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1.
Ups J Med Sci ; 1282023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235891

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccines are associated with an increased risk of myocarditis using hospital discharge diagnoses as an outcome. The validity of these register-based diagnoses is uncertain. Methods: Patient records for subjects < 40 years of age and a diagnosis of myocarditis in the Swedish National Patient Register were manually reviewed. Brighton Collaboration diagnosis criteria for myocarditis were applied based on patient history, clinical examination, laboratory data, electrocardiograms, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and myocardial biopsy. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios, comparing the register-based outcome variable to validated outcomes. Interrater reliability was assessed by a blinded re-evaluation. Results: Overall, 95.6% (327/342) of cases registered as myocarditis were confirmed (definite, probable or possible myocarditis according to Brighton Collaboration diagnosis criteria, positive predictive value 0.96 [95% CI 0.93-0.98]). Of the 4.4% (15/342) cases reclassified as no myocarditis or as insufficient information, two cases had been exposed to the COVID-19 vaccine no more than 28 days before the myocarditis diagnosis, two cases were exposed >28 days before admission and 11 cases were unexposed to the vaccine. The reclassification had only minor impact on incidence rate ratios for myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination. In total, 51 cases were sampled for a blinded re-evaluation. Of the 30 randomly sampled cases initially classified as either definite or probably myocarditis, none were re-classified after re-evaluation. Of the in all 15 cases initially classified as no myocarditis or insufficient information, 7 were after re-evaluation re-classified as probable or possible myocarditis. This re-classification was mostly due to substantial variability in electrocardiogram interpretation. Conclusion: This validation of register-based diagnoses of myocarditis by manual patient record review confirmed the register diagnosis in 96% of cases and had high interrater reliability. Reclassification had only a minor impact on the incidence rate ratios for myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , Sweden/epidemiology , Biopsy
2.
Med. lab ; 26(1): 35-46, 2022. Grafs
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20235630

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 es una enfermedad infecciosa respiratoria aguda, causada por el SARS-CoV-2, un nuevo coronavirus, que se extendió rápidamente por todo el mundo, dando como resultado una pandemia. Los pacientes presentan un amplio espectro de manifestaciones clínicas, entre ellas, la miocarditis, y de manera alterna, algunos pacientes sin síntomas de enfermedad cardíaca, tienen anomalías en las pruebas, como elevación de la troponina y arritmias cardíacas en el electrocardiograma, o anomalías en las imágenes cardíacas. La patogenia del compromiso miocárdico no es clara, pero las dos principales teorías prevén un papel directo de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2, que funciona como el receptor viral, y una respuesta hiperinmune, que también puede conducir a una presentación aislada. El estándar de oro del diagnóstico es la biopsia endomiocárdica, la cual no está disponible en la mayoría de los escenarios. En esta revisión, se pretende brindar al lector pautas para identificar las manifestaciones clínicas, ayudas diagnósticas y manejo de los pacientes con sospecha de miocarditis por COVID-19


COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 virus, that spread rapidly around the world, resulting in a pandemic. Patients present with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including myocarditis, and alternately, some patients without symptoms of heart disease have abnormalities in tests, such as elevated troponin, arrhythmias in the ECG orabnormalities in cardiac imaging testing. The pathogenesis of myocardial involvement is not completely clear, but the two main theories suggest a direct role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, which functions as the virus receptor, and a hyperimmune response, which can also lead to an isolated presentation. The gold standard for the diagnosis is the endomyocardial biopsy, which is not available in most settings. In this review, we intend to provide the reader with guidelines to identify the clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools, and management of patients with suspected COVID-19 myocarditis


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biopsy , Echocardiography , SARS-CoV-2 , Myocarditis , Myocardium
3.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 21(6): 437-451, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239452

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune myocarditis may develop due to heterogeneous causes. Myocarditis is often caused by viral infections, but it can also be caused by systemic autoimmune diseases. Immune checkpoint inhibitors and virus vaccines induce immune activation, and they can cause the development of myocarditis, as well as several immune-related adverse events. The development of myocarditis is dependent on the genetic factors of the host, and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may be an important determinant of the type and severity of the disease. However, non-MHC immunoregulatory genes may also play a role in determining susceptibility. AREA COVERED: This review summarizes the current knowledge of the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune myocarditis with a particular focus on viral infection, autoimmunity, and biomarkers of myocarditis. EXPERT OPINION: An endomyocardial biopsy may not be the gold standard for the diagnosis of myocarditis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is useful in diagnosing autoimmune myocarditis. Recently identified biomarkers of inflammation and myocyte injury are promising for the diagnosis of myocarditis when measured simultaneously. Future treatments should focus on the appropriate diagnosis of the etiologic agent, as well as on the specific stage of the evolution of immune and inflammatory processes.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Autoimmunity , Inflammation , Biopsy , Biomarkers
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284142, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313594

ABSTRACT

To explore the interior of a lesion in a 3D endoluminal view, this study investigates the application of an 'electronic biopsy' (EB) technique to computed tomographic colonography (CTC) for further differentiation and 2D image correlation of endoluminal lesions in the air spaces. A retrospective study of sixty-two various endoluminal lesions from thirty patients (13 males, 17 females; age range, 31 to 90 years) was approved by our institutional review board and evaluated. The endoluminal lesions were segmented using gray-level threshold and reconstructed into isosurfaces using a marching cube algorithm. EB allows users to interactively erode and apply grey-level mapping (GM) to the surface of the region of interest (ROI) in 3D CTC. Radiologists conducted the clinical evaluation, and the resulting data were analyzed. EB significantly improves 3D gray-level presentation for evaluating the surface and inside of endoluminal lesions over that of SR, GM or target GM (TGM) (P < 0.01) with preservation of the 3D spatial effect. Moreover, 3D to 2D image correlation were achieved in any layer of the lesion using EB as did GM/TGM on the surface. The specificity and diagnostic accuracy of EB are significantly greater than those of SR (P < 0.01). These performance can be better further with GM/TGM and reach the best with EB (specificity, 89.3-92.9%; accuracy, 95.2-96.8%). EB can be used in CTC to improve the differentiation of endoluminal lesions. EB increases 3D to 2D image correlations of the lesions on or beneath the lesion surface.


Subject(s)
Colonic Polyps , Colonography, Computed Tomographic , Intestinal Diseases , Male , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colonic Polyps/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Colonography, Computed Tomographic/methods , Colon , Biopsy
5.
Ann Pathol ; 43(3): 222-235, 2023 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308752

ABSTRACT

The recent context of COVID-19 has renewed the interest of pathologists in diseases of infectious origin. This interest is even stronger in the gastrointestinal tract where symptoms are aspecific, often frustrating with a normal endoscopic appearance sometimes leading to diagnostic erraticity. In this context, systematic biopsies performed by the clinician are sometimes the only way to reach a diagnosis. Nevertheless, the precise diagnosis of these pathologies requires a good knowledge of the context in which they occur, the histopathological aspect and a rigorous analysis using special stains and/or immunohistochemical analyses. Some infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are well known to pathologists who are widely called upon to diagnose them (Helicobacter pylori gastritis, Candida albicans oesophagitis or CMV colitis), but others are more difficult to diagnose. In this article, we will present, after having recalled the various useful special stains, rare or difficult to diagnose bacterial or parasitic pathologies "not to be missed" in the digestive tract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Gastritis , Helicobacter Infections , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Biopsy , Gastritis/pathology , Coloring Agents , Helicobacter Infections/diagnosis
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 153, 2023 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is now recognized as a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019, affecting up to 46% of patients, with acute tubular injury as the most common etiology. Recently, we have seen an increase in cases of collapsing glomerulonephritis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019, also known as coronavirus disease 2019-associated nephropathy. It has been noted to be seen with a higher incidence in African American patients who are carriers of the APOL1 variant allele. CASE PRESENTATION: A 47-year-old African American male with a past medical history of asthma presented to the emergency department with complaints of intermittent chest pain, shortness of breath, and worsening confusion. On admission, he was found to be hemodynamically stable, but labs were significant for elevated creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, signifying acute kidney injury. He was admitted and taken for emergent dialysis. During his hospitalization, he was found to be positive for coronavirus disease 2019. Renal biopsy was done, which showed collapsing glomerulopathy, and the patient continues to require outpatient dialysis after discharge. CONCLUSION: Collapsing glomerulonephritis has emerged as a complication in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. This condition should be particularly suspected in African American patients who present with acute kidney injury, nephrotic-range proteinuria, and who are positive for coronavirus disease 2019. Current treatment options are limited to supportive treatment and renal replacement therapy. More clinical cases and trials are needed to better understand and improve therapeutic outcomes in these patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Apolipoprotein L1 , Black or African American , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/genetics , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , Glomerulonephritis/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/genetics , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Glomerulonephritis/therapy , Kidney/pathology , Renal Dialysis
7.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 61, 2023 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with Hodgkin lymphoma exhibit various clinical presentations. Needle biopsy of the lymph nodes is a minimally invasive procedure and a useful diagnostic method for malignant lymphomas. However, at times it is difficult to differentiate malignant lymphomas from reactive lymph node changes using a small amount of biopsy material. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old Japanese man was referred to the emergency department of our hospital owing to high fever and disturbance of consciousness. We diagnosed sepsis due to an acute biliary tract infection because he presented with Charcot's triad-fever, jaundice, and right-sided abdominal pain. However, he did not respond well to antimicrobial therapy and his high fever persisted. Considering the swelling of the right cervical, mediastinal, and intraperitoneal lymph nodes and splenomegaly detected on computed tomography, a differential diagnosis of malignant lymphoma was needed. Hence, we performed a needle biopsy of the right cervical lymph node; however, the amount of sample obtained was insufficient in establishing a definitive diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. Furthermore, during hospitalization, the patient developed thrombocytopenia, anasarca, and renal insufficiency. These symptoms seemed to be the typical signs of the thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis or renal insufficiency, and organomegaly syndrome. Next, an external incisional mass biopsy of the right cervical lymph node was performed, which helped identify Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Collectively, we established a definitive diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma with lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of performing an external incisional mass biopsy of the lymph nodes for the early diagnosis and treatment, if malignant lymphoma is strongly suspected.


Subject(s)
Hodgkin Disease , Renal Insufficiency , Thrombocytopenia , Male , Humans , Aged , Hodgkin Disease/complications , Hodgkin Disease/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Biopsy , Edema/etiology , Fever
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(13): e33406, 2023 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264627

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Light-chain deposition disease (LCDD) is a rare condition characterized by the abnormal deposition of monoclonal light chains (LCs) in multiple organs, leading to progressive organ dysfunction. Herein, we report a case of plasma cell myeloma initially diagnosed as LCDD on liver biopsy performed for prominent cholestatic hepatitis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old Korean man complained of dyspepsia as the main symptom. On abdominal computed tomography performed at another hospital, the liver showed mildly decreased and heterogeneous attenuation with mild periportal edema. Preliminary liver function tests revealed abnormal results. The patient was treated for an unspecified liver disease; however, his jaundice gradually worsened, prompting him to visit our outpatient hepatology clinic for further evaluation. Magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed liver cirrhosis with severe hepatomegaly of unknown cause. A liver biopsy was performed for the diagnosis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed diffuse extracellular amorphous deposits in perisinusoidal spaces with compressed hepatocytes. The deposits, which morphologically resembled amyloids, were not stained by Congo red but stained strongly positive for kappa LCs and weakly positive for lambda LCs. DIAGNOSES: Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with LCDD. Further systemic examination revealed a plasma cell myeloma. INTERVENTIONS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization, cytogenetics, and next-generation sequencing tested in bone marrow showed no abnormalities. The patient initially received bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone as the treatment regimen for plasma cell myeloma. OUTCOMES: However, he died shortly thereafter because of coronavirus disease 2019 complications. LESSONS: This case demonstrates that LCDD may present with sudden cholestatic hepatitis and hepatomegaly, and may be fatal if patients do not receive appropriate and timely treatment because of delayed diagnosis. Liver biopsy is useful for the diagnosis of patients with liver disease of unknown etiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Multiple Myeloma , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/diagnosis , Hepatomegaly , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , COVID-19/complications , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/complications , Lenalidomide , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone , Biopsy
9.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 61(1): 4-32, 2023 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263496

ABSTRACT

Saliva is a complex biological fluid with a variety of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites and microbiota, which can be used for the screening and diagnosis of many diseases. In addition, saliva has the characteristics of simple collection, non-invasive and convenient storage, which gives it the potential to replace blood as a new main body of fluid biopsy, and it is an excellent biological diagnostic fluid. This review integrates recent studies and summarizes the research contents of salivaomics and the research progress of saliva in early diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. This review aims to explore the value and prospect of saliva diagnosis in clinical application.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Saliva , Humans , Saliva/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis , Early Diagnosis , Biopsy
10.
JACC Heart Fail ; 11(3): 263-276, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263094

ABSTRACT

Noninvasive heart transplant rejection surveillance using gene expression profiling (GEP) to monitor immune activation is widely used among heart transplant programs. With the new development of donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) assays, more programs are transitioning to a predominantly noninvasive rejection surveillance protocol with a reduced frequency of endomyocardial biopsies. As a result, many practical questions arise that potentially delay implementation of these valuable new tools. The purpose of this review is to provide practical guidance for clinicians transitioning toward a less invasive acute rejection monitoring protocol after heart transplantation, and to answer 10 common questions about the GEP and dd-cfDNA assays. Evidence supporting GEP and dd-cfDNA testing is reviewed, as well as guidance on test interpretation and future directions.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Heart Failure , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications , Biopsy , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Tissue Donors
11.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 82(4): 296-301, 2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276048

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on medical services. Many countries postponed nonemergent procedures to preserve hospital resources for the unprecedented situation. Surgical backlogs caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have been evaluated by different groups. However, the impact of this pandemic on pathology and specifically neuropathology (NP) services has received limited attention. In this study, we reviewed all NP reports of the London Health Sciences Centre from January 2018 (2 years before the pandemic declaration) until the end of the year 2021. Demographic information and pathology details were collected. For tumors, site, histopathology types, and WHO grading were analyzed. In nontumoral specimens, pathological diagnoses were compared in pre- and postpandemic time. The total number of NP samples reached its lowest in April 2020, corresponding to the first Ontario provincial lockdown, and fluctuated throughout the studied period. Among the different types of NP surgical specimens, muscle and epilepsy-related specimens showed a more significant reduction, compared to neoplastic specimens. In 2020, the proportion of tumor specimens from patients older than 40 years of age increased. Similarly, the proportion of high-grade glioma and brain metastasis diagnoses also increased. Lastly, we observed a marked increase in biopsies for temporal arteritis and other inflammatory lesions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Canada/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics , Biopsy
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 36, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: More attention has been put on the relationship between pediatric glomerular disease and respiratory tract virus infection. Children with glomerular illness, however, are uncommonly found to have biopsy-proven pathological evidence of viral infection. The purpose of this study is to determine whether and what kind of respiratory viruses are found in renal biopsy from glomerular disorders. METHODS: We used a multiplex PCR to identify a wide range of respiratory tract viruses in the renal biopsy samples (n = 45) from children with glomerular disorders and a specific PCR to verify their expression. RESULTS: These case series included 45 of 47 renal biopsy specimens, with 37.8% of male and 62.2% of female patients. Indications for a kidney biopsy were present in all of the individuals. In 80% of the samples, respiratory syncytial virus was discovered. Following that, the RSV subtypes in several pediatric renal disorders were found. There were 16 RSVA positives, 5 RSVB positives, and 15 RSVA/B positives, accounting for 44.4%, 13.9%, and 41.7%, respectively. Nephrotic syndrome samples made up 62.5% of RSVA positive specimens. The RSVA/B-positive was detected in all pathological histological types. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with glomerular disease exhibit respiratory tract viral expression in the renal tissues, especially respiratory syncytial virus. This research offers new information on the detection of respiratory tract viruses in renal tissue, which may facilitate the identification and treatment of pediatric glomerular diseases.


Subject(s)
Kidney Diseases , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Child , Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , China/epidemiology , Respiratory System , Biopsy
13.
Annu Rev Med ; 73: 149-166, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253466

ABSTRACT

We review current data on clinically suspected [European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2013 criteria] and biopsy-proven [ESC and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria] myocarditis that is temporally associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ESC/WHO etiological diagnosis of viral myocarditis is based on histological and immunohistological evidence of nonischemic myocyte necrosis and monolymphocytic infiltration, i.e., myocarditis, plus the identification of a specific cardiotropic virus by molecular techniques, in particular polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/in-situ hybridization, on endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)/autopsy tissue. There is not yet definitive EMB/autopsy proof that SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cardiomyocyte damage in association with histological myocarditis. Clinical epidemiology data suggest that myocarditis is uncommon for both SARS-CoV-2-positive and -negative PCR cases. We hypothesize that the rare virus-negative biopsy-proven cases may represent new-onset immune-mediated or latent pre-existing autoimmune forms,triggered or fostered by the hyperinflammatory state of severe COVID-19. We recommend the application of the ESC/WHO definitions and diagnostic criteria in future reports to avoid low-quality scientific information leading to an inaccurate estimate of myocarditis incidence based on misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Virus Diseases , Biopsy , Humans , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250840

ABSTRACT

The inflammasome complex is a key part of chronic diseases and acute infections, being responsible for cytokine release and cell death mechanism regulation. The SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by a dysregulated cytokine release. In this context, the inflammasome complex analysis within SARS-CoV-2 infection may prove beneficial to understand the disease's mechanisms. Post-mortem minimally invasive autopsies were performed in patients who died from COVID-19 (n = 24), and lung samples were compared to a patient control group (n = 11) and an Influenza A virus H1N1 subtype group from the 2009 pandemics (n = 10). Histological analysis was performed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies against targets: ACE2, TLR4, NF-κB, NLRP-3 (or NALP), IL-1ß, IL-18, ASC, CASP1, CASP9, GSDMD, NOX4, TNF-α. Data obtained from digital analysis underwent appropriate statistical tests. IHC analysis showed biomarkers that indicate inflammasome activation (ACE2; NF-κB; NOX4; ASC) were significantly increased in the COVID-19 group (p < 0.05 for all) and biomarkers that indicate cell pyroptosis and inflammasome derived cytokines such as IL-18 (p < 0.005) and CASP1 were greatly increased (p < 0.0001) even when compared to the H1N1 group. We propose that the SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis is connected to the inflammasome complex activation. Further studies are still warranted to elucidate the pathophysiology of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-18 , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Autopsy , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Caspase 1/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Biopsy , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism
15.
Ultrastruct Pathol ; 47(1): 22-29, 2023 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246155

ABSTRACT

Infection-related glomerulonephritis is well recognized in patients with ongoing infections. It can be missed, however, if the infection is unusual or undetected. We present three cases where the renal biopsy findings prompted the identification or treatment of systemic infections.Case 1: A 84-year-old male presented with acute kidney injury (AKI) and IgA vasculitis on skin biopsy. A renal biopsy showed active glomerulonephritis with abundant neutrophils and predominantly mesangial immune complex deposits containing IgA. The findings prompted an infectious workup which was positive for COVID-19, suggesting exacerbation of IgA nephropathy by recent COVID-19 infection. Case 2: A 31-year-old female status post kidney transplant for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) had recent pregnancy with preterm delivery, disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection with HSV hepatitis, E. coli on urine culture, and AKI. A renal biopsy showed proliferative glomerulonephritis with subendothelial and mesangial immune complex deposits containing IgG and C3. The findings were most consistent with infection-related immune complex glomerulonephritis, most likely HSV-related. Case 3: A 78-year-old female presented with AKI, proteinuria, hematuria, and positive p-ANCA. Clinically, ANCA vasculitis was suspected, and renal biopsy did show focal, segmental, necrotizing glomerulonephritis. However, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy showed IgM-rich deposits in the mesangium. The unusual presentation prompted an infectious workup including a Bartonella antibody panel which showed very high titers, suggesting Bartonella endocarditis.Infection-related glomerulonephritis has a wide variety of presentations histologically and clinically. The three cases we present here emphasize the importance of recognizing these entities to help guide treatment and improve patient care.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis, IGA , Glomerulonephritis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , Escherichia coli , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Glomerulonephritis, IGA/pathology
16.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 35: 8-12, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241634

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The overload of health services because of the COVID-19 pandemic has reduced the population's access to treatment and prevention of other diseases. This study aimed to identify whether there was a change in the trend of breast biopsies and their direct costs during the COVID-19 pandemic in a developing country's public and universal healthcare system. METHODS: This was an ecological time series study of mammograms and breast biopsies in women aged 30 years or older from an open-access data set of the Public Health System of Brazil from 2017 to July 2021. RESULTS: In 2020, there was a reduction of -40.9% in mammograms and -7.9% in breast biopsies compared with the prepandemic period. From 2017 to 2020, there was an increase in the breast biopsies ratio per mammogram (1.37%-2.55%), the percentage of Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) IV and V mammograms (0.79%-1.14%), and the annual direct cost of breast biopsies (Brazilian Real 3 477 410.00 to Brazilian Real 7 334 910.00). In the time series, the negative impact of the pandemic was lower on BI-RADS IV to V mammograms than on BI-RADS 0 to III. There was an association between the trend of breast biopsies and BI-RADS IV to V mammography. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic harmed the increasing trend of breast biopsies, their total direct costs, BI-RADS 0 to III and IV to V mammograms, observed in the prepandemic period. Furthermore, there was a tendency to screen women at a higher risk for breast cancer during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Biopsy
17.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(1): 106-110, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235683

ABSTRACT

Background: Mucormycosis, once a rare fungal disease, has now shown a surge in cases, and its epidemiology in India is intriguing. Rising incidence confers the necessity of defining the demography of the population at risk, early diagnosis, and recommendations for the management of mucormycosis in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Aims: To study the clinico-epidemological profile, risk factors, and histopathological features of COVID-19-associated Mucormycosis (CAM). Setting and Design: This is a retrospective observational study. Material and Methods: Fifty-six biopsy specimens taken from patients of COVID-19 with clinical suspicion of mucormycosis were included. Results: Diabetes mellitus, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy were the most common risk factors associated with CAM. The mean duration between the onset of symptoms of COVID-19 and onset of CAM was 25.2 ± 15.3 days. Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) was present in 24.5% of the cases, with a survival rate of 58.3%. Histopathology showed tissue invasion by branching broad-based, pale, fungal hyphae consistent with mucor in 49 (87.5%) cases. Inflammation was acute neutrophilic type in 61.2% of the patients with a survival rate of 63.33%. The survival rate with chronic non-granulomatous and chronic granulomatous was 100% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Keeping a high index of suspicion for mucormycosis in COVID-19 by all medical fraternities of the health community in the existence of risk factors is the need of the hour for prompt diagnosis. Biopsy of antral necrotic tissue should be performed immediately after suspicion for histopathological study to confirm the diagnosis of mucormycosis and predict prognosis depending on the type of inflammation incited, fungal morphology, load, and necrosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Biopsy , Inflammation
19.
JCI Insight ; 8(5)2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231286

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury is one of the most important complications in patients with COVID-19 and is considered a negative prognostic factor with respect to patient survival. The occurrence of direct infection of the kidney by SARS-CoV-2, and its contribution to the renal deterioration process, remain controversial issues. By studying 32 renal biopsies from patients with COVID-19, we verified that the major pathological feature of COVID-19 is acute tubular injury (ATI). Using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization, we showed that SARS-CoV-2 infected living renal cells and that infection, which paralleled renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression levels, was associated with increased death. Mechanistically, a transcriptomic analysis uncovered specific molecular signatures in SARS-CoV-2-infected kidneys as compared with healthy kidneys and non-COVID-19 ATI kidneys. On the other hand, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 and hantavirus, 2 RNA viruses, activated different genetic networks despite triggering the same pathological lesions. Finally, we identified X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor 1 as a critical target of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can directly infect living renal cells and identified specific druggable molecular targets that can potentially aid in the design of novel therapeutic strategies to preserve renal function in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Kidney/pathology , Biopsy
20.
Wiad Lek ; 75(9 pt 2): 2198-2203, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To reveal the morphological and functional features of the mucous membrane of small and large intestine in patients with COVID-19 and in post-COVID-19 period. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In the present study, the authors used biopsy and autopsy material represented by the fragments of the mucous membrane of small and large intestine. All studied material was divided into 10 groups. Group 1 (comparison group) included autopsy material from the deceased who did not have COVID-19 during their lifetime. Groups 2-4 included autopsy material from the deceased who had COVID-19 of varying severity during their lifetime. Groups 5-7 included biopsy material from patients who had recovered from COVID-19 of varying severity, while the duration of the post-COVID period ranged from 1 to 50 days. Groups 8-10 included biopsy material from patients who had in anamnesis COVID-19 of varying severity (the duration of the post-COVID period lasted from 51 to 100 days). Histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical research methods were used. RESULTS: Results: The comparative analysis showed a more expressed deficiency of ACE2 in the mucous membrane of small and large intestine in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 compared with patients in post-COVID-19 period of different duration. In patients who had moderate and severe COVID-19 in anamnesis, ACE2 deficiency decreases with increasing duration of post-COVID-19 period. In patients recovered from mild COVID-19, the ACE2 content increases with the duration of post-COVID-19 period from 1 to 50 days and corresponds to the norm with the duration of this period from 51 to 100 days. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The comprehensive morphological study conducted by the authors made it possible, firstly, to clarify the morphological and functional features of the mucous membrane of small and large intestine in patients with COVID-19 of various degrees of severity; secondly, to obtain new data about the morpho-functional state of the mucous membrane of small and large intestine in patients, taking into account different duration of the post-COVID-19 period and the severity of the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Intestine, Large , Mucous Membrane , Biopsy
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