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2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262609, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of linked healthcare data in research has the potential to make major contributions to knowledge generation and service improvement. However, using healthcare data for secondary purposes raises legal and ethical concerns relating to confidentiality, privacy and data protection rights. Using a linkage and anonymisation approach that processes data lawfully and in line with ethical best practice to create an anonymous (non-personal) dataset can address these concerns, yet there is no set approach for defining all of the steps involved in such data flow end-to-end. We aimed to define such an approach with clear steps for dataset creation, and to describe its utilisation in a case study linking healthcare data. METHODS: We developed a data flow protocol that generates pseudonymous datasets that can be reversibly linked, or irreversibly linked to form an anonymous research dataset. It was designed and implemented by the Comprehensive Patient Records (CPR) study in Leeds, UK. RESULTS: We defined a clear approach that received ethico-legal approval for use in creating an anonymous research dataset. Our approach used individual-level linkage through a mechanism that is not computer-intensive and was rendered irreversible to both data providers and processors. We successfully applied it in the CPR study to hospital and general practice and community electronic health record data from two providers, along with patient reported outcomes, for 365,193 patients. The resultant anonymous research dataset is available via DATA-CAN, the Health Data Research Hub for Cancer in the UK. CONCLUSIONS: Through ethical, legal and academic review, we believe that we contribute a defined approach that represents a framework that exceeds current minimum standards for effective pseudonymisation and anonymisation. This paper describes our methods and provides supporting information to facilitate the use of this approach in research.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/methods , Confidentiality , Data Anonymization , Biomedical Research/ethics , Datasets as Topic , Electronic Data Processing/ethics , Electronic Data Processing/methods , Electronic Health Records/organization & administration , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , United Kingdom
6.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003793, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The importance of infectious disease epidemic forecasting and prediction research is underscored by decades of communicable disease outbreaks, including COVID-19. Unlike other fields of medical research, such as clinical trials and systematic reviews, no reporting guidelines exist for reporting epidemic forecasting and prediction research despite their utility. We therefore developed the EPIFORGE checklist, a guideline for standardized reporting of epidemic forecasting research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed this checklist using a best-practice process for development of reporting guidelines, involving a Delphi process and broad consultation with an international panel of infectious disease modelers and model end users. The objectives of these guidelines are to improve the consistency, reproducibility, comparability, and quality of epidemic forecasting reporting. The guidelines are not designed to advise scientists on how to perform epidemic forecasting and prediction research, but rather to serve as a standard for reporting critical methodological details of such studies. CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines have been submitted to the EQUATOR network, in addition to hosting by other dedicated webpages to facilitate feedback and journal endorsement.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Checklist/standards , Epidemics , Guidelines as Topic/standards , Research Design , Biomedical Research/methods , Checklist/methods , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
7.
Neuron ; 109(20): 3199-3202, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474921

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on neuroscientists, including those involved in translational research. In this NeuroView, we discuss the positive and negative effects of the pandemic on preclinical research and clinical studies in humans.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Neurology/methods , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Neurology/trends
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416873

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated university closures moved classes online and interrupted ongoing research in universities throughout the US. In Vanderbilt University, first year biomedical sciences PhD students were in the middle of their spring semester coursework and in the process of identifying a thesis research lab, while senior students who had already completed the first year were at various stages of their graduate training and were working on their thesis research projects. To learn how the university closure and resulting interruptions impacted our students' learning and well-being, we administered two surveys, one to the first year students and the other to the senior students. Our main findings show that the university closure negatively impacted the overall psychological health of about one-third of the survey respondents, time management was the aspect of remote learning that caused the highest stress for close to 50% of the students, and interaction with their peers and in-person discussions were the aspects of on-campus learning that students missed the most during the remote learning period. Additionally, survey responses also show that students experienced positive outcomes as a result of remote learning that included spending increased time on additional learning interests, with family, on self-care, and for dissertation or manuscript writing. Though a variety of supportive resources are already available to students in our institution, results from our survey suggest enhancing these measures and identifying new ones targeted to addressing the academic and emotional needs of PhD students would be beneficial. Such support measures may be appropriate for students in other institutions as well.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Education, Graduate/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Education, Graduate/methods , Epidemics/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/standards , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Tennessee , Universities
11.
Placenta ; 115: 78-86, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415712

ABSTRACT

The risk of potential vertical transmission in SARS-CoV-2 infected pregnant women is currently a topic of debate. To explore the correlation between the two, we searched PubMed, Embase®, and Web of Science for studies on vertical transmission of COVID-19. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Detailed information of each included case including methods of delivery, protection measures for mothers and neonates at birth, types of specimens, inspection time, results of testing and feeding patterns was collected to assess the possibility of vertical transmission. The results showed that of the 390 neonates reported in 36 studies, 23 were infected with SARS-CoV-2 by potential vertical transmission. From the perspective of virology and pathology, vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was possible via uterus or breastmilk. Some reported potential vertically transmitted neonates could be attributed to horizontal transmission. It is extremely vital to fully elucidate the potential routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, implicating clinical practice and nursing to reduce the risk of not only horizontal transmission but also vertical transmission, thus protecting neonates from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1486-1488, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410409
15.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia ; 26(3): 221-226, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375665

ABSTRACT

The twelfth annual workshop of the European Network for Breast Development and Cancer focused on methods in mammary gland biology and breast cancer, was scheduled to take place on March 26-28, 2020, in Weggis, Switzerland. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the meeting was rescheduled twice and eventually happened as a virtual meeting on April 22 and 23, 2021. The main topics of the meeting were branching and development of the mammary gland, tumor microenvironment, circulating tumor cells, tumor dormancy and breast cancer metastasis. Novel and unpublished findings related to these topics were presented, with a particular focus on the methods used to obtain them. Virtual poster sessions were a success, with many constructive and fruitful interactions between researchers and covered many areas of mammary gland biology and breast cancer.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/methods , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Europe , Female , Humans , Mammary Glands, Human/growth & development , Mammary Glands, Human/metabolism , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm Staging , Neoplastic Cells, Circulating , Prognosis , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
Neuron ; 109(19): 3041-3044, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345436

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a seismic shift in my career, including its scientific focus, research approach, and efforts to communicate with non-scientists. In this NeuroView, I recount pivotal moments that have transformed the way I do science.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intersectoral Collaboration , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communication , Humans , Social Media/trends
20.
Stem Cells Transl Med ; 10(11): 1491-1499, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321718

ABSTRACT

Experimental cell models are indispensable for clarifying the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and for developing therapeutic agents. To recapitulate the symptoms and drug response of COVID-19 patients in vitro, SARS-CoV-2 studies using physiologically relevant human embryonic stem (ES)/induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived somatic cells and organoids are ongoing. These cells and organoids have been used to show that SARS-CoV-2 can infect and damage various organs including the lung, heart, brain, intestinal tract, kidney, and pancreas. They are also being used to develop COVID-19 therapeutic agents, including evaluation of their antiviral efficacy and safety. The relationship between COVID-19 aggravation and human genetic backgrounds has been investigated using genetically modified ES/iPS cells and patient-derived iPS cells. This review summarizes the latest results and issues of SARS-CoV-2 research using human ES/iPS cell-derived somatic cells and organoids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/physiology , Organoids/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Genetic Therapy/methods , Genetic Therapy/trends , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/transplantation , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/physiology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/transplantation , Organoids/cytology , Organoids/transplantation
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