Subject(s)Biomedical Research , COVID-19 , Evidence-Based Medicine , Translational Research, Biomedical , Biomedical Research/ethics , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Evidence-Based Medicine/ethics , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Humans , Knowledge , Philosophy, Medical , Politics , SARS-CoV-2 , Translational Research, Biomedical/ethics , Translational Research, Biomedical/standards , Translational Research, Biomedical/trends
BACKGROUND: Healthcare systems and general surgeons are being challenged by the current pandemic. The European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) aimed to evaluate surgeons' experiences and perspectives, to identify gaps in knowledge, to record shortcomings in resources and to register research priorities. METHODS: An ad hoc web-based survey of EAES members and affiliates was developed by the EAES Research Committee. The questionnaire consisted of 69 items divided into the following sections: (Ι) demographics, (II) institutional burdens and management strategies, and (III) analysis of resource, knowledge, and evidence gaps. Descriptive statistics were summarized as frequencies, medians, ranges,, and interquartile ranges, as appropriate. RESULTS: The survey took place between March 25th and April 16th with a total of 550 surgeons from 79 countries. Eighty-one percent had to postpone elective cases or suspend their practice and 35% assumed roles not related to their primary expertise. One-fourth of respondents reported having encountered abdominal pathologies in COVID-19-positive patients, most frequently acute appendicitis (47% of respondents). The effect of protective measures in surgical or endoscopic procedures on infected patients, the effect of endoscopic surgery on infected patients, and the infectivity of positive patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery were prioritized as knowledge gaps and research priorities. CONCLUSIONS: Perspectives and priorities of EAES members in the era of the pandemic are hereto summarized. Research evidence is urgently needed to effectively respond to challenges arisen from the pandemic.
Subject(s)Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Endoscopy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Europe , Health Care Rationing/methods , Health Care Rationing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Surgeons , Surveys and Questionnaires
INTRODUCTION: British Pakistani women have exceptionally high rates of obesity and yet are seldom heard in a research priority setting concerning weight management. The objectives of this study were (i) to ascertain what multisectoral professionals perceive to be the most pressing unmet obesity needs or topic areas that need more research in relation to Pakistani women living in deprived areas of Bradford and (ii) to determine the top 10 obesity health priorities for this group to develop an obesity research agenda. METHODS: A two-step process was adopted using the following: (i) a survey of a wide range of multisectoral professional stakeholders (n = 159) and (ii) a ranking exercise involving Pakistani women living in deprived areas of Bradford (n = 32) to select and prioritize their top 10 obesity health concerns and unmet needs from a list of 31 statements identified in the survey and previous research. Survey data were analysed using inductive content analysis and themes were identified. Themes were translated into statements to be ranked by Pakistani women. The ranking exercise was conducted by telephone either via voice or video call. Data were analysed using a reverse scoring system. RESULTS: Survey responses were grouped into statements reflecting the following three categories: education needs; healthy behaviour barriers and mental well-being. The highest rankings were given by Pakistani women to statements on mental health and the need for education. The top 10 prioritized statements were developed with members of the public into an obesity research agenda that reflected the target population. CONCLUSION: Actively engaging British Pakistani women in setting research priorities provided a unique opportunity to understand the key areas they think are important for future research. The culminating research agenda can be used by researchers to advance the field of obesity research in Pakistani communities, thus producing research outputs that are relevant to and have impact in this population. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Participants in the ranking exercise collected data. Public contributors were involved in developing the prioritized statements into a research agenda.
Subject(s)Health Priorities , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Services Research , Obesity , Poverty Areas , Social Determinants of Health , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Health Services Research/methods , Health Services Research/organization & administration , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/therapy , Pakistan/ethnology , Social Determinants of Health/statistics & numerical data , Stakeholder Participation , United Kingdom/epidemiology
Subject(s)Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/therapy , Patient Care/methods , Research Report , American Cancer Society/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medical Oncology/methods , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/trends , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , United States
BACKGROUND: The use of linked healthcare data in research has the potential to make major contributions to knowledge generation and service improvement. However, using healthcare data for secondary purposes raises legal and ethical concerns relating to confidentiality, privacy and data protection rights. Using a linkage and anonymisation approach that processes data lawfully and in line with ethical best practice to create an anonymous (non-personal) dataset can address these concerns, yet there is no set approach for defining all of the steps involved in such data flow end-to-end. We aimed to define such an approach with clear steps for dataset creation, and to describe its utilisation in a case study linking healthcare data. METHODS: We developed a data flow protocol that generates pseudonymous datasets that can be reversibly linked, or irreversibly linked to form an anonymous research dataset. It was designed and implemented by the Comprehensive Patient Records (CPR) study in Leeds, UK. RESULTS: We defined a clear approach that received ethico-legal approval for use in creating an anonymous research dataset. Our approach used individual-level linkage through a mechanism that is not computer-intensive and was rendered irreversible to both data providers and processors. We successfully applied it in the CPR study to hospital and general practice and community electronic health record data from two providers, along with patient reported outcomes, for 365,193 patients. The resultant anonymous research dataset is available via DATA-CAN, the Health Data Research Hub for Cancer in the UK. CONCLUSIONS: Through ethical, legal and academic review, we believe that we contribute a defined approach that represents a framework that exceeds current minimum standards for effective pseudonymisation and anonymisation. This paper describes our methods and provides supporting information to facilitate the use of this approach in research.
Subject(s)Biomedical Research/methods , Confidentiality , Data Anonymization , Biomedical Research/ethics , Datasets as Topic , Electronic Data Processing/ethics , Electronic Data Processing/methods , Electronic Health Records/organization & administration , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , United Kingdom
Subject(s)Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research/trends , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Medicine in Literature , Periodicals as Topic/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Subject(s)Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/complications , Social Isolation/psychology , Adult , Avoidance Learning , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Help-Seeking Behavior , Humans , Interdisciplinary Research/methods , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Social Identification , Social Stigma , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vulnerable Populations/psychology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
BACKGROUND: The importance of infectious disease epidemic forecasting and prediction research is underscored by decades of communicable disease outbreaks, including COVID-19. Unlike other fields of medical research, such as clinical trials and systematic reviews, no reporting guidelines exist for reporting epidemic forecasting and prediction research despite their utility. We therefore developed the EPIFORGE checklist, a guideline for standardized reporting of epidemic forecasting research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed this checklist using a best-practice process for development of reporting guidelines, involving a Delphi process and broad consultation with an international panel of infectious disease modelers and model end users. The objectives of these guidelines are to improve the consistency, reproducibility, comparability, and quality of epidemic forecasting reporting. The guidelines are not designed to advise scientists on how to perform epidemic forecasting and prediction research, but rather to serve as a standard for reporting critical methodological details of such studies. CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines have been submitted to the EQUATOR network, in addition to hosting by other dedicated webpages to facilitate feedback and journal endorsement.
Subject(s)Biomedical Research/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Checklist/standards , Epidemics , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Research Design , Biomedical Research/methods , Checklist/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on neuroscientists, including those involved in translational research. In this NeuroView, we discuss the positive and negative effects of the pandemic on preclinical research and clinical studies in humans.
Subject(s)Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Neurology/methods , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Neurology/trends
Subject(s)Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Oncology/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Precision Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medical Oncology/statistics & numerical data , Medical Oncology/trends , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Pandemics , Precision Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Precision Medicine/trends , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Societies, Medical , United States
Subject(s)Biomedical Research , Epithelial Cells/physiology , International Cooperation , Mammary Glands, Animal/physiology , Mammary Glands, Human/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis , Animals , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Female , Humans , Mammary Glands, Animal/cytology , Mammary Glands, Animal/pathology , Mammary Glands, Human/cytology , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Mice , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Spatial Analysis , Transcriptome
COVID-19-associated university closures moved classes online and interrupted ongoing research in universities throughout the US. In Vanderbilt University, first year biomedical sciences PhD students were in the middle of their spring semester coursework and in the process of identifying a thesis research lab, while senior students who had already completed the first year were at various stages of their graduate training and were working on their thesis research projects. To learn how the university closure and resulting interruptions impacted our students' learning and well-being, we administered two surveys, one to the first year students and the other to the senior students. Our main findings show that the university closure negatively impacted the overall psychological health of about one-third of the survey respondents, time management was the aspect of remote learning that caused the highest stress for close to 50% of the students, and interaction with their peers and in-person discussions were the aspects of on-campus learning that students missed the most during the remote learning period. Additionally, survey responses also show that students experienced positive outcomes as a result of remote learning that included spending increased time on additional learning interests, with family, on self-care, and for dissertation or manuscript writing. Though a variety of supportive resources are already available to students in our institution, results from our survey suggest enhancing these measures and identifying new ones targeted to addressing the academic and emotional needs of PhD students would be beneficial. Such support measures may be appropriate for students in other institutions as well.
Subject(s)Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Education, Graduate/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Education, Graduate/methods , Epidemics/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/standards , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Tennessee , Universities
The risk of potential vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women is currently a topic of debate. To explore the correlation between the two, we searched PubMed, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on vertical transmission of COVID-19. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Detailed information of each included case including methods of delivery, protection measures for mothers and neonates at birth, types of specimens, inspection time, results of testing and feeding patterns was collected to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. The results showed that of the 390 neonates reported in 36 studies, 23 were infected with SARS-CoV-2 by potential vertical transmission. From the perspective of virology and pathology, vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was possible via uterus or breastmilk. Some reported potential vertically transmitted neonates could be attributed to horizontal transmission. It is extremely vital to fully elucidate the potential routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, implicating clinical practice and nursing to reduce the risk of not only horizontal transmission but also vertical transmission, thus protecting neonates from COVID-19 infection.
Subject(s)COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
Subject(s)Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/therapy , Confidentiality , Clinical Trials as Topic , Databases, Factual , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
The twelfth annual workshop of the European Network for Breast Development and Cancer focused on methods in mammary gland biology and breast cancer, was scheduled to take place on March 26-28, 2020, in Weggis, Switzerland. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the meeting was rescheduled twice and eventually happened as a virtual meeting on April 22 and 23, 2021. The main topics of the meeting were branching and development of the mammary gland, tumor microenvironment, circulating tumor cells, tumor dormancy and breast cancer metastasis. Novel and unpublished findings related to these topics were presented, with a particular focus on the methods used to obtain them. Virtual poster sessions were a success, with many constructive and fruitful interactions between researchers and covered many areas of mammary gland biology and breast cancer.