was a possible key factor for PCR-negative conversion in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Variation, Individual , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Gene Expression , HLA-DR Antigens/genetics , HLA-DR Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Natural Killer T-Cells/virology , Phenotype , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 69(2): 103276, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062581

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the spectrum and course of biological responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may have important therapeutic implications. We sought to characterise biological responses among patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 based on serial, routinely collected, physiological and blood biomarker values. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1335 patients hospitalised with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (median age 70 years, 56 % male), between 1st March and 30th April 2020. Latent profile analysis was performed on serial physiological and blood biomarkers. Patient characteristics, comorbidities and rates of death and admission to intensive care, were compared between the latent classes. A five class solution provided the best fit. Class 1 "Typical response" exhibited a moderately elevated and rising C-reactive protein (CRP), stable lymphopaenia, and the lowest rates of 14-day adverse outcomes. Class 2 "Rapid hyperinflammatory response" comprised older patients, with higher admission white cell and neutrophil counts, which declined over time, accompanied by a very high and rising CRP and platelet count, and exibited the highest mortality risk. Class 3 "Progressive inflammatory response" was similar to the typical response except for a higher and rising CRP, though similar mortality rate. Class 4 "Inflammatory response with kidney injury" had prominent lymphopaenia, moderately elevated (and rising) CRP, and severe renal failure. Class 5 "Hyperinflammatory response with kidney injury" comprised older patients, with a very high and rising CRP, and severe renal failure that attenuated over time. Physiological measures did not substantially vary between classes at baseline or early admission. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Our identification of five distinct classes of biomarker profiles provides empirical evidence for heterogeneous biological responses to COVID-19. Early hyperinflammatory responses and kidney injury may signify unique pathophysiology that requires targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biological Variation, Individual , Body Temperature , COVID-19/blood , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Disease Progression , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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