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1.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112162, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global healthcare sector has been dealing with a situation known as a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) since the end of 2019. Covid-19 is an acronym for Covid-19 (Coronavirus Disease- 2019). It causes a respiratory infection that includes cold, sneezing and coughing, and pneumonia. In the case of an animal, it causes diarrhea and upper respiratory diseases. Covid-19 transmitted human to human via airborne droplets. First Covid-19 emerged in Wuhan market China and it spread rapidly throughout the World. As we know nanoparticles are a novel drug delivery system. They have various advantageous effects like increasing the efficacy of the drug, safety, etc. In this review, we study about the nanoparticles and summarize how it is effective during drug delivery system in Covid-19. Chitosan is a much focused biopolymeric nanoparticle. It delivers drugs to the specific target site. In a recent health crisis, chitosan nanoparticles are one of the ways to release drugs of Covid-19, and specifically in the lungs of the affected patients. We studied and extracted our data from various research papers, review papers, and some other articles. OBJECTIVE: The main goal is to study the nanoparticles and their future aspects which is an effective drug delivery system in Covid-19. METHODS: The bibliographic search was done through a systematic search. The terms "Nanoparticles", "Covid-19 ", "Drug delivery" etc. were used to search the databases/search engines like "Google Scholar", "NCBI", "PubMed", "Science Direct" etc. These databases and search engines used here perform the limited criteria of search to conduct a systematic literature survey for the study and report writing. All the text from the articles and research papers were studied and analyzed. The various articles and research papers were used in writing this report and all of which are mentioned in the reference section of this report. CONCLUSION: Our current studies reveal that nanoparticles may prove very helpful in the delivery of drugs for Covid-19 treatment. Many cases showed that patients, where drugs are delivered with the help of nanoparticles, produced very few side effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Nanoparticles , Animals , Biopolymers/adverse effects , Biopolymers/chemistry , Biopolymers/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Nanomedicine , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750713

ABSTRACT

Hybrid nanoparticles from lipidic and polymeric components were assembled to serve as vehicles for the transfection of messenger RNA (mRNA) using different portions of the cationic lipid DOTAP (1,2-Dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) and the cationic biopolymer protamine as model systems. Two different sequential assembly approaches in comparison with a direct single-step protocol were applied, and molecular organization in correlation with biological activity of the resulting nanoparticle systems was investigated. Differences in the structure of the nanoparticles were revealed by thorough physicochemical characterization including small angle neutron scattering (SANS), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). All hybrid systems, combining lipid and polymer, displayed significantly increased transfection in comparison to lipid/mRNA and polymer/mRNA particles alone. For the hybrid nanoparticles, characteristic differences regarding the internal organization, release characteristics, and activity were determined depending on the assembly route. The systems with the highest transfection efficacy were characterized by a heterogenous internal organization, accompanied by facilitated release. Such a system could be best obtained by the single step protocol, starting with a lipid and polymer mixture for nanoparticle formation.


Subject(s)
Biopolymers/chemistry , Lipids/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Transfection/methods , Animals , Cell Line , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/chemistry , Female , Heparin/chemistry , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Optical Imaging , Particle Size , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/chemistry
3.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(2): 105998, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-291695

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is a global public health emergency, and new therapeutics are needed. This article reports the potential drug target and mechanism of action of Arbidol (umifenovir) to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Molecular dynamics and structural analysis were used to show how Arbidol targets the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and impedes its trimerization, which is key for host cell adhesion and hijacking, indicating the potential of Arbidol to treat COVID-19. It is hoped that knowledge of the potential drug target and mechanism of action of Arbidol will help in the development of new therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biopolymers/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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