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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 301: 122980, 2023 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231155

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) as the infectious disease caused the pandemic disease around the world through infection by SARS-CoV-2 virus. The common diagnosis approach is Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) which is time consuming and labor intensive. In the present study a novel colorimetric aptasensor was developed based on intrinsic catalytic activity of chitosan film embedded with ZnO/CNT (ChF/ZnO/CNT) on 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) substrate. The main nanocomposite platform was constructed and functionalized with specific COVID-19 aptamer. The construction subjected with TMB substrate and H2O2 in the presence of different concentration of COVID-19 virus. Separation of aptamer after binding with virus particles declined the nanozyme activity. Upon addition of virus concentration, the peroxidase like activity of developed platform and colorimetric signals of oxidized TMB decreased gradually. Under optimal conditions the nanozyme could detect the virus in the linear range of 1-500 pg mL and LOD of 0.05 pg mL. Also, a paper-based platform was used for set up the strategy on applicable device. The paper-based strategy showed a linear range between 50 and 500 pg mL with LOD of 8 pg mL. The applied paper based colorimetric strategy showed reliable results for sensitive and selective detection of COVID-19 virus with the cost-effective approach.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide , COVID-19 , Zinc Oxide , Humans , Peroxidase/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Colorimetry/methods , Hydrogen Peroxide/analysis , Biomimetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism
2.
ACS Nano ; 17(9): 8598-8612, 2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300108

ABSTRACT

Biomimetic cubic phases can be used for protein encapsulation in a variety of applications such as biosensors and drug delivery. Cubic phases with a high concentration of cholesterol and phospholipids were obtained herein. It is shown that the cubic phase structure can be maintained with a higher concentration of biomimetic membrane additives than has been reported previously. Opposing effects on the curvature of the membrane were observed upon the addition of phospholipids and cholesterol. Furthermore, the coronavirus fusion peptide significantly increased the negative curvature of the biomimetic membrane with cholesterol. We show that the viral fusion peptide can undergo structural changes leading to the formation of hydrophobic α-helices that insert into the lipid bilayer. This is of high importance, as a fusion peptide that induces increased negative curvature as shown by the formation of inverse hexagonal phases allows for greater contact area between two membranes, which is required for viral fusion to occur. The cytotoxicity assay showed that the toxicity toward HeLa cells was dramatically decreased when the cholesterol or peptide level in the nanoparticles increased. This suggests that the addition of cholesterol can improve the biocompatibility of the cubic phase nanoparticles, making them safer for use in biomedical applications. As the results, this work improves the potential for the biomedical end-use applications of the nonlamellar lipid nanoparticles and shows the need of systematic formulation studies due to the complex interplay of all components.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Humans , Biomimetics , HeLa Cells , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Cholesterol
3.
Viruses ; 15(3)2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268809

ABSTRACT

More than 600 million people worldwide have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), resulting in the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In particular, new waves of COVID-19 caused by emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants pose new health risks to the global population. Nanotechnology has developed excellent solutions to combat the virus pandemic, such as ACE2-based nanodecoys, nanobodies, nanovaccines, and drug nanocarriers. Lessons learned and strategies developed during this battle against SARS-CoV-2 variants may also serve as inspiration for developing nanotechnology-based strategies to combat other global infectious diseases and their variants in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biomimetics , Nanotechnology
4.
Biomacromolecules ; 24(5): 2030-2041, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276380

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus contains a crucial coat protein that engages with target cells via a receptor binding domain (RBD) on its spike protein. To better study the RBD and its therapeutic opportunities, we genetically engineered a simple fusion with a thermo-responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). These fusions express in Escherichia coli at a high yield in the soluble fraction and were easily purified using ELP-mediated phase separation (79 mg/L culture). Interestingly, they assembled peptide-based nanoparticles (Rh = 71.4 nm), which was attributed to oligomerization of RBDs (25.3 kDa) counterbalanced by steric stabilization by a soluble ELP (73.4 kDa). To investigate their biophysical properties, we explored the size, shape, and binding affinity for the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and cellular uptake. Biomimetic nanoparticles such as these may enable future strategies to target the same cells, tissues, and cell-surface receptors as those harnessed by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Biomimetics , Protein Binding
5.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 20(1): 538, 2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282177

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles have now long demonstrated capabilities that make them attractive to use in biology and medicine. Some of them, such as lipid nanoparticles (SARS-CoV-2 vaccines) or metallic nanoparticles (contrast agents) are already approved for their use in the clinic. However, considering the constantly growing body of different formulations and the huge research around nanomaterials the number of candidates reaching clinical trials or being commercialized is minimal. The reasons behind being related to the "synthetic" and "foreign" character of their surface. Typically, nanomaterials aiming to develop a function or deliver a cargo locally, fail by showing strong off-target accumulation and generation of adverse responses, which is connected to their strong recognition by immune phagocytes primarily. Therefore, rendering in negligible numbers of nanoparticles developing their intended function. While a wide range of coatings has been applied to avoid certain interactions with the surrounding milieu, the issues remained. Taking advantage of the natural cell membranes, in an approach that resembles a cell transfer, the use of cell-derived surfaces has risen as an alternative to artificial coatings or encapsulation methods. Biomimetic technologies are based on the use of isolated natural components to provide autologous properties to the nanoparticle or cargo being encapsulated, thus, improving their therapeutic behavior. The main goal is to replicate the (bio)-physical properties and functionalities of the source cell and tissue, not only providing a stealthy character to the core but also taking advantage of homotypic properties, that could prove relevant for targeted strategies. Such biomimetic formulations have the potential to overcome the main issues of approaches to provide specific features and identities synthetically. In this review, we provide insight into the challenges of nano-biointerfaces for drug delivery; and the main applications of biomimetic materials derived from specific cell types, focusing on the unique strengths of the fabrication of novel nanotherapeutics in cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomimetic Materials , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Humans , Biomimetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Delivery Systems , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 226: 115137, 2023 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228000

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is one of the most promising immunotherapies that have shown the potential to prevent or neutralize the effects of COVID-19 in patients at very early stages, with a few formulations recently approved by the European and American medicine agencies. However, a main bottleneck for their general implementation resides in the time-consuming, laborious, and highly-specialized techniques employed for the manufacturing and assessing of these therapies, excessively increasing their prices and delaying their administration to the patients. We propose a biomimetic nanoplasmonic biosensor as a novel analytical technique for the screening and evaluation of COVID-19 mAb therapies in a simpler, faster, and reliable manner. By creating an artificial cell membrane on the plasmonic sensor surface, our label-free sensing approach enables real-time monitoring of virus-cell interactions as well as direct analysis of antibody blocking effects in only 15 min assay time. We have achieved detection limits in the 102 TCID50/mL range for the study of SARS-CoV-2 viruses, which allows to perform neutralization assays by only employing a low-volume sample with common viral loads. We have demonstrated the accuracy of the biosensor for the evaluation of two different neutralizing antibodies targeting both Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) determined in the ng/mL range. Our user-friendly and reliable technology could be employed in biomedical and pharmaceutical laboratories to accelerate, cheapen, and simplify the development of effective immunotherapies for COVID-19 and other serious infectious diseases or cancer.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Biomimetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents
7.
Adv Mater ; 35(13): e2210519, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229576

ABSTRACT

As post-COVID complications, chronic respiratory diseases are one of the foremost causes of mortality. The quest for a cure for this recent global challenge underlines that the lack of predictive in vitro lung models is one of the main bottlenecks in pulmonary preclinical drug development. Despite rigorous efforts to develop biomimetic in vitro lung models, the current cutting-edge models represent a compromise in numerous technological and biological aspects. Most advanced in vitro models are still in the "proof-of-concept" phase with a low clinical translation of the findings. On the other hand, advances in cellular and molecular studies are mainly based on relatively simple and unrealistic in vitro models. Herein, the current challenges and potential strategies toward not only bioinspired but truly biomimetic lung models are discussed.


Subject(s)
Biomimetics , COVID-19 , Humans , Lung
8.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278963, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197061

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is the only antiviral drug approved for COVID-19 therapy by the FDA. Another drug LAGEVRIO™ (molnupiravir) though has not been approved yet by FDA but has been authorized on December 23, 2021, for emergency use to treat adults with mild-to moderate COVID-19 symptoms and for whom alternative COVID-19 treatment options are not clinically appropriate. The fact is that the efficacy of RDV is, however, limited in vivo though it is highly promising in vitro against SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this paper we are focusing on the action mechanism of RDV and how it can be improved in vivo. The stability of RDV alone and on encapsulation with our platform technology based polymer NV-387 (NV-CoV-2), were compared in presence of plasma in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a non-clinical pharmacology study of NV-CoV-2 (Polymer) and NV CoV-2 (Polymer encapsulated Remdesivir) in both NL-63 infected and uninfected rats was done. In addition, the antiviral activity of NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R was compared with RDV in a cell culture study. The results are (i) NV-CoV-2 polymer encapsulation protects RDV from plasma-mediated catabolism in both in vitro and in vivo, studies; (ii) Body weight measurements of the normal (uninfected) rats after administration of the test materials (NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R) showed no toxic effects. (iii) Body weight measurements and survival rates of the NL-63 infected rats were similar to the uninfected rats after treatment with NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R. Overall, the efficacy as an antiviral regimens were found in this order as below; NV-CoV-2-R > NV-CoV-2 > RDV. Our platform technology based NV-387-encapsulated-RDV (NV-CoV-2-R) drug has a dual effect against different variants of the coronaviruses. First, NV-CoV-2 is an antiviral regimen. Secondly, RDV is protected from plasma-mediated degradation in transit. All together, NV-CoV-2-R is the safest and efficient regimen against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Biomimetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Body Weight
9.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 2296-2319, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187331

ABSTRACT

The emerging cell membrane (CM)-camouflaged poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) (CM@PLGA NPs) have witnessed tremendous developments since coming to the limelight. Donning a novel membrane coat on traditional PLGA carriers enables combining the strengths of PLGA with cell-like behavior, including inherently interacting with the surrounding environment. Thereby, the in vivo defects of PLGA (such as drug leakage and poor specific distribution) can be overcome, its therapeutic potential can be amplified, and additional novel functions beyond drug delivery can be conferred. To elucidate the development and promote the clinical transformation of CM@PLGA NPs, the commonly used anucleate and eukaryotic CMs have been described first. Then, CM engineering strategies, such as genetic and nongenetic engineering methods and hybrid membrane technology, have been discussed. The reviewed CM engineering technologies are expected to enrich the functions of CM@PLGA for diverse therapeutic purposes. Third, this article highlights the therapeutic and diagnostic applications and action mechanisms of PLGA biomimetic systems for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, virus infection, and eye diseases. Finally, future expectations and challenges are spotlighted in the concept of translational medicine.


Subject(s)
Biomimetics , Nanoparticles , Cell Membrane , Drug Carriers
10.
RNA Biol ; 19(1): 1256-1275, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2134467

ABSTRACT

From the early days of research on RNA biology and biochemistry, there was an interest to utilize this knowledge and RNA itself for therapeutic applications. Today, we have a series of oligonucleotide therapeutics on the market and many more in clinical trials. These drugs - exploit different chemistries of oligonucleotides, such as modified DNAs and RNAs, peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) or phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs), and different mechanisms of action, such as RNA interference (RNAi), targeted RNA degradation, splicing modulation, gene expression and modification. Despite major successes e.g. mRNA vaccines developed against SARS-CoV-2 to control COVID-19 pandemic, development of therapies for other diseases is still limited by inefficient delivery of oligonucleotides to specific tissues and organs and often prohibitive costs for the final drug. This is even more critical when targeting multifactorial disorders and patient-specific biological variations. In this review, we will present the evolution of complexity of oligonucleotide delivery methods with focus on increasing complexity of formulations from gymnotic delivery to bioconjugates and to lipid nanoparticles in respect to developments that will enable application of therapeutic oligonucleotides as drugs in personalized therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nanoparticles , Humans , Oligonucleotides/genetics , Oligonucleotides/therapeutic use , Biomimetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , RNA
11.
Arch Pharm Res ; 45(9): 631-643, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035372

ABSTRACT

(±)-Decumicorine A (1) and (±)-epi-decumicorine A (2), two pairs of enantiomeric isoquinoline alkaloids featuring a novel phenylpropanoid-conjugated protoberberine skeleton, were isolated and purified from the rhizomes of Corydalis decumbens. The separation of (±)-1 and (±)-2 was achieved by chiral HPLC to produce four optically pure enantiomers. The structures and absolute configurations of compounds (-)-1, (+)-1, (-)-2, and (+)-2 were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, ECD calculations, and X-ray crystallographic analyses. The two racemates were generated from a Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between jatrorrhizine and ferulic acid in the proposed biosynthetic pathways, which were fully verified by a biomimetic synthesis. Moreover, compound (+)-1 exhibited an antiviral entry effect on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus by blocking spike binding to the ACE2 receptor on HEK-293T-ACE2h host cells.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Corydalis , Alkaloids/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Berberine Alkaloids , Biomimetics , Corydalis/chemistry , Humans , Isoquinolines , Molecular Structure , Rhizome , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(4): 1064-1074, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950559

ABSTRACT

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a severe complication of infectious diseases like Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that cause serious damage to public health. Currently, supportive therapy is still the main therapeutic strategy exists for CRS treatment. Here, we show the potential of macrophage membrane-derived biomimetic nanoparticles for CRS treatment. By fusing macrophage membrane on the surface of the PLGA nano core, we constructed biomimetic nanoparticles that inherited the membrane receptors from the "parental" macrophages, enabling the neutralization of CRS-related cytokines. We compared three types of macrophage membranes to screen out more effective biomimetic nanoparticles for CRS treatment. Our results show that M0 macrophage membrane-derived biomimetic nanoparticles could neutralize pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in CRS to the greatest extent and reduce organ damage in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Biomimetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Macrophages , Mice
13.
Int J Pharm ; 620: 121757, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796680

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary diseases are currently one of the major threats of human health, especially considering the recent COVID-19 pandemic. However, the current treatments are facing the challenges like insufficient local drug concentrations, the fast lung clearance and risks to induce unexpected inflammation. Cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers are recently emerged delivery strategy, showing advantages of long circulation time, excellent biocompatibility and immune escape ability. In this review, applications of using cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers from diverse cell sources for the targeted therapy of pulmonary disease were summarized. In addition, improvements of the cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers for augmented therapeutic ability against different kinds of pulmonary diseases were introduced. This review is expected to provide a general guideline for the potential applications of cell-derived membrane biomimetic nanocarriers to treat pulmonary diseases.


Subject(s)
Biomimetic Materials , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Nanoparticles , Biomimetics , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Drug Carriers/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Pandemics
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 229: 112415, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712830

ABSTRACT

Noscapine (NSC) is a benzyl-isoquinoline alkaloid discovered in 1930 as an antitussive agent. Recently, NSC has also been reported to exhibit antitumor activity and, according to computational studies, it is able to attack the protease enzyme of Coronavirus (COVID-19) and thus could be used as antiviral for COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, an increasing use of this drug could be envisaged in the coming years. NSC is readily metabolized with a half-life of 4.5 h giving rise to cotarnine, hydrocotarnine, and meconine, arising from the oxidative breaking of the CC bond between isoquinoline and phthalide moieties. Because of its potentially increasing use, high concentrations of NSC but also its metabolites will be delivered in the environment and potentially affect natural ecosystems. Thus, the aim of this work is to investigate the degradation of NSC in the presence of naturally occurring photocatalysts. As a matter of fact, the present contribution has demonstrated that NSC can be efficiently degraded in the presence of a derivative of the natural organic dye Riboflavin (RFTA) upon exposure to visible light. Indeed, a detailed study of the mechanism involved in the photodegradation revealed the similarities between the biomimetic and the photocatalyzed processes. In fact, the main photoproducts of NSC were identified as cotarnine and opianic acid based on a careful UPLC-MS2 analysis compared to the independently synthesized standards. The former is coincident with one of the main metabolites obtained in humans, whereas the latter is related to meconine, a second major metabolite of NSC. Photophysical experiments demonstrated that the observed oxidative cleavage is mediated mainly by singlet oxygen in a medium in which the lifetime of 1O2 is long enough, or by electron transfer to the triplet excited state of RFTA if the photodegradation occurs in aqueous media, where the 1O2 lifetime is very short.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Environmental Restoration and Remediation , Noscapine , Biomimetics , Chromatography, Liquid , Coloring Agents , Ecosystem , Humans , Light , Pandemics , Photolysis , Riboflavin/chemistry , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Water/chemistry
16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(1)2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640558

ABSTRACT

Rapid, selective, and cost-effective detection and determination of clinically relevant biomolecule analytes for a better understanding of biological and physiological functions are becoming increasingly prominent. In this regard, biosensors represent a powerful tool to meet these requirements. Recent decades have seen biosensors gaining popularity due to their ability to design sensor platforms that are selective to determine target analytes. Naturally generated receptor units have a high affinity for their targets, which provides the selectivity of a device. However, such receptors are subject to instability under harsh environmental conditions and have consequently low durability. By applying principles of supramolecular chemistry, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can successfully replace natural receptors to circumvent these shortcomings. This review summarizes the recent achievements and analytical applications of electrosynthesized MIPs, in particular, for the detection of protein-based biomarkers. The scope of this review also includes the background behind electrochemical readouts and the origin of the gate effect in MIP-based biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Molecular Imprinting , Biomimetics , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Equipment Design , Molecular Imprinting/methods , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Polymers/chemistry , Proteins
18.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323315

ABSTRACT

Ebselen is the leader of selenorganic compounds, and starting from its identification as mimetic of the key antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, several papers have appeared in literature claiming its biological activities. It was the subject of several clinical trials and it is currently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Given our interest in the synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of selenorganic derivatives with this review, we aimed to collect all the papers focused on the biological evaluation of ebselen and its close analogues, covering the timeline between 2016 and most of 2021. Our analysis evidences that, even if it lacks specificity when tested in vitro, being able to bind to every reactive cysteine, it proved to be always well tolerated in vivo, exerting no sign of toxicity whatever the administered doses. Besides, looking at the literature, we realized that no review article dealing with the synthetic approaches for the construction of the benzo[d][1,2]-selenazol-3(2H)-one scaffold is available; thus, a section of the present review article is completely devoted to this specific topic.


Subject(s)
Azoles/chemistry , Azoles/chemical synthesis , Azoles/pharmacology , Organoselenium Compounds/chemistry , Organoselenium Compounds/chemical synthesis , Organoselenium Compounds/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biomimetics/methods , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Glutathione Peroxidase/metabolism , Glutathione Peroxidase/pharmacology , Humans , Isoindoles , Molecular Structure , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Selenium/chemistry , Selenoproteins/chemical synthesis , Selenoproteins/pharmacology
19.
Anal Chem ; 93(30): 10444-10452, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319008

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a serious public health threat. Most vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 target the highly glycosylated spike protein (S). A good knowledge of the glycosylation profile of this protein is key to successful vaccine development. Unlike the 22 confirmed N-glycosylation sites on SARS-CoV-2 S, only a few O-glycosylation sites on this protein have been reported. This difference is mainly ascribed to the extremely low stoichiometry of O-glycosylation. Herein, we designed the biomimetic materials, Trp-Arg (WR) monomer-grafted silica microspheres (designated as WR-SiO2), and these biomimetic materials can enrich N- and O-linked glycopeptides with high selectivity. And WR-SiO2 can resist the nonglycopeptides' interference with the 100 molar fold of BSA during O-linked glycopeptide enrichment. We utilized WR-SiO2 to comprehensively analyze the O-glycosylation profile of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S. Twenty-seven O-glycosylation sites including 18 unambiguous sites are identified on SARS-CoV-2 S. Our study demonstrates that the biomimetic polymer can offer specific selectivity for O-linked glycopeptides and pave the way for O-glycosylation research in biological fields. The O-glycosylation profile of SARS-CoV-2 S might supplement the comprehensive glycosylation in addition to N-glycosylation of SARS-CoV-2 S.


Subject(s)
Biomimetic Materials , COVID-19 , Biomimetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Glycosylation , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicon Dioxide , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 177, 2021 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298834

ABSTRACT

Rapid development of vaccines and therapeutics is necessary to tackle the emergence of new pathogens and infectious diseases. To speed up the drug discovery process, the conventional development pipeline can be retooled by introducing advanced in vitro models as alternatives to conventional infectious disease models and by employing advanced technology for the production of medicine and cell/drug delivery systems. In this regard, layer-by-layer construction with a 3D bioprinting system or other technologies provides a beneficial method for developing highly biomimetic and reliable in vitro models for infectious disease research. In addition, the high flexibility and versatility of 3D bioprinting offer advantages in the effective production of vaccines, therapeutics, and relevant delivery systems. Herein, we discuss the potential of 3D bioprinting technologies for the control of infectious diseases. We also suggest that 3D bioprinting in infectious disease research and drug development could be a significant platform technology for the rapid and automated production of tissue/organ models and medicines in the near future.


Subject(s)
Bioprinting/trends , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/therapy , Printing, Three-Dimensional/trends , Biomimetics/trends , Drug Development/trends , Drug Discovery/trends , Humans , Tissue Engineering/trends
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