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2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
J Neurochem ; 159(1): 61-77, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282005

ABSTRACT

Neurological symptoms are frequently reported in patients suffering from COVID-19. Common CNS-related symptoms include anosmia, caused by viral interaction with either neurons or supporting cells in nasal olfactory tissues. Diffuse encephalopathy is the most common sign of CNS dysfunction, which likely results from the CNS consequences of the systemic inflammatory syndrome associated with severe COVID-19. Additionally, microvascular injuries and thromboembolic events likely contribute to the neurologic impact of acute COVID-19. These observations are supported by evidence of CNS immune activation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in autopsy tissue, along with the detection of microvascular injuries in both pathological and neuroimaging studies. The frequent occurrence of thromboembolic events in patients with COVID-19 has generated different hypotheses, among which viral interaction with perivascular cells is particularly attractive, yet unproven. A distinguishing feature of CSF findings in SARS-CoV-2 infection is that clinical signs characteristic of neurotropic viral infections (CSF pleocytosis and blood-brain barrier injury) are mild or absent. Moreover, virus detection in CSF is rare and often of uncertain significance. In this review, we provide an overview of the neurological impact that occurs in the acute phase of COVID-19, and the role of CSF biomarkers in the clinical management and research to better treat and understand the disease. In addition to aiding as diagnostic and prognostic tools during acute infection, the use of comprehensive and well-characterized CSF and blood biomarkers will be vital in understanding the potential impact on the CNS in the rapidly increasing number of individuals recovering from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Blood-Brain Barrier , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis
4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 207: 106760, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267627

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function due to COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Medline and Embase to identify publications that described at least one patient with COVID-19 who had altered olfactory/gustatory function and had CSF testing performed. The search ranged from December 1, 2019 to November 18, 2020. RESULTS: We identified 51 publications that described 70 patients who met inclusion criteria. Of 51 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing, 3 (6%) patients had positive results and 1 (2%) patient had indeterminate results. Cycle threshold (Ct; the number of amplification cycles required for the target gene to exceed the threshold, which is inversely related to viral load) was not provided for the patients with a positive PCR. The patient with indeterminate results had a Ct of 37 initially, then no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on repeat testing. Of 6 patients who had CSF SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing, 3 (50%) were positive. Testing to distinguish intrathecal antibody synthesis from transudation of antibodies to the CSF via breakdown of the blood-brain barrier was performed in 1/3 (33%) patients; this demonstrated antibody transmission to the CSF via transudation. CONCLUSION: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in CSF via PCR or evaluation for intrathecal antibody synthesis appears to be rare in patients with altered olfactory/gustatory function. While pathology studies are needed, our review suggests it is unlikely that these symptoms are related to viral neuroinvasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/diagnosis
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258081

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7169, 2021 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160544

ABSTRACT

In current international classification systems (ICD-10, DSM5), the diagnostic criteria for psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder) are based on symptomatic descriptions since no unambiguous biomarkers are known to date. However, when underlying causes of psychotic symptoms, like inflammation, ischemia, or tumor affecting the neural tissue can be identified, a different classification is used ("psychotic disorder with delusions due to known physiological condition" (ICD-10: F06.2) or psychosis caused by medical factors (DSM5)). While CSF analysis still is considered optional in current diagnostic guidelines for psychotic disorders, CSF biomarkers could help to identify known physiological conditions. In this retrospective, partly descriptive analysis of 144 patients with psychotic symptoms and available CSF data, we analyzed CSF examinations' significance to differentiate patients with specific etiological factors (F06.2) from patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal, delusional, and other non-mood psychotic disorders (F2). In 40.3% of all patients, at least one CSF parameter was out of the reference range. Abnormal CSF-findings were found significantly more often in patients diagnosed with F06.2 (88.2%) as compared to patients diagnosed with F2 (23.8%, p < 0.00001). A total of 17 cases were identified as probably caused by specific etiological factors (F06.2), of which ten cases fulfilled the criteria for a probable autoimmune psychosis linked to the following autoantibodies: amphiphysin, CASPR2, CV2, LGl1, NMDA, zic4, and titin. Two cases presented with anti-thyroid tissue autoantibodies. In four cases, further probable causal factors were identified: COVID-19, a frontal intracranial tumor, multiple sclerosis (n = 2), and neurosyphilis. Twenty-one cases remained with "no reliable diagnostic classification". Age at onset of psychotic symptoms differed between patients diagnosed with F2 and F06.2 (p = 0.014), with the latter group being older (median: 44 vs. 28 years). Various CSF parameters were analyzed in an exploratory analysis, identifying pleocytosis and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) as discriminators (F06.2 vs. F2) with a high specificity of > 96% each. No group differences were found for gender, characteristics of psychotic symptoms, substance dependency, or family history. This study emphasizes the great importance of a detailed diagnostic workup in diagnosing psychotic disorders, including CSF analysis, to detect possible underlying pathologies and improve treatment decisions.


Subject(s)
Psychotic Disorders/cerebrospinal fluid , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/cerebrospinal fluid , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/psychology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins/analysis , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Middle Aged , Psychotic Disorders/etiology , Psychotic Disorders/psychology , Retrospective Studies , Schizophrenia/cerebrospinal fluid , Young Adult
7.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 7(6)2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105773

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pathophysiologic mechanism of encephalopathy and prolonged comatose or stuporous state in severally ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Eight COVID-19 patients with signs of encephalopathy were tested for antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the serum and CSF using a Food and Drug Administration-approved and independently validated ELISA. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and immunoglobulin G (IgG) intrathecal synthesis were further tested using albumin and IgG indices. The CSF was also tested for autoimmune encephalitis antibodies and 14-3-3, a marker of ongoing neurodegeneration. RESULTS: All patients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in their CSF, and 4 of 8 patients had high titers, comparable to high serum values. One patient had anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG intrathecal synthesis, and 3 others had disruption of the blood-brain barrier. The CSF in 4 patients was positive for 14-3-3-protein suggesting ongoing neurodegeneration. In all patients, the CSF was negative for autoimmune encephalitis antibodies and SARS-CoV-2 by PCR. None of the patients, apart from persistent encephalopathic signs, had any focal neurologic signs or history or specific neurologic disease. CONCLUSIONS: High-titer anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in the CSF of comatose or encephalopathic patients demonstrating intrathecal IgG synthesis or BBB disruption. A disrupted BBB may facilitate the entry of cytokines and inflammatory mediators into the CNS enhancing neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. The observations highlight the need for prospective CSF studies to determine the pathogenic role of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and identify early therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/cerebrospinal fluid , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Coma/cerebrospinal fluid , Coronavirus Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumonia, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Stupor/cerebrospinal fluid , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19 , Coma/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Stupor/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Infect Dis ; 223(4): 600-609, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101851

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological manifestations are common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about pathophysiological mechanisms. In this single-center study, we examined neurological manifestations in 58 patients, including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and neuroimaging findings. METHODS: The study included 58 patients with COVID-19 and neurological manifestations in whom severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction screening and on CSF analysis were performed. Clinical, laboratory, and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Patients were mostly men (66%), with a median age of 62 years. Encephalopathy was frequent (81%), followed by pyramidal dysfunction (16%), seizures (10%), and headaches (5%). CSF protein and albumin levels were increased in 38% and 23%, respectively. A total of 40% of patients displayed an elevated albumin quotient, suggesting impaired blood-brain barrier integrity. CSF-specific immunoglobulin G oligoclonal band was found in 5 patients (11%), suggesting an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin G, and 26 patients (55%) presented identical oligoclonal bands in serum and CSF. Four patients (7%) had a positive CSF SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Leptomeningeal enhancement was present on brain MR images in 20 patients (38%). CONCLUSIONS: Brain MR imaging abnormalities, especially leptomeningeal enhancement, and increased inflammatory markers in CSF are frequent in patients with neurological manifestations related to COVID-19, whereas SARS-CoV-2 detection in CSF remained scanty.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Aged , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Blood-Brain Barrier/diagnostic imaging , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , France , Humans , Inflammation/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
Ann Neurol ; 89(5): 1041-1045, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100843

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can present with distinct neurological manifestations. This study shows that inflammatory neurological diseases were associated with increased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), and CXCL10 in the cerebrospinal fluid. Conversely, encephalopathy was associated with high serum levels of IL-6, CXCL8, and active tumor growth factor ß1. Inflammatory syndromes of the central nervous system in COVID-19 can appear early, as a parainfectious process without significant systemic involvement, or without direct evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neuroinvasion. At the same time, encephalopathy is mainly influenced by peripheral events, including inflammatory cytokines. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:1041-1045.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology
10.
Neurology ; 96(2): e294-e300, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028474

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore whether hospitalized patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and neurologic symptoms have evidence of CNS infection, inflammation, and injury using CSF biomarker measurements. METHODS: We assessed CSF SARS-CoV-2 RNA along with CSF biomarkers of intrathecal inflammation (CSF white blood cell count, neopterin, ß2-microglobulin, and immunoglobulin G index), blood-brain barrier integrity (albumin ratio), and axonal injury (CSF neurofilament light chain protein [NfL]) in 6 patients with moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and neurologic symptoms who had undergone a diagnostic lumbar puncture. Neurologic symptoms and signs included features of encephalopathies (4 of 6), suspected meningitis (1 of 6), and dysgeusia (1 of 6). SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in the plasma of 2 patients (cycle threshold [Ct] value 35.0-37.0) and in CSF at low levels (Ct 37.2, 38.0, 39.0) in 3 patients in 1 but not in a second real-time PCR assay. CSF neopterin (median 43.0 nmol/L) and ß2-microglobulin (median 3.1 mg/L) were increased in all. Median immunoglobulin G index (0.39), albumin ratio (5.35), and CSF white blood cell count (<3 cells/µL) were normal in all, while CSF NfL was elevated in 2 patients. CONCLUSION: Our results in patients with COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms suggest an unusual pattern of marked CSF inflammation in which soluble markers were increased but white cell response and other immunologic features typical of CNS viral infections were absent. While our initial hypothesis centered on CNS SARS-CoV-2 invasion, we could not convincingly detect SARS-CoV-2 as the underlying driver of CNS inflammation. These features distinguish COVID-19 CSF from other viral CNS infections and raise fundamental questions about the CNS pathobiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , Blood-Brain Barrier/diagnostic imaging , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging
11.
J Neurol Sci ; 421: 117316, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to review the literature on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing in patients with COVID-19 for evidence of viral neuroinvasion by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of Medline and Embase between December 1, 2019 and November 18, 2020 to identify case reports or series of patients who had COVID-19 diagnosed based on positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or serologic testing and had CSF testing due to a neurologic symptom. RESULTS: We identified 242 relevant documents which included 430 patients with COVID-19 who had acute neurological symptoms prompting CSF testing. Of those, 321 (75%) patients had symptoms that localized to the central nervous system (CNS). Of 304 patients whose CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 PCR, there were 17 (6%) whose test was positive, all of whom had symptoms that localized to the central nervous system (CNS). The majority (13/17, 76%) of these patients were admitted to the hospital because of neurological symptoms. Of 58 patients whose CSF was tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibody, 7 (12%) had positive antibodies with evidence of intrathecal synthesis, all of whom had symptoms that localized to the CNS. Of 132 patients who had oligoclonal bands evaluated, 3 (2%) had evidence of intrathecal antibody synthesis. Of 77 patients tested for autoimmune antibodies in the CSF, 4 (5%) had positive findings. CONCLUSION: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in CSF via PCR or evaluation for intrathecal antibody synthesis appears to be rare. Most neurological complications associated with SARS- CoV-2 are unlikely to be related to direct viral neuroinvasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 27(11): 2378-2380, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707056

ABSTRACT

Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is classified as a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), accounting for 5%-25% of all GBS cases. Since the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, increasing evidence has been reported of the neurological manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system. Here we report the clinical course, detailed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile including CSF/blood antibody status, and neurochemical characteristics of a patient with a typical clinical presentation of MFS after a positive SARS-CoV-2 infection test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Miller Fisher Syndrome/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Neurofilament Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 248, 2020 Jun 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus SARS-CoV-2. It is widely recognized as a respiratory pathogen, but neurologic complications can be the presenting manifestation in a subset of infected patients. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 78-year old immunocompromised woman who presented with altered mental status after witnessed seizure-like activity at home. She was found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated neuroinflammation. In this case, we undertake the first detailed analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines during COVID-19 infection and find a unique pattern of inflammation in CSF, but no evidence of viral neuroinvasion. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that neurologic symptoms such as encephalopathy and seizures may be the initial presentation of COVID-19. Central nervous system inflammation may associate with neurologic manifestations of disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/cerebrospinal fluid , Encephalitis, Viral , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Acute Disease , Aged , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
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