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1.
Vaccine ; 38(34): 5418-5423, 2020 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752766

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 disease as a pandemic requiring a rapid response. Through online search, direct communication with network members and an internal survey, engagements of developing countries' vaccine manufacturers' network members in the research and development of COVID-19 vaccines and their capacities in the manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution of vaccines were assessed. Currently, 19 network members engaged in research and development of COVID-19 vaccines, using six principal technology platforms. In addition, an internal survey showed that the number of vaccines supplied collectively by 37 members, in 2018-19, was about 3.5 billion doses annually. Almost a third of network members having vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization comply with international regulations and mechanisms to distribute vaccines across borders. The use of existing manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution capabilities can support an efficient roll-out of vaccines against COVID-19, while maintaining supply security of existing vaccines for on-going immunization programmes.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Industry/organization & administration , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , World Health Organization
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(7)2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690906

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the WHO released a Global Research Roadmap in an effort to coordinate and accelerate the global research response to combat COVID-19 based on deliberations of 400 experts across the world. Three months on, the disease and our understanding have both evolved significantly. As we now tackle a pandemic in very different contexts and with increased knowledge, we sought to build on the work of the WHO to gain a more current and global perspective on these initial priorities. METHODS: We undertook a mixed methods study seeking the views of the global research community to (1) assess which of the early WHO roadmap priorities are still most pressing; (2) understand whether they are still valid in different settings, regions or countries; and (3) identify any new emerging priorities. RESULTS: Thematic analysis of the significant body of combined data shows the WHO roadmap is globally relevant; however, new important priorities have emerged, in particular, pertinent to low and lower middle-income countries (less resourced countries), where health systems are under significant competing pressures. We also found a shift from prioritising vaccine and therapeutic development towards a focus on assessing the effectiveness, risks, benefits and trust in the variety of public health interventions and measures. Our findings also provide insight into temporal nature of these research priorities, highlighting the urgency of research that can only be undertaken within the period of virus transmission, as well as other important research questions but which can be answered outside the transmission period. Both types of studies are key to help combat this pandemic but also importantly to ensure we are better prepared for the future. CONCLUSION: We hope these findings will help guide decision-making across the broad research system including the multilateral partners, research funders, public health practitioners, clinicians and civil society.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Global Health , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Research , Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/standards , Humans
7.
Cancer Discov ; 10(9): 1263-1266, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646133

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused widespread disruption of cancer clinical trials due to the restrictions on nonessential services and the reallocation of resources, and at the same time the urgent global effort toward discovering therapies that treat or prevent COVID-19 infection has led to shortening of traditional regulatory timelines. This experience should stimulate similar urgency in the way future cancer research is conducted.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/trends , Clinical Trials as Topic/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Medical Oncology/trends , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biomedical Research/economics , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/standards , Clinical Trials as Topic/economics , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Forecasting , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Care Rationing/trends , Humans , Medical Oncology/economics , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/standards , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Time Factors
8.
Cancer Cell ; 37(6): 746-748, 2020 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-626332
10.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 72, 2020 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health research is important for the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, there are many challenges facing health research, including securing sufficient funds, building capacity, producing research findings and using both local and global evidence, and avoiding waste. A WHO initiative addressed these challenges by developing a conceptual framework with four functions to guide the development of national health research systems. Despite some progress, more is needed before health research systems can meet their full potential of improving health systems. The WHO Regional Office for Europe commissioned an evidence synthesis of the systems-level literature. This Opinion piece considers its findings before reflecting on the vast additional literature available on the range of specific health research system functions related to the various challenges. Finally, it considers who should lead research system strengthening. MAIN TEXT: The evidence synthesis identifies two main approaches for strengthening national health research systems, namely implementing comprehensive and coherent strategies and participation in partnerships. The literature describing these approaches at the systems level also provides data on ways to strengthen each of the four functions of governance, securing financing, capacity-building, and production and use of research. Countries effectively implementing strategies include England, Ireland and Rwanda, whereas West Africa experienced effective partnerships. Recommended policy approaches for system strengthening are context specific. The vast literature on each function and the ever-growing evidence-base are illustrated by considering papers in just one key journal, Health Research Policy and Systems, and analysing the contribution of two national studies. A review of the functions of the Iranian system identifies over 200 relevant and mostly national records; an analysis of the creation of the English National Institute for Health Research describes the key leadership role played by the health department. Furthermore, WHO is playing leadership roles in helping coordinate partnerships within and across health research systems that have been attempting to tackle the COVID-19 crisis. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence synthesis provides a firm basis for decision-making by policy-makers and research leaders looking to strengthen national health research systems within their own national context. It identifies five crucial policy approaches - conducting situation analysis, sustaining a comprehensive strategy, engaging stakeholders, evaluating impacts on health systems, and partnership participation. The vast and ever-growing additional literature could provide further perspectives, including on crucial leadership roles for health ministries.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Research/organization & administration , Leadership , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , World Health Organization/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , Capacity Building/organization & administration , Evidence-Based Practice/organization & administration , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics , Policy Making , Translational Medical Research/organization & administration
11.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(5): 102617, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has radically shifted healthcare operations within hospitals and universities across the globe. However, the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on research endeavors and clinical trials is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on basic science and clinical research within the rhinology community. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed utilizing an 8-question survey to identify changes to rhinology research. Questions evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on administrative research support and staffing, basic science research, clinical trials and resident research involvement. RESULTS: Seventy-one participants responded to the survey (8.5% response rate). Most respondents noted changes in IACUC/IRB approval (faster, 33%; slower, 31%). Of those who employed laboratory personnel, 64% were able to continue staff employment with full salary. The majority of animal research and in vitro studies were halted (64% and 56%, respectively), but animal care and cell line maintenance were allowed to continue. Clinical trial enrollment was most commonly limited to COVID derived studies (51%). Forty-seven percent of respondents noted increased resident research participation. CONCLUSION: The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has markedly impacted rhinology-related research. Maintaining safe workplace practices as restrictions are lifted will hopefully mitigate the spread of the virus and allow research productivity to resume.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Otolaryngology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Societies, Medical , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
12.
Vaccine ; 38(34): 5418-5423, 2020 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593607

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization declared the COVID-19 disease as a pandemic requiring a rapid response. Through online search, direct communication with network members and an internal survey, engagements of developing countries' vaccine manufacturers' network members in the research and development of COVID-19 vaccines and their capacities in the manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution of vaccines were assessed. Currently, 19 network members engaged in research and development of COVID-19 vaccines, using six principal technology platforms. In addition, an internal survey showed that the number of vaccines supplied collectively by 37 members, in 2018-19, was about 3.5 billion doses annually. Almost a third of network members having vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization comply with international regulations and mechanisms to distribute vaccines across borders. The use of existing manufacturing, fill-finish and distribution capabilities can support an efficient roll-out of vaccines against COVID-19, while maintaining supply security of existing vaccines for on-going immunization programmes.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Industry/organization & administration , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , World Health Organization
13.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S108-S111, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-568259

ABSTRACT

The whole globe is reeling under the COVID-19 pandemic now. With the scale and severity of infection, number of deaths and lack of any definite therapeutic armamentarium, the vaccine development has been accelerated at a never-before pace. A wide variety of vaccine technologies and platforms are being attempted. Out of the over 108 efforts, 100 are in preclinical and eight in Phase 1 or 2 trial stage. While the availability of newer technologies has facilitated development, there are several challenges on the way including limited understanding of the pathophysiology, targeting humoral or mucosal immunity, lack of suitable animal model, poor success of human severe acute respiratory syndrome/Middle East Respiratory Syndrome vaccines, limited efficacy of influenza vaccines, and immune exaggeration with animal coronavirus vaccines. With the current scenario with political, funding, research, and regulatory supports, if everything sails through smoothly, the successful vaccine is expected in 12-18 months. Modestly efficacious vaccine may be also a good achievement.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Time Factors , Viral Vaccines/economics , Viral Vaccines/supply & distribution
16.
F1000Res ; 9: 583, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621360

ABSTRACT

Background:  TDR, The Special Programme for Research and Training hosted at the World Health Organization, has long supported Low- and Middle-Income Countries in strengthening research capacity through three training programmes: the Postgraduate Training Scheme (PGTS), the Clinical Research and Development Fellowship (CRDF), and the Structured Operational Research Training InitiaTive (SORT IT). In the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, we assessed whether those trained through these programmes were involved in the COVID-19 response and if so, in which area(s) of the emergency response they were applying their skills. Methods: From the records for each training programme, we identified the individuals who had completed training during the relevant timespan of each programme: 1999-2018 for the CRDF scheme, 2015-2020 for PGTS, and 2009-2019 for SORT-IT. Between March and April 2020, we sent trainees an online questionnaire by e-mail. Results: Out of 1254 trained, 1143 could be contacted and 699 responded to the survey. Of the latter, 411 were involved with the COVID-19 response, of whom 315 (77%) were applying their acquired skills in 85 countries. With some overlap between programmes, 84% of those trained through CRDF were applying their skills in 27 countries, 91% of those trained through PGTS were applying their skills in 19 countries, and through SORT IT, this was 73% in 62 countries.  Skills were being applied in various areas of the emergency response, including: emergency preparedness, situation analysis/surveillance, infection control and clinical management, data generation, mitigating the effect of COVID on the health system, and research.  Depending on the type of training programme, 26-74% were involved in implementation, operational or clinical research. Conclusion: Research training programmes build research capacity and equip health workers with transferable core competencies and skillsets prior to epidemics. This becomes invaluable in building health system resilience at a time of pandemics.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Program Evaluation , Betacoronavirus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Continuing/organization & administration , Fellowships and Scholarships , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Elife ; 92020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381971

ABSTRACT

As the world attempts to cope with the devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers about to start PhDs and postdocs face particular challenges.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Career Choice , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Research Personnel/psychology , Adult , Biomedical Research/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Research Personnel/economics , Uncertainty
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