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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 12(2): 2222850, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237574

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in wastewater. Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a practical and cost-effective tool for the assessment and controlling of pandemics and probably for examining SARS-CoV-2 presence. Implementation of WBE during the outbreaks is not without limitations. Temperature, suspended solids, pH, and disinfectants affect the stability of viruses in wastewater. Due to these limitations, instruments and techniques have been utilized to detect SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in sewage using various concentration methods and computer-aided analyzes. RT-qPCR, ddRT-PCR, multiplex PCR, RT-LAMP, and electrochemical immunosensors have been employed to detect low levels of viral contamination. Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 is a crucial preventive measure against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To better assess the role of wastewater as a transmission route, detection, and quantification methods need to be refined. In this paper, the latest improvements in quantification, detection, and inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater are explained. Finally, limitations and future research recommendations are thoroughly described.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Wastewater , Water , Immunoassay
2.
ACS Sens ; 8(6): 2159-2168, 2023 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245129

ABSTRACT

In addition to efficacious vaccines and antiviral therapeutics, reliable and flexible in-home personal use diagnostics for the detection of viral antigens are needed for effective control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the approval of several PCR-based and affinity-based in-home COVID-19 testing kits, many of them suffer from problems such as a high false-negative rate, long waiting time, and short storage period. Using the enabling one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial technology, several peptidic ligands with a nanomolar binding affinity toward the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein) were successfully discovered. Taking advantage of the high surface area of porous nanofibers, immobilization of these ligands on nanofibrous membranes allows the development of personal use sensors that can achieve low nanomolar sensitivity in the detection of the S-protein in saliva. This simple biosensor employing naked-eye reading exhibits detection sensitivity comparable to some of the current FDA-approved home detection kits. Furthermore, the ligand used in the biosensor was found to detect the S-protein derived from both the original strain and the Delta variant. The workflow reported here may enable us to rapidly respond to the development of home-based biosensors against future viral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Ligands , COVID-19 Testing , Colorimetry , Pandemics , Peptides
3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 144, 2023 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243437

ABSTRACT

Field-effect transistor (FET) is regarded as the most promising candidate for the next-generation biosensor, benefiting from the advantages of label-free, easy operation, low cost, easy integration, and direct detection of biomarkers in liquid environments. With the burgeoning advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology, researchers are trying to improve the sensitivity of FET biosensors and broaden their application scenarios from multiple strategies. In order to enable researchers to understand and apply FET biosensors deeply, focusing on the multidisciplinary technical details, the iteration and evolution of FET biosensors are reviewed from exploring the sensing mechanism in detecting biomolecules (research direction 1), the response signal type (research direction 2), the sensing performance optimization (research direction 3), and the integration strategy (research direction 4). Aiming at each research direction, forward perspectives and dialectical evaluations are summarized to enlighten rewarding investigations.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Transistors, Electronic , Nanotechnology , Biosensing Techniques/methods
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(11)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242697

ABSTRACT

Viral infections can pose a major threat to public health by causing serious illness, leading to pandemics, and burdening healthcare systems. The global spread of such infections causes disruptions to every aspect of life including business, education, and social life. Fast and accurate diagnosis of viral infections has significant implications for saving lives, preventing the spread of the diseases, and minimizing social and economic damages. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are commonly used to detect viruses in the clinic. However, PCR has several drawbacks, as highlighted during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, such as long processing times and the requirement for sophisticated laboratory instruments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for fast and accurate techniques for virus detection. For this purpose, a variety of biosensor systems are being developed to provide rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput viral diagnostic platforms, enabling quick diagnosis and efficient control of the virus's spread. Optical devices, in particular, are of great interest due to their advantages such as high sensitivity and direct readout. The current review discusses solid-phase optical sensing techniques for virus detection, including fluorescence-based sensors, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), optical resonators, and interferometry-based platforms. Then, we focus on an interferometric biosensor developed by our group, the single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensor (SP-IRIS), which has the capability to visualize single nanoparticles, to demonstrate its application for digital virus detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
5.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(5)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235396

ABSTRACT

Since the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has spread rapidly around the world. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is one of the most abundant SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Therefore, a sensitive and effective detection method for SARS-CoV-2 N protein is the focus of research. Here, we developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on the dual signal-amplification strategy of Au@Ag@Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO). Additionally, a sandwich immunoassay was utilized to sensitively and efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 N protein. On the one hand, Au@Ag@Au NPs have a high refractive index and the capability to electromagnetically couple with the plasma waves propagating on the surface of gold film, which are harnessed for amplifying the SPR response signal. On the other hand, GO, which has the large specific surface area and the abundant oxygen-containing functional groups, could provide unique light absorption bands that can enhance plasmonic coupling to further amplify the SPR response signal. The proposed biosensor could efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 N protein for 15 min and the detection limit for SARS-CoV-2 N protein was 0.083 ng/mL, with a linear range of 0.1 ng/mL~1000 ng/mL. This novel method can meet the analytical requirements of artificial saliva simulated samples, and the developed biosensor had a good anti-interference capability.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Gold , Immunoassay/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis
6.
Anal Chem ; 95(23): 9006-9013, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235047

ABSTRACT

Due to its high efficiency and selectivity, cell-free biosynthesis has found broad utility in the fields of bioproduction, environment monitoring, and disease diagnostics. However, the practical application is limited by its low productivity. Here, we introduce the entropy-driven assembly of transcription templates as dynamic amplifying modules to accelerate the cell-free transcription process. The catalytic DNA circuit with high sensitivity and enzyme-free format contributes to the production of large amounts of transcription templates, drastically accelerating the as-designed cell-free transcription system without interference from multiple enzymes. The proposed approach was successfully applied to the ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2, improving the sensitivity by 3 orders of magnitude. Thanks to the high programmability and diverse light-up RNA pairs, the method can be adapted to multiplexing detection, successfully demonstrated by the analysis of two different sites of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in parallel. Further, the flexibility of the entropy-driven circuit enables a dynamic responding range by tuning the circuit layers, which is beneficial for responding to targets with different concentration ranges. The strategy was also applied to the analysis of clinical samples, providing an alternative for sensitively detecting the current SARS-CoV-2 RNA that quickly mutates.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , DNA/analysis , Entropy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods
7.
Talanta ; 262: 124711, 2023 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327278

ABSTRACT

We presented a polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhanced ligation-triggered self-priming isothermal amplification (PEG-LSPA) for the detection D614G mutation in S-glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. PEG was employed to improve the ligation efficiency of this assay by constructing a molecular crowding environment. Two hairpin probes (H1 and H2) were designed to contain 18 nt and 20 nt target binding site at their 3' end and 5' end, respectively. In presence of target sequence, it complemented with H1 and H2 to trigger ligation by ligase under molecular crowding condition to form ligated H1-H2 duplex. Then 3' terminus of the H2 would be extended by DNA polymerase under isothermal conditions to form a longer extended hairpin (EHP1). 5' terminus of EHP1 with phosphorothioate (PS) modification could form hairpin structure due to the lower Tm value. The resulting 3' end overhang would also fold back as a new primer to initiate the next round of polymerization, resulting in the formation of a longer extended hairpin (EHP2) containing two target sequence domains. In the circle of LSPA, long extended hairpin (EHPx) containing numerous target sequence domains was produced. The resulting DNA products can be monitored in real-time fluorescence signaling. Our proposed assay owns an excellent linear range from 10 fM to 10 nM with a detection limit down to 4 fM. Thus, this work provides a potential isothermal amplification method for monitoring mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA/chemistry , Biological Assay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods
8.
Talanta ; 262: 124701, 2023 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324697

ABSTRACT

Fast and effective diagnosis is the first step in monitoring the current coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) pandemic. Herein, we establish a simple and sensitive electrochemical assay using magnetic nanocomposite and DNA sandwich probes to rapidly quantify the CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) gene down to the 0.37 fM level. This assay uses a pair of specific DNA probes. The capture probe is covalently conjugated to Au-decorated magnetic reduced graphene oxide (AMrGO) nanocomposite for efficiently capturing target RNA. In contrast, the detection probe is linked to peroxidase for signal amplification. The probes target the COV-2 gene, allowing for specific magnetic separation, enzymatic signal amplification, and subsequent generation of voltammetric current with a total assay time of 45 min. The developed biosensor has high selectivity and can discriminate non-specific gene sequences. Synthetic COV-2 N-gene can be detected efficiently in serum and saliva, while 1-bp mismatch gene yielded a low response. The performance of the genosensor was good in an extensive linear range of 5 aM-50 pM. For synthetic N-gene, we achieved the detection limit of 0.37, 0.33, and 0.19 fM in human saliva, urine, and serum. This simple, selective, and sensitive genosensor could have various genetics-based biosensing and diagnostic applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Nanocomposites , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Graphite/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nucleocapsid , Electrochemical Techniques , Gold/chemistry
9.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 236: 115421, 2023 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323496

ABSTRACT

We developed a multi-pronged approach to enhance the detection sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chips to detect SARS-CoV-2. To this end, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were immobilized onto the surface of LSPR sensor chips to serve as templates to further conjugate aptamers specific for SARS-CoV-2. The immobilized dendrimers were shown to reduce surface nonspecific adsorptions and increase capturing ligand density on the sensor chips, thereby improving detection sensitivity. To characterize the detection sensitivity of the surface-modified sensor chips, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain was detected using LSPR sensor chips with different surface modifications. The results showed that the dendrimer-aptamer modified LSPR sensor chip exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) of 21.9 pM, a sensitivity that was 9 times and 152 times more sensitive than the traditional aptamer- or antibody-based LSPR sensor chips, respectively. In addition, detection sensitivity was further improved by combining rolling circle amplification product and gold nanoparticles to further amplify the detection signals by increasing both the target mass and plasmonic coupling effects. Using pseudo SARS-CoV-2 viral particles as detection targets, we demonstrated that this combined signal intensification approach further enhanced the detection sensitivity by 10 folds with a remarkable LOD of 148 vp/mL, making it one of the most sensitive SARS-CoV-2 detection assays reported to date. These results highlight the potential of a novel LSPR-based detection platform for sensitive and rapid detection of COVID-19 infections, as well as other viral infections and point-of-care applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Dendrimers , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(4)2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326319

ABSTRACT

Electrochemical sensors consisting of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) are recurrent devices in the recent literature for applications in different fields of interest and contribute to the expanding electroanalytical chemistry field. This is due to inherent characteristics that can be better (or only) achieved with the use of SPEs, including miniaturization, cost reduction, lower sample consumption, compatibility with portable equipment, and disposability. SPEs are also quite versatile; they can be manufactured using different formulations of conductive inks and substrates, and are of varied designs. Naturally, the analytical performance of SPEs is directly affected by the quality of the material used for printing and modifying the electrodes. In this sense, the most varied carbon nanomaterials have been explored for the preparation and modification of SPEs, providing devices with an enhanced electrochemical response and greater sensitivity, in addition to functionalized surfaces that can immobilize biological agents for the manufacture of biosensors. Considering the relevance and timeliness of the topic, this review aimed to provide an overview of the current scenario of the use of carbonaceous nanomaterials in the context of making electrochemical SPE sensors, from which different approaches will be presented, exploring materials traditionally investigated in electrochemistry, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon black, and those more recently investigated for this (carbon quantum dots, graphitic carbon nitride, and biochar). Perspectives on the use and expansion of these devices are also considered.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanotubes, Carbon , Electrodes , Electrochemistry , Electrochemical Techniques
11.
J Vis Exp ; (195)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326239

ABSTRACT

This sensing prototype model involves the development of a reusable, twofold graphene oxide (GrO)-glazed double inter-digitated capacitive (DIDC) detecting chip for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) specifically and rapidly. The fabricated DIDC comprises a Ti/Pt-containing glass substrate glazed with graphene oxide (GrO), which is further chemically modified with EDC-NHS to immobilize antibodies (Abs) hostile to SARS-CoV-2 based on the spike (S1) protein of the virus. The results of insightful investigations showed that GrO gave an ideal engineered surface for Ab immobilization and enhanced the capacitance to allow higher sensitivity and low sensing limits. These tunable elements helped accomplish a wide sensing range (1.0 mg/mL to 1.0 fg/mL), a minimum sensing limit of 1 fg/mL, high responsiveness and good linearity of 18.56 nF/g, and a fast reaction time of 3 s. Besides, in terms of developing financially viable point-of-care (POC) testing frameworks, the reusability of the GrO-DIDC biochip in this study is good. Significantly, the biochip is specific against blood-borne antigens and is stable for up to 10 days at 5 °C. Due to its compactness, this scaled-down biosensor has the potential for POC diagnostics of COVID-19 infection. This system can also detect other severe viral diseases, although an approval step utilizing other virus examples is under development.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Antibodies, Viral
12.
Prog Biophys Mol Biol ; 180-181: 120-130, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321101

ABSTRACT

The widespread usage of smartphones has made accessing vast troves of data easier for everyone. Smartphones are powerful, handy, and easy to operate, making them a valuable tool for improving public health through diagnostics. When combined with other devices and sensors, smartphones have shown potential for detecting, visualizing, collecting, and transferring data, enabling rapid disease diagnosis. In resource-limited settings, the user-friendly operating system of smartphones allows them to function as a point-of-care platform for healthcare and disease diagnosis. Herein, we critically reviewed the smartphone-based biosensors for the diagnosis and detection of diseases caused by infectious human pathogens, such as deadly viruses, bacteria, and fungi. These biosensors use several analytical sensing methods, including microscopic imaging, instrumental interface, colorimetric, fluorescence, and electrochemical biosensors. We have discussed the diverse diagnosis strategies and analytical performances of smartphone-based detection systems in identifying infectious human pathogens, along with future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Viruses , Humans , Smartphone , Point-of-Care Systems , Bacteria
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(9)2023 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318020

ABSTRACT

Since its first report in 2006, magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS)-based biosensors have flourished over the past decade. Currently, MPS are used for a wide range of applications, such as disease diagnosis, foodborne pathogen detection, etc. In this work, different MPS platforms, such as dual-frequency and mono-frequency driving field designs, were reviewed. MPS combined with multi-functional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been extensively reported as a versatile platform for the detection of a long list of biomarkers. The surface-functionalized MNPs serve as nanoprobes that specifically bind and label target analytes from liquid samples. Herein, an analysis of the theories and mechanisms that underlie different MPS platforms, which enable the implementation of bioassays based on either volume or surface, was carried out. Furthermore, this review draws attention to some significant MPS platform applications in the biomedical and biological fields. In recent years, different kinds of MPS point-of-care (POC) devices have been reported independently by several groups in the world. Due to the high detection sensitivity, simple assay procedures and low cost per run, the MPS POC devices are expected to become more widespread in the future. In addition, the growth of telemedicine and remote monitoring has created a greater demand for POC devices, as patients are able to receive health assessments and obtain results from the comfort of their own homes. At the end of this review, we comment on the opportunities and challenges for POC devices as well as MPS devices regarding the intensely growing demand for rapid, affordable, high-sensitivity and user-friendly devices.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , Humans , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Magnetics , Spectrum Analysis , Magnetic Phenomena
14.
J Mater Chem B ; 11(20): 4511-4522, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317961

ABSTRACT

Viral particles bind to receptors through multivalent protein interactions. Such high avidity interactions on sensor surfaces are less studied. In this work, three polyelectrolytes that can form biosensing surfaces with different interfacial characteristics in probe density and spatial arrangement were designed. Quartz crystal microbalance, interferometry and atomic force microscopy were used to study their surface density and binding behaviors with proteins and virus particles. A multivalent adsorption kinetic model was developed to estimate the number of bonds from the viral particles bound to the polyelectrolyte surfaces. Experimental results show that the heterogeneous 3D surface with jagged forest-like structure enhances the virus capture ability by maximizing the multivalent interactions. As a proof of concept, specific coronavirus detection was achieved in spiked swab samples. These results indicate the importance of both probe density and their spatial arrangement on the sensing performance, which could be used as a guideline for rational biosensing surface design.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Polyelectrolytes , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques/methods , Adsorption , Virion
15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 149, 2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316616

ABSTRACT

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology, as a powerful tool to identify molecular species by collecting molecular spectral signals at the single-molecule level, has achieved substantial progresses in the fields of environmental science, medical diagnosis, food safety, and biological analysis. As deepening research is delved into SERS sensing, more and more high-performance or multifunctional SERS substrate materials emerge, which are expected to push Raman sensing into more application fields. Especially in the field of biological analysis, intrinsic and extrinsic SERS sensing schemes have been widely used and explored due to their fast, sensitive and reliable advantages. Herein, recent developments of SERS substrates and their applications in biomolecular detection (SARS-CoV-2 virus, tumor etc.), biological imaging and pesticide detection are summarized. The SERS concepts (including its basic theory and sensing mechanism) and the important strategies (extending from nanomaterials with tunable shapes and nanostructures to surface bio-functionalization by modifying affinity groups or specific biomolecules) for improving SERS biosensing performance are comprehensively discussed. For data analysis and identification, the applications of machine learning methods and software acquisition sources in SERS biosensing and diagnosing are discussed in detail. In conclusion, the challenges and perspectives of SERS biosensing in the future are presented.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Humans , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanotechnology , Biosensing Techniques/methods
16.
Talanta ; 260: 124604, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316564

ABSTRACT

Herein, a ternary PdPtRu nanodendrite as novel trimetallic nanozyme was reported, which possessed excellent peroxidase-like activity as well as electro-catalytic activity on account of the synergistic effect between the three metals. Based on the excellent electro-catalytic activity of trimetallic PdPtRu nanozyme toward the reduction of H2O2, the trimetallic nanozyme was applied to construct a brief electrochemical immunosensor for SARS-COV-2 antigen detection. Concretely, trimetallic PdPtRu nanodendrite was used to modify electrode surface, which not only generated high reduction current of H2O2 for signal amplification, but also provided massive active sites for capture antibody (Ab1) immobilization to construct immunosensor. In the presence of target SARS-COV-2 antigen, SiO2 nanosphere labeled detection antibody (Ab2) composites were introduced on the electrode surface according sandwich immuno-reaction. Due to the inhibitory effect of SiO2 nanosphere on the current signal, the current signal was decreased with the increasing target SARS-COV-2 antigen concentration. As a result, the proposed electrochemical immunosensor presented sensitive detection of SARS-COV-2 antigen with linear range from 1.0 pg/mL to 1.0 µg/mL and limit of detection down to 51.74 fg/mL. The proposed immunosensor provide a brief but sensitive antigen detection tool for rapid diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoassay , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Silicon Dioxide , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antibodies , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques , Limit of Detection
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 236: 115362, 2023 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316354

ABSTRACT

Pandemics as the one we are currently facing, where fast-spreading viruses present a threat to humanity, call for simple and reliable methods to perform early diagnosis, enabling detection of very low pathogen loads even before symptoms start showing in the host. So far, standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most reliable method for doing so, but it is rather slow and needs specialized reagents and trained personnel to operate it. Additionally, it is expensive and not easily accessible. Therefore, developing miniaturized and portable sensors which perform early detection of pathogens with high reliability is necessary to not only prevent the spreading of the disease but also to monitor the effectiveness of the developed vaccines and the appearance of new pathogenic variants. Thus, in this work we develop a sensitive microfluidic impedance biosensor for the direct detection of SARS-CoV-2, towards a mobile point-of-care (POC) platform. The operational parameters are optimized with the aid of design-of-experiment (DoE), for an accurate detection of the viral antigens using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We perform the biodetection of buffer samples spiked with fM concentration levels and validate the biosensor in a clinical context of relevance by analyzing 15 real patient samples up to a Ct value (cycle threshold) of 27. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the developed platform using different settings, including a small portable potentiostat, using multiple channels for self-validation, as well as with single biosensors for a smartphone-based readout. This work contributes to the rapid and reliable diagnostics of COVID-19 and can be extended to other infectious diseases, allowing the monitoring of viral load in vaccinated and unvaccinated people to anticipate a potential relapse of the disease.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Microfluidics , Electric Impedance , Reproducibility of Results , Biosensing Techniques/methods
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316276

ABSTRACT

Rapid and reliable techniques for virus identification are required in light of recurring epidemics and pandemics throughout the world. Several techniques have been distributed for testing the flow of patients. Polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription is a reliable and sensitive, though not rapid, tool. The antibody-based strip is a rapid, though not reliable, and sensitive tool. A set of alternative tools is being developed to meet all the needs of the customer. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides the possibility of single molecule detection taking several minutes. Here, a multiplex lithographic SERS aptasensor was developed aiming at the detection of several respiratory viruses in one pot within 17 min. The four labeled aptamers were anchored onto the metal surface of four SERS zones; the caught viruses affect the SERS signals of the labels, providing changes in the analytical signals. The sensor was able to decode mixes of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus two), influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus within a single experiment through a one-stage recognition process.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Biosensing Techniques/methods
19.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(4)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315555

ABSTRACT

Biosensors are analytical tools that can be used as simple, real-time, and effective devices in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, and environmental monitoring. Nanoscale functional materials possess unique properties such as a large surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful for biomedical diagnostic purposes. Nanoengineering has resulted in the increased use of nanoscale functional materials in biosensors. Various types of nanostructures i.e., 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D, have been intensively employed to enhance biosensor selectivity, limit of detection, sensitivity, and speed of response time to display results. In particular, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have been extensively employed in electrochemical biosensors, which have become an interdisciplinary frontier between material science and viral disease detection. This review provides an overview of the current research activities in nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors for diagnostic purposes. The clinical applications of these nanobiosensors are also highlighted, along with a discussion of the future directions for these materials in diagnostics. The aim of this review is to stimulate a broader interest in developing nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis. In this review, we summarize some of the most recent advances achieved in point of care (PoC) electrochemical biosensor applications, focusing on new materials and modifiers enabling biorecognition that have led to improved sensitivity, specificity, stability, and response time.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanofibers , Nanostructures , Nanotubes, Carbon , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods
20.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 152: 108462, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320689

ABSTRACT

Sensitive detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein (S protein) is of significant clinical importance in the diagnosis of COVID-19 pandemic. In this work, a surface molecularly imprinted (SMI) electrochemical biosensor is fabricated for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Cu7S4-Au is used as the built-in probe and modified on the surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). 4-Mercaptophenylboric acid (4-MPBA) is anchored to the surface of the Cu7S4-Au through Au-SH bonds, which can be used for the immobilization of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein template through boronate ester bonds. After that, 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) is electropolymerized on the electrode surface and used as the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The SMI electrochemical biosensor is obtained after the elution of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein template with an acidic solution by the dissociation of the boronate ester bonds, which can be utilized for sensitive detection of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. The developed SMI electrochemical biosensor displays high specificity, reproducibility and stability, which might be a potential and promising candidate for the clinical diagnosis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques , SARS-CoV-2 , Reproducibility of Results , Pandemics
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