Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
1.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 21(1): 522, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486551

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the high prevalence of COVID-19 infections worldwide, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is becoming an increasingly recognized entity. This syndrome presents in patients several weeks after infection with COVID-19 and is associated with thrombosis, elevated inflammatory markers, hemodynamic compromise and cardiac dysfunction. Treatment is often with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The pathologic basis of myocardial injury in MIS-A, however, is not well characterized. In our case report, we obtained endomyocardial biopsy that revealed a pattern of myocardial injury similar to that found in COVID-19 cardiac specimens. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old male presented with fevers, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea 5 weeks after his COVID-19 infection. His SARS-CoV-2 PCR was negative and IgG was positive, consistent with prior infection. He was found to be in cardiogenic shock with biventricular failure, requiring inotropes and diuretics. Given concern for acute fulminant myocarditis, an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) was performed, showing an inflammatory infiltrate consisting predominantly of interstitial macrophages with scant T lymphocytes. The histologic pattern was similar to that of cardiac specimens from COVID-19 patients, helping rule out myocarditis as the prevailing diagnosis. His case was complicated by persistent hypoxemia, and a computed tomography scan revealed pulmonary emboli. He received IVIg, steroids, and anticoagulation with rapid recovery of biventricular function. CONCLUSIONS: MIS-A should be considered as the diagnosis in patients presenting several weeks after COVID-19 infection with severe inflammation and multi-organ involvement. In our case, EMB facilitated identification of MIS-A and guided therapy. The patient's biventricular function recovered with IVIg and steroids.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adult , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiotonic Agents/administration & dosage , Diagnosis, Differential , Diuretics/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Myocardium/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Cardiogenic/diagnosis , Shock, Cardiogenic/drug therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/etiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome
4.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 366-370, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356592

ABSTRACT

Diagnosing myocarditis is still challenging due to its varying presentation ranging from none or mild symptoms to sudden cardiac death. Clinical presentation, electrocardiography, and cardiac biomarkers seem not to be sufficient for a reliable diagnosis. In fact, an unequivocal myocardial characterization is needed, applying endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), a technique which demonstrates high accuracy to histology. Besides the assessment of functional parameters (volumes, ejection fraction), established late gadolinium enhancement and recent T1 and T2 mapping techniques including the calculation of extracellular volume fraction allow distinct myocardial tissue analysis by a noninvasive approach without the need of radiation. However, EMB is the only method which allows the identification of the underlying etiology of cardiac inflammation. Since myocardial damage and inflammation seem to be prevalent in a considerable number of patients even in the mid-term range after COVID-19, CMR and EMB seem to be adequate tools to further investigate these findings. In this article, we will (1) review current knowledge about the role of CMR in the COVID-19 pandemic and (2) report about our own EMB findings in COVID-19 patients in the Cardiopathology Center of our University Hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/methods , Endocardium/pathology , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
5.
J Cutan Pathol ; 49(1): 17-28, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The abundance of publications of COVID-19-induced chilblains has resulted in a confusing situation. METHODS: This is a prospective single-institution study from 15 March to 13 May 2020. Thirty-two patients received PCR nasopharyngeal swabs. Of these, 28 patients had a thoracic CT-scan, 31 patients had blood and urine examinations, 24 patients had skin biopsies including immunohistochemical and direct immunofluorescence studies, and four patients had electron microscopy. RESULTS: COVID-19-induced chilblains are clinically and histopathologically identical to chilblains from other causes. Although intravascular thrombi are sometimes observed, no patient had a systemic coagulopathy or severe clinical course. The exhaustive clinical, radiological, and laboratory work-up in this study ruled-out other primary and secondary causes. Electron microscopy revealed rare, probable viral particles whose core and spikes measured from 120 to 133 nm within endothelium and eccrine glands in two cases. CONCLUSION: This study provides further clinicopathologic evidence of COVID-19-related chilblains. Negative PCR and antibody tests do not rule-out infection. Chilblains represent a good prognosis, occurring later in the disease course. No systemic coagulopathy was identified in any patient. Patients presenting with acral lesions should be isolated, and chilblains should be distinguished from thrombotic lesions (livedo racemosa, retiform purpura, or ischemic acral necrosis).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chilblains/etiology , Chilblains/pathology , Toes/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Chilblains/diagnosis , Chilblains/virology , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Eccrine Glands/pathology , Eccrine Glands/ultrastructure , Eccrine Glands/virology , Endothelium/pathology , Endothelium/ultrastructure , Endothelium/virology , Female , Humans , Livedo Reticularis/pathology , Male , Microscopy, Electron/methods , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Purpura/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Skin/pathology , Toes/virology , Young Adult
6.
J Cutan Pathol ; 49(1): 34-41, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As more people become vaccinated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reports of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are beginning to emerge. METHODS: In this IRB-approved retrospective case series, biopsy specimens of potential cutaneous adverse reactions from the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccine were identified and reviewed. Clinical information was obtained through the requisition form, referring clinician, or medical chart review. RESULTS: Twelve cases were included. Histopathological features from two injection-site reactions showed a mixed-cell infiltrate with eosinophils and a spongiotic dermatitis with eosinophils. Three biopsy specimens came from generalized eruptions that showed interface changes consistent with an exanthematous drug reaction. Three biopsy specimens revealed a predominantly spongiotic pattern, consistent with eczematous dermatitis. Small-vessel vascular injury was seen in two specimens, which were diagnosed as urticarial vasculitis and leukocytoclastic vasculitis, respectively. There were two cases of new-onset bullous pemphigoid supported by histopathological examination and direct immunofluorescence studies. Eosinophils were seen in 10 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatopathologists should be aware of potential cutaneous adverse reactions to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines. Histopathological patterns include mixed-cell infiltrates, epidermal spongiosis, and interface changes. Eosinophils are a common finding but are not always present. Direct immunofluorescence studies may be helpful for immune-mediated cutaneous presentations such as vasculitis or bullous pemphigoid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/pathology , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/pathology , /adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dermatitis/etiology , Dermatitis/pathology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Eosinophils/pathology , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct/methods , Humans , Hypersensitivity, Delayed/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pemphigoid, Bullous/diagnosis , Pemphigoid, Bullous/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Skin/pathology , Vasculitis/chemically induced , Vasculitis/pathology
7.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(4): 456-459, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315993

ABSTRACT

Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a method that produces microscopic imaging of a lung tissue during bronchoscopy. We report a case ot a patient with negative nasopharyngeal swabs and suspected lung cancer who underwent pCLE. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was confirmed by PCR analyses of lavage fluid and transbrohial biopsy. The pCLE image shows density of alveolar thickened fibres, disorganization of elastin network, and multiple large drops of intraalveolar secretions. As far as we know, this is the first pCLE image discribed in patient with COVID-19 at that moment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Microscopy, Confocal/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biopsy/methods , Bronchoscopy/methods , Humans
10.
J Cutan Pathol ; 48(9): 1166-1172, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208906

ABSTRACT

Retiform purpura has been described as a relatively frequent cutaneous finding in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The etiology is hypothesized to be related to thrombotic vasculopathy based on lesional biopsy specimen findings, but the pathogenesis of the vasculopathy is not completely understood. Here, we present a case of a retiform purpuric patch on the sacrum/buttocks in a hospitalized patient prior to subsequent diagnosis of COVID-19 and an eventual fatal disease course. Two lesional biopsy specimens at different time points in the disease course revealed thrombotic vasculopathy, despite therapeutic anticoagulation. Detailed histopathologic evaluation using immunohistochemical markers suggest the etiology of the vasculopathy involves both persistent complement activation and platelet aggregation, which possibly promote ongoing thrombus formation. This case highlights that sacral/buttock retiform purpuric patches may be a presenting sign of infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus and may represent an ominous sign supporting a future severe disease course. In addition, biopsy specimen findings at separate time points demonstrate that cutaneous vasculopathy may persist despite adequate systemic anticoagulation, possibly due to the combination of persistent complement and platelet activation. Finally, occlusive thrombi in sacral/buttock retiform purpuric patches may contribute to future ulceration and significant cutaneous morbidity in patients who survive COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Buttocks/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Purpura/diagnosis , Sacrum/pathology , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biopsy/methods , Buttocks/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Calciphylaxis/diagnosis , Complement Activation/immunology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Platelet Aggregation/immunology , Purpura/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sacrum/virology , Skin/pathology , Skin Diseases, Vascular/etiology , Skin Diseases, Vascular/pathology
11.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250708, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has caused more than 2.2 million deaths worldwide. We summarize the reported pathologic findings on biopsy and autopsy in patients with severe/fatal COVID-19 and documented the presence and/or effect of SARS-CoV-2 in all organs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic search of the PubMed, Embase, MedRxiv, Lilacs and Epistemonikos databases from January to August 2020 for all case reports and case series that reported histopathologic findings of COVID-19 infection at autopsy or tissue biopsy was performed. 603 COVID-19 cases from 75 of 451 screened studies met inclusion criteria. The most common pathologic findings were lungs: diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (92%) and superimposed acute bronchopneumonia (27%); liver: hepatitis (21%), heart: myocarditis (11.4%). Vasculitis was common only in skin biopsies (25%). Microthrombi were described in the placenta (57.9%), lung (38%), kidney (20%), Central Nervous System (CNS) (18%), and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (2%). Injury of endothelial cells was common in the lung (18%) and heart (4%). Hemodynamic changes such as necrosis due to hypoxia/hypoperfusion, edema and congestion were common in kidney (53%), liver (48%), CNS (31%) and GI tract (18%). SARS-CoV-2 viral particles were demonstrated within organ-specific cells in the trachea, lung, liver, large intestine, kidney, CNS either by electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, or immunohistochemistry. Additional tissues were positive by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests only. The included studies were from numerous countries, some were not peer reviewed, and some studies were performed by subspecialists, resulting in variable and inconsistent reporting or over statement of the reported findings. CONCLUSIONS: The main pathologic findings of severe/fatal COVID-19 infection are DAD, changes related to coagulopathy and/or hemodynamic compromise. In addition, according to the observed organ damage myocarditis may be associated with sequelae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Autopsy/methods , Biopsy/methods , Central Nervous System/virology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Female , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Heart/virology , Humans , Kidney/virology , Liver/virology , Lung/virology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Staining and Labeling/methods , Trachea/virology
13.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(1): 142-145, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174714

ABSTRACT

We report on the development of minimal change disease (MCD) with nephrotic syndrome and acute kidney injury (AKI), shortly after first injection of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech). A 50-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to our hospital following the appearance of peripheral edema. Ten days earlier, he had received the first injection of the vaccine. Four days after injection, he developed lower leg edema, which rapidly progressed to anasarca. On admission, serum creatinine was 2.31 mg/dL and 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 6.9 grams. As kidney function continued to decline over the next days, empirical treatment was initiated with prednisone 80 mg/d. A kidney biopsy was performed and the findings were consistent with MCD. Ten days later, kidney function began to improve, gradually returning to normal. The clinical triad of MCD, nephrotic syndrome, and AKI has been previously described under a variety of circumstances, but not following the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. The association between the vaccination and MCD is at this time temporal and by exclusion, and by no means firmly established. We await further reports of similar cases to evaluate the true incidence of this possible vaccine side effect.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nephrosis, Lipoid , Nephrotic Syndrome , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Edema/diagnosis , Edema/etiology , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrosis, Lipoid/diagnosis , Nephrosis, Lipoid/drug therapy , Nephrosis, Lipoid/etiology , Nephrosis, Lipoid/physiopathology , Nephrotic Syndrome/diagnosis , Nephrotic Syndrome/etiology , Renal Elimination/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Urinalysis/methods
15.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(1): 72-74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143743

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 diagnosis is usually based on PCR detection of viral RNA in airway specimens in a patient with typical clinical fea-tures. Histological features of the COVID-19 lung disease are reported from autopsies. Transbronchial cryobiopsy (TBCB) is an evolving technique usually performed in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. We report a TBCB in a 76-year-old female patient who had repeatedly tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathological examination revealed the presence of interstitial pneumonia with lymphocytic infiltration. The qRT-PCR against SARS-CoV-2 from a pharyngeal swab was positive after performing the TBCB.


Subject(s)
Bronchoscopy/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cryosurgery/methods , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Aged , Biopsy/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Female , Humans
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1023-1031, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088897

ABSTRACT

Efforts to combat the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have placed a renewed focus on the use of transmission electron microscopy for identifying coronavirus in tissues. In attempts to attribute pathology of COVID-19 patients directly to tissue damage caused by SARS-CoV-2, investigators have inaccurately reported subcellular structures, including coated vesicles, multivesicular bodies, and vesiculating rough endoplasmic reticulum, as coronavirus particles. We describe morphologic features of coronavirus that distinguish it from subcellular structures, including particle size range (60-140 nm), intracellular particle location within membrane-bound vacuoles, and a nucleocapsid appearing in cross section as dense dots (6-12 nm) within the particles. In addition, although the characteristic spikes of coronaviruses may be visible on the virus surface, especially on extracellular particles, they are less evident in thin sections than in negative stain preparations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cellular Structures , SARS-CoV-2 , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Structures/classification , Cellular Structures/ultrastructure , Humans , Microscopy, Electron/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/ultrastructure
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066842

ABSTRACT

A previously healthy 40-year-old man was referred to our emergency department with pruritic skin lesions and dyspnoea. Laboratory investigation revealed hypereosinophilia. Further diagnostic work-up confirmed the diagnosis of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (iHES), a rare myeloproliferative disease with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. We describe a unique case with cardiac, pulmonary, hepatic and cutaneous involvement at time of presentation. This case accentuates the importance of an extensive multidisciplinary diagnostic work-up, since iHES is a condition with potential rapid progressive multiorgan failure which requires prompt analysis and treatment. In addition, this case emphasises the importance of being aware of tunnel vision, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, which might give rise to an increased risk of missing rare diagnoses. Our patient was treated with prednisolone, after which both his clinical condition and eosinophil concentrations markedly improved.


Subject(s)
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/diagnosis , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/pathology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biopsy/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/complications , Eosinophils/pathology , Humans , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/complications , Hypereosinophilic Syndrome/drug therapy , Male , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/complications , Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...