Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 42
Filter
1.
Clin Cardiol ; 45(9): 952-959, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935672

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To study the clinical signs and mechanisms (viral and autoimmune) of myoendocarditis in the long-term period after COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Fourteen patients (nine male, 50.1 ± 10.2 y.o.) with biopsy proven post-COVID myocarditis were observed. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by IgG seroconversion. The average time of admission after COVID-19 was 5.5 [2; 10] months. An endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) of the right ventricle was obtained. The biopsy analysis included polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of viral infection, morphological, immunohistochemical (IHC) examination with antibodies to CD3, CD45, CD68, CD20, SARS-Cov-2 spike, and nucleocapsid antigens. Coronary atherosclerosis was ruled out in all patients over 40 years. RESULTS: The new cardiac symptoms (congestive heart failure 3-4 New York Heart Association class with severe right ventricular involvement, various rhythm, and conduction disturbances) appeared 1-5 months following COVID-19. Magnetic resonance imaging showed disseminated or focal subepicardial and intramyocardial late gadolinium enhancement, hyperemia, edema, and increased myocardial native T1 relaxation time. Antiheart antibodies levels were increased 3-4 times in 92.9% of patients. The mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was 28% (24.5; 37.8). Active lymphocytic myocarditis was diagnosed in 12 patients, eosinophilic myocarditis in two patients. SARS-Cov-2 RNA was detected in 12 cases (85.7%), in association with parvovirus B19 DNA-in one. Three patients had also endocarditis (infective and nonbacterial, with parietal thrombosis). As a result of steroid and chronic heart failure therapy, the EF increased to 47% (37.5; 52.5). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 can lead to long-term severe post-COVID myoendocarditis, that is characterized by prolonged persistence of coronavirus in cardiomyocytes, endothelium, and macrophages (up to 18 months) in combination with high immune activity. Corticosteroids and anticoagulants should be considered as a treatment option of post-COVID myoendocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media , Gadolinium , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocardium/pathology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Lung ; 200(2): 153-159, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894645

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) is an accepted alternative to surgical lung biopsy (SLB) for diagnosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) that is less invasive and results in comparable diagnostic yields. Performing lung biopsies on hospitalized patients, however, has increased risk due to the patient's underlying disease severity. Data evaluating the safety and efficacy of TBLC in hospitalized patients are limited. We present a comparison of TBLC for hospitalized and outpatients and provide the safety and diagnostic yields in these populations. METHODS: Demographic data, pulmonary function values, chest imaging pattern, procedural information, and diagnosis were recorded from enrolled patients. Complications from the procedure were the primary outcomes and diagnostic yield was the secondary outcome. RESULTS: 77 patients (n = 22 hospitalized vs n = 55 outpatient) underwent TBLC during the study period. Comparing adverse events between hospitalized and outpatients revealed no statistically significant differences in pneumothorax (9%, n = 2 vs 5%,n = 3), tube thoracostomy placement (5%, n = 1 vs 2%, n = 1), grade 2 bleeding (9%, n = 2 vs 0%, n = 0), escalation in level of care (5%, n = 1 vs 0%, n = 0), 30-day mortality (9%, n = 2 vs 2%, n = 1), and 60-day mortality (9%, n = 2 vs 4%, n = 2) (p > 0.05 for all). No deaths were attributed to the procedure. 95% of cases received a multidisciplinary conference diagnosis (hospitalized 100%, n = 22 vs outpatients 93%, n = 51, p = 0.32). CONCLUSION: Our experience supports that TBLC may be a safe and effective modality for acutely ill-hospitalized patients with DPLD. Further efforts to enhance procedural safety and to determine the impact of an expedited tissue diagnosis on patient outcomes are needed.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pneumothorax , Biopsy/adverse effects , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoscopy/adverse effects , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology
3.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(2): 273-284, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884909

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart muscle disease characterized by heterogeneous clinical presentation and outcome. Clinical heterogeneity of myocarditis, ranging from acute onset chest pain with electrocardiographic changes resembling an acute coronary syndrome, to arrhythmic storm and chronic decompensated heart failure, makes diagnosis challenging. However, a correct diagnosis is fundamental to proper patients' management and should always be seeked. Although a definite diagnosis is only provided by endomyocardial biopsy, the European Society of Cardiology task force on myocardial and pericardial diseases provided specific criteria for the diagnosis of clinically suspected myocarditis, which has been facilitated by the advent of noninvasive imaging tests (i.e. cardiovascular magnetic resonance based myocardial tissue characterization). Due to the heterogeneous presentation and disease course of myocarditis, a tailored treatment would be the best strategy, but a standardized management is still not available. However, over the years, new, promising therapies, such as antiviral and immune-suppressive treatment, have come side by side to the standard pharmacological heart treatment, i.e. antiheart failure medications. In this paper we will review the basic principles of myocarditis management in clinical practice, including diagnostic work-up, conventional and disease-specific therapy and patients' follow-up.


Subject(s)
Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Biopsy/methods , Chest Pain/pathology , Disease Progression , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/pathology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium/pathology
4.
J Bras Pneumol ; 48(3): e20210438, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1836602

ABSTRACT

This brief communication demonstrates the correlation of persistent respiratory symptoms with functional, tomographic, and transbronchial pulmonary biopsy findings in patients with COVID-19 who had a long follow-up period. We report a series of six COVID-19 patients with pulmonary involvement who presented with persistent dyspnea within 4-15 months of discharge. We performed transbronchial biopsies, and the histopathological pattern consistently demonstrated peribronchial remodeling with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, lung biopsy may be useful in the approach of patients with long COVID-19, although the type of procedure, its precise indication, and the moment to perform it are yet to be clarified. (Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials-ReBEC; identifier: RBR-8j9kqy [http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br]).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/pathology
5.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(3): 1996-2002, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704932

ABSTRACT

Acute myocarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination was reported by the European Medicine Agency safety committee as a rare adverse event. We present a case series of three young male patients with suspected acute myocarditis following BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination including results of endomyocardial biopsies (EMB). Additionally, we analysed EMB of another 21 patients with clinically suspected acute myocarditis following vaccination to determine the pathohistological pattern. Overall, EMB revealed acute lymphocytic myocarditis in 5 (20.8%), chronic lymphocytic myocarditis in 6 (25%), cardiac sarcoidosis in 1 (4.2%), healed myocarditis in 6 (25%), and other diagnoses with cardiac damage of unclear aetiology in 6 (25%) cases. Our findings support the necessity of EMB in patients with suspected acute myocarditis following mRNA COVID-19 vaccination presenting with reduced EF to establish a correct and definite diagnosis. Concerns of these rare severe adverse events after COVID-19 immunization should not undermine its value for the global community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , BNT162 Vaccine , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/pathology , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination/adverse effects
6.
Chest ; 161(2): e97-e101, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664781

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: An 84-year-old man with an active smoking habit presented to the ED with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and thick phlegm that was difficult to clear. He reported no weight loss, no fever, and no chest pain or dysphonia. He denied both international travel and previous contact with confirmed cases of TB or SARS-CoV-2. He had no known occupational exposures. The patient's personal history included a resolved complete atrioventricular block that required a permanent pacemaker, moderate-to-severe COPD, rheumatoid arthritis (treated with oral prednisone, 2.5 mg/d) and B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (treated with methotrexate and prophylactic oral supplements of ferrous sulfate). Moreover, he was in medical follow up because of a peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and colonic diverticulosis. The patient also had a history of thoracic surgery after an episode of acute mediastinitis from an odontogenic infection, which required ICU management and temporal tracheostomy.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferrous Compounds , Lung Diseases , Multiple Chronic Conditions/therapy , Respiratory Aspiration , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Ferrous Compounds/administration & dosage , Ferrous Compounds/adverse effects , Hematinics/administration & dosage , Hematinics/adverse effects , Hemoptysis/diagnosis , Hemoptysis/etiology , Humans , Lung Diseases/chemically induced , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/therapy , Male , Respiratory Aspiration/complications , Respiratory Aspiration/diagnosis , Respiratory Aspiration/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Withholding Treatment
7.
Chest ; 161(2): e91-e96, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664780

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old South African man with a medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, seizure disorder, OSA, and latent TB presented to the ER with gradually progressive dyspnea over months. He also reported occasional dry cough and fatigue at presentation but denied fever, chills, chest pain, leg swelling, palpitations, or lightheadedness. He was treated with a course of levofloxacin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia as an outpatient without improvement and had tested negative for COVID-19. He denied occupational or environmental exposures or sick contacts, though he had traveled back to South Africa 1 year before presentation. He had complex partial seizures for the past 22 years, which had been well controlled on phenytoin (300 mg daily). His other home medications included dulaglutide, sertraline, and atorvastatin and had no recent changes. He quit smoking 30 years ago after smoking one pack per day for 10 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Substitution/methods , Lacosamide/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Phenytoin , Seizures/drug therapy , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Phenytoin/administration & dosage , Phenytoin/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/administration & dosage , Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Blockers/adverse effects
8.
Diagn Cytopathol ; 50(3): 93-98, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID 19 has been rapidly spreading across the globe. As a result of alteration of the immune milieu by COVID 19 and its treatment, there has been a rise in opportunistic fungal infections particularly Mucormycosis in these patients. Delay in diagnosis of these fungal infections can be fatal. The usual diagnostic modalities used to detect Mucor include potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount, fungal culture, and histopathology. Since histopathology and fungal culture have a long turnaround time we are dependent on KOH mount for rapid results. Here we investigate the role of stained cytology smears in the rapid diagnosis of Mucormycosis. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary health care hospital on samples of patients clinically suspected to have Mucormycosis. We performed May Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (PAP) stains on the remnant samples of nasal swabs/scrapings/biopsies after KOH test and fungal culture. We took 16 KOH positive and 16 KOH negative samples. We also examined 16 fresh samples from patients whose earlier samples were reported to be negative on KOH test. RESULTS: The 6/16 KOH positive samples were found to be positive on stained cytology smears and 2 were mixed infections wherein both Mucor and Aspergillus were seen. The 4/16 KOH negative samples were positive for Mucor with one sample having both Mucor and Aspergillus. The 3/16 repeat samples which were earlier negative on KOH test were positive for Mucor. CONCLUSION: Stained cytology smears if used in conjunction with KOH test can increase the overall sensitivity of detection of Mucormycosis and mixed infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Mucormycosis/pathology , Mucormycosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/pathology , Prospective Studies , Specimen Handling/methods , Vaginal Smears/methods
9.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 522, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the high prevalence of COVID-19 infections worldwide, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is becoming an increasingly recognized entity. This syndrome presents in patients several weeks after infection with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombosis, elevated inflammatory markers, hemodynamic compromise and cardiac dysfunction. Treatment is often with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The pathologic basis of myocardial injury in MIS-A, however, is not well characterized. In our case report, we obtained endomyocardial biopsy that revealed a pattern of myocardial injury similar to that found in COVID-19 cardiac specimens. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old male presented with fevers, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 5 weeks after his COVID-19 infection. His SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative and IgG was positive, consistent with prior infection. He was found to be in cardiogenic shock with biventricular failure, requiring inotropes and diuretics. Given concern for acute fulminant myocarditis, an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) was performed, showing an inflammatory infiltrate consisting predominantly of interstitial macrophages with scant T lymphocytes. The histologic pattern was similar to that of cardiac specimens from COVID-19 patients, helping rule out myocarditis as the prevailing diagnosis. His case was complicated by persistent hypoxemia, and a computed tomography scan revealed pulmonary emboli. He received IVIg, steroids, and anticoagulation with rapid recovery of biventricular function. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A should be considered as the diagnosis in patients presenting several weeks after COVID-19 infection with severe inflammation and multi-organ involvement. In our case, EMB facilitated identification of MIS-A and guided therapy. The patient's biventricular function recovered with IVIg and steroids.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adult , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Myocardium/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
14.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 366-370, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356592

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing myocarditis is still challenging due to its varying presentation ranging from none or mild symptoms to sudden cardiac death. Clinical presentation, electrocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers seem not to be sufficient for a reliable diagnosis. In fact, an unequivocal myocardial characterization is needed, applying endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), a technique which demonstrates high accuracy to histology. Besides the assessment of functional parameters (volumes, ejection fraction), established late gadolinium enhancement and recent T1 and T2 mapping techniques including the calculation of extracellular volume fraction allow distinct myocardial tissue analysis by a noninvasive approach without the need of radiation. However, EMB is the only method which allows the identification of the underlying etiology of cardiac inflammation. Since myocardial damage and inflammation seem to be prevalent in a considerable number of patients even in the mid-term range after COVID-19, CMR and EMB seem to be adequate tools to further investigate these findings. In this article, we will (1) review current knowledge about the role of CMR in the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) report about our own EMB findings in COVID-19 patients in the Cardiopathology Center of our University Hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/methods , Endocardium/pathology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
15.
J Cutan Pathol ; 49(1): 17-28, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The abundance of publications of COVID-19-induced chilblains has resulted in a confusing situation. METHODS: This is a prospective single-institution study from 15 March to 13 May 2020. Thirty-two patients received PCR nasopharyngeal swabs. Of these, 28 patients had a thoracic CT-scan, 31 patients had blood and urine examinations, 24 patients had skin biopsies including immunohistochemical and direct immunofluorescence studies, and four patients had electron microscopy. RESULTS: COVID-19-induced chilblains are clinically and histopathologically identical to chilblains from other causes. Although intravascular thrombi are sometimes observed, no patient had a systemic coagulopathy or severe clinical course. The exhaustive clinical, radiological, and laboratory work-up in this study ruled-out other primary and secondary causes. Electron microscopy revealed rare, probable viral particles whose core and spikes measured from 120 to 133 nm within endothelium and eccrine glands in two cases. CONCLUSION: This study provides further clinicopathologic evidence of COVID-19-related chilblains. Negative PCR and antibody tests do not rule-out infection. Chilblains represent a good prognosis, occurring later in the disease course. No systemic coagulopathy was identified in any patient. Patients presenting with acral lesions should be isolated, and chilblains should be distinguished from thrombotic lesions (livedo racemosa, retiform purpura, or ischemic acral necrosis).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Toes/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/virology , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Eccrine Glands/pathology , Eccrine Glands/ultrastructure , Eccrine Glands/virology , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/ultrastructure , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Livedo Reticularis/pathology , Male , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Purpura/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Skin/pathology , Toes/virology , Young Adult
17.
J Cutan Pathol ; 49(1): 34-41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As more people become vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reports of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are beginning to emerge. METHODS: In this IRB-approved retrospective case series, biopsy specimens of potential cutaneous adverse reactions from the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccine were identified and reviewed. Clinical information was obtained through the requisition form, referring clinician, or medical chart review. RESULTS: Twelve cases were included. Histopathological features from two injection-site reactions showed a mixed-cell infiltrate with eosinophils and a spongiotic dermatitis with eosinophils. Three biopsy specimens came from generalized eruptions that showed interface changes consistent with an exanthematous drug reaction. Three biopsy specimens revealed a predominantly spongiotic pattern, consistent with eczematous dermatitis. Small-vessel vascular injury was seen in two specimens, which were diagnosed as urticarial vasculitis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis, respectively. There were two cases of new-onset bullous pemphigoid supported by histopathological examination and direct immunofluorescence studies. Eosinophils were seen in 10 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatopathologists should be aware of potential cutaneous adverse reactions to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Histopathological patterns include mixed-cell infiltrates, epidermal spongiosis, and interface changes. Eosinophils are a common finding but are not always present. Direct immunofluorescence studies may be helpful for immune-mediated cutaneous presentations such as vasculitis or bullous pemphigoid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/pathology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/pathology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dermatitis/etiology , Dermatitis/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Eosinophils/pathology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct/methods , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pemphigoid, Bullous/diagnosis , Pemphigoid, Bullous/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Skin/pathology , Vasculitis/chemically induced , Vasculitis/pathology
18.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 456-459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315993

ABSTRACT

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a method that produces microscopic imaging of a lung tissue during bronchoscopy. We report a case ot a patient with negative nasopharyngeal swabs and suspected lung cancer who underwent pCLE. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by PCR analyses of lavage fluid and transbrohial biopsy. The pCLE image shows density of alveolar thickened fibres, disorganization of elastin network, and multiple large drops of intraalveolar secretions. As far as we know, this is the first pCLE image discribed in patient with COVID-19 at that moment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL