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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260894, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623649

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Performance of the SD Biosensor saliva antigen rapid test was evaluated at a large designated testing site in non-hospitalized patients, with or without symptoms. METHOD: All eligible people over 18 years of age presenting for a booked appointment at the designated SARS-CoV-2 testing site were approached for inclusion and enrolled following verbal informed consent. One nasopharyngeal swab was taken to carry out the default antigen rapid test from which the results were reported back to the patient and one saliva sample was self-taken according to verbal instruction on site. This was used for the saliva antigen rapid test, the RT-PCR and for virus culture. Sensitivity of the saliva antigen rapid test was analyzed in two ways: i, compared to saliva RT-PCR; and ii, compared to virus culture of the saliva samples. Study participants were also asked to fill in a short questionnaire stating age, sex, date of symptom onset. Recommended time of ≥30mins since last meal, drink or cigarette if applicable was also recorded. The study was carried out in February-March 2021 for 4 weeks. RESULTS: We could include 789 people with complete records and results. Compared to saliva RT-PCR, overall sensitivity and specificity of the saliva antigen rapid test was 66.1% and 99.6% which increased to 88.6% with Ct ≤30 cutoff. Analysis by days post onset did not result in higher sensitivities because the large majority of people were in the very early phase of disease ie <3 days post onset. When breaking down the data for symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals, sensitivity ranged from 69.2% to 50% respectively, however the total number of RT-PCR positive asymptomatic participants was very low (n = 5). Importantly, almost all culture positive samples were detected by the rapid test. CONCLUSION: Overall, the potential benefits of saliva antigen rapid test, could outweigh the lower sensitivity compared to nasopharyngeal antigen rapid test in a comprehensive testing strategy, especially for home/self-testing and in vulnerable populations like elderly, disabled or children where in intrusive testing is either not possible or causes unnecessary stress.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Saliva/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , Carrier State/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
2.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(12): 8110-8128, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597218

ABSTRACT

The design of advanced nanobiomaterials to improve analytical accuracy and therapeutic efficacy has become an important prerequisite for the development of innovative nanomedicines. Recently, phospholipid nanobiomaterials including 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) have attracted great attention with remarkable characteristics such as resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion for various biomedical applications. Despite many recent reports, there is a lack of comprehensive review on the phospholipid nanobiomaterials from synthesis to diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here, we review the synthesis and characterization of phospholipid nanobiomaterials focusing on MPC polymers and highlight their attractive potentials for applications in micro/nanofabricated fluidic devices, biosensors, lab-on-a-chip, drug delivery systems (DDSs), COVID-19 potential usages for early diagnosis and even treatment, and artificial extracellular matrix scaffolds for cellular engineering.


Subject(s)
Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Nanostructures/chemistry , Phospholipids/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Microscopy, Confocal , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112353, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544808

ABSTRACT

Almost 80% of people confronting COVID-19 recover from COVID-19 disease without any particular treatments. They experience heterogeneous symptoms; a wide range of respiratory symptoms, cough, dyspnea, fever, and viral pneumonia. However, some others need urgent intervention and special treatment to get rid of this widespread disease. So far, there isn't any unique drug for the potential treatment of COVID 19. However, some available therapeutic drugs used for other diseases seem beneficial for the COVID-19 treatment. On the other hand, there is a robust global concern for developing an efficient COVID-19 vaccine to control the COVID-19 pandemic sustainably. According to the WHO report, since 8 October 2021, 320 vaccines have been in progress. 194 vaccines are in the pre-clinical development stage that 126 of them are in clinical progression. Here, in this paper, we have comprehensively reviewed the most recent and updated information about coronavirus and its mutations, all the potential therapeutic approaches for treating COVID-19, developed diagnostic systems for COVID- 19 and the available COVID-19 vaccines and their mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , World Health Organization
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(42): 49754-49761, 2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475248

ABSTRACT

A reliable and sensitive detection approach for SARS-CoV 2 is essential for timely infection diagnosis and transmission prevention. Here, a two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF)-based photoelectrochemical (PEC) aptasensor with high sensitivity and stability for SARS-CoV 2 spike glycoprotein (S protein) detection was developed. The PEC aptasensor was constructed by a plasmon-enhanced photoactive material (namely, Au NPs/Yb-TCPP) with a specific DNA aptamer against S protein. The Au NPs/Yb-TCPP fabricated by in situ growth of Au NPs on the surface of 2D Yb-TCPP nanosheets showed a high electron-hole (e-h) separation efficiency due to the enhancement effect of plasmon, resulting in excellent photoelectric performance. The modified DNA aptamer on the surface of Au NPs/Yb-TCPP can bind with S protein with high selectivity, thus decreasing the photocurrent of the system due to the high steric hindrance and low conductivity of the S protein. The established PEC aptasensor demonstrated a highly sensitive detection for S protein with a linear response range of 0.5-8 µg/mL with a detection limit of 72 ng/mL. This work presented a promising way for the detection of SARS-CoV 2, which may conduce to the impetus of clinic diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Metal-Organic Frameworks/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Base Sequence , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA/chemistry , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Electrodes , Gold/chemistry , Gold/radiation effects , Humans , Immobilized Nucleic Acids/chemistry , Light , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/radiation effects , Pharynx/virology , Photochemical Processes , Porphyrins/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Ytterbium/chemistry
5.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438511

ABSTRACT

Virus epidemics such as Ebola virus, Zika virus, MERS-coronavirus, and others have wreaked havoc on humanity in the last decade. In addition, a coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic and its continuously evolving mutants have become so deadly that they have forced the entire technical advancement of healthcare into peril. Traditional ways of detecting these viruses have been successful to some extent, but they are costly, time-consuming, and require specialized human resources. Terahertz-based biosensors have the potential to lead the way for low-cost, non-invasive, and rapid virus detection. This review explores the latest progresses in terahertz technology-based biosensors for the virus, viral particle, and antigen detection, as well as upcoming research directions in the field.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoassay , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Terahertz Spectroscopy
6.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430926

ABSTRACT

Sample preparation is an essential step for nearly every type of biochemical analysis in use today. Among the most important of these analyses is the diagnosis of diseases, since their treatment may rely greatly on time and, in the case of infectious diseases, containing their spread within a population to prevent outbreaks. To address this, many different methods have been developed for use in the wide variety of settings for which they are needed. In this work, we have reviewed the literature and report on a broad range of methods that have been developed in recent years and their applications to point-of-care (POC), high-throughput screening, and low-resource and traditional clinical settings for diagnosis, including some of those that were developed in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In addition to covering alternative approaches and improvements to traditional sample preparation techniques such as extractions and separations, techniques that have been developed with focuses on integration with smart devices, laboratory automation, and biosensors are also discussed.


Subject(s)
High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , High-Throughput Screening Assays/trends , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Point-of-Care Systems/trends , Point-of-Care Testing/trends , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 335, 2021 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411927

ABSTRACT

A practical colorimetric assay was developed for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For this purpose, magnetic γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized and used as a peroxidase-like mimic activity molecule. In the presence of γ Fe2O3 nanoparticles, the color change of H2O2 included 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine was monitored at the wavelength of 654 nm when spike protein interacted with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. This oxidation-reduction reaction was examined both spectroscopically and by using electrochemical techniques. The experimental parameters were optimized and the analytical characteristics investigated. The developed assay was applied to real SARS-CoV-2 samples, and very good results that were in accordance with the real time polymerase chain reaction were obtained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Colorimetry/methods , Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Benzidines/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Catalysis , Chromogenic Compounds/chemistry , Cysteine/chemistry , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Oropharynx/virology , Oxidation-Reduction , Peroxidase/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
8.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411086

ABSTRACT

Our therapeutic arsenal against viruses is very limited and the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the critical need for effective antivirals against emerging coronaviruses. Cellular assays allowing a precise quantification of viral replication in high-throughput experimental settings are essential to the screening of chemical libraries and the selection of best antiviral chemical structures. To develop a reporting system for SARS-CoV-2 infection, we generated cell lines expressing a firefly luciferase maintained in an inactive form by a consensus cleavage site for the viral protease 3CLPro of coronaviruses, so that the luminescent biosensor is turned on upon 3CLPro expression or SARS-CoV-2 infection. This cellular assay was used to screen a metabolism-oriented library of 492 compounds to identify metabolic vulnerabilities of coronaviruses for developing innovative therapeutic strategies. In agreement with recent reports, inhibitors of pyrimidine biosynthesis were found to prevent SARS-CoV-2 replication. Among the top hits, we also identified the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor Setanaxib. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of Setanaxib was further confirmed using ACE2-expressing human pulmonary cells Beas2B as well as human primary nasal epithelial cells. Altogether, these results validate our cell-based functional assay and the interest of screening libraries of different origins to identify inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 for drug repurposing or development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Activation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases, Firefly/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pyrazolones/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Acc Chem Res ; 54(19): 3643-3655, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404866

ABSTRACT

Reliable, inexpensive, and rapid diagnostic tools are essential to control and prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Many commercial kits for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnostics have played a crucial role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Most current standard in vitro diagnostic (IVD) protocols for infectious diseases are sensitive but time-consuming and require sophisticated laboratory equipment and specially trained personnel. Recent advances in biosensor technology suggest the potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics that are affordable and provide accurate results in a short time. The ideal "sample-in-answer-out" type fully integrated POC infection diagnostic platforms are expected to be autonomous or easy-to-operate, equipment-free or infrastructure-independent, and high-throughput or easy to upscale. In this Account, we detail the recent progress made by our group and others in the development of centrifugal microfluidic devices or lab-on-a-disc (LOAD) systems. Unlike conventional pump-based fluid actuation, the centrifugal force generated by spinning the disc induces liquid pumping and no external fluidic interconnects are required. This allows a total fluidic network required for multiple steps of biological assays to be integrated on a disc, enabling fully automated POC diagnostics. Various applications have been demonstrated, including liquid biopsy for personalized cancer management, food applications, and environmental monitoring; here, we focus on IVD for infectious disease. First, we introduce various on-disc unit operation technologies, including reagent storage, sedimentation, filtration, valving, decanting, aliquoting, mixing, separation, serial dilution, washing, and calibration. Such centrifugal microfluidic technologies have already proved promising for micro-total-analysis systems for automated IVD ranging from molecular detection of pathogens to multiplexed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that use raw samples such as whole blood or saliva. Some recent examples of LOAD systems for molecular diagnostics in which some or all steps of the assays are integrated on a disc, including pathogen enrichment, nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and detection, are discussed in detail. We then introduce fully automated ELISA systems with enhanced sensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate a toy-inspired fidget spinner that enables electricity-free and rapid analysis of pathogens from undiluted urine samples of patients with urinary tract infection symptoms and a phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility test for an extreme POC diagnostics application. Considering the urgent need for cost-effective and reliable POC infection diagnostic tools, especially in the current pandemic crisis, the current limitations and future directions of fast and broad adaptation in real-world settings are also discussed. With proper attention to key challenges and leverage with recent advances in bio-sensing technologies, molecular biology, nanomaterials, analytical chemistry, miniaturization, system integration, and data management, LOAD systems hold the potential to deliver POC infection diagnostic tools with unprecedented performance regarding time, accuracy, and cost. We hope the new insight and promise of LOAD systems for POC infection diagnostics presented in this Account can spark new ideas and inspire further research and development to create better healthcare systems for current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Systems , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/instrumentation , Centrifugation , Humans , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(8): 745-753, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398166

ABSTRACT

The detrimental impact of the heavy metal lead (Pb) on human health has been studied for years. The fact that Pb impairs human body has been established from countless painful and sad historical events. Nowadays, World Health Organization and many developmental countries have established regulations concerning the use of Pb. Measuring the blood lead level (BLL) is so far the only way to officially evaluate the degree of Pb exposure, but the so-called safety value (10 µg/dL in adults and 5 µg/dL in children) seems unreliable to represent the security checkpoint for children through daily intake of drinking water or physical contact with a lower contaminated level of Pb contents. In general, unsolved mysteries about the Pb toxicological mechanisms still remain. In this review article, we report on the methods to prevent Pb poison for further Pb toxicological research. We establish high-sensitivity Pb monitoring, and also report on the use of fluorescent biosensors such as genetically-encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors built for various large demands such as the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We also contribute to the development and optimization of the FRET-based Pb biosensors. Our well-performed version of Met-lead 1.44 M1 has achieved a limit of detection of 10 nM (2 ppb; 0.2 µg/dL) and almost 5-fold in dynamic range (DR) supported for the real practical applications-that is, the in-cell Pb sensing device for blood and blood-related samples, and the Pb environmental detections in vitro. The perspective of our powerful Pb biosensor incorporated with a highly sensitive bio-chip of the portable device for quick Pb measurements will be addressed for further manipulation.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer/methods , Lead/analysis , Environment
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 280: 114488, 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397458

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history in the prevention and treatment of pandemics. The TCM formula Lung Cleansing and Detoxifying Decoction (LCDD), also known as Qing Fei Pai Du Decoction, has been demonstrated effective against Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). AIM OF THE STUDY: This work aimed to elucidate the active ingredients, targets and pathway mechanism of LCDD related to suppression of inflammatory, immunity regulation and relaxation of airway smooth muscle for the treatment of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mining chemical ingredients reported in LCDD, 144 compounds covering all herbs were selected and screened against inflammatory-, immunity- and respiratory-related GPCRs including GPR35, H1, CB2, B2, M3 and ß2-adrenoceptor receptor using a label-free integrative pharmacology method. Further, all active compounds were detected using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and an herb-compound-target network based on potency and content of compounds was constructed to elucidate the multi-target and synergistic effect. RESULTS: Thirteen compounds were identified as GPR35 agonists, including licochalcone B, isoliquiritigenin, etc. Licochalcone B, isoliquiritigenin and alisol A exhibited bradykinin receptor B2 antagonism activities. Atractyline and shogaol showed as a cannabinoid receptor CB2 agonist and a histamine receptor H1 antagonist, respectively. Tectorigenin and aristofone acted as muscarinic receptor M3 antagonists, while synephrine, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were ß2-adrenoceptor agonists. Pathway deconvolution assays suggested activation of GPR35 triggered PI3K, MEK, JNK pathways and EGFR transactivation, and the activation of ß2-adrenoceptor mediated MEK and Ca2+. The herb-compound-target network analysis found that some compounds such as licochalcone B acted on multiple targets, and multiple components interacted with the same target such as GPR35, reflecting the synergistic mechanism of Chinese medicine. At the same time, some low-abundance compounds displayed high target activity, meaning its important role in LCDD for anti-COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates the active ingredients, targets and pathways of LCDD. This is useful for elucidating multitarget synergistic action for its clinical therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcones/pharmacology , Cricetulus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Ephedrine/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity/drug effects , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung Diseases/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth/drug effects , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Respiration/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 724, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387326

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in cell-free synthetic biology have given rise to gene circuit-based sensors with the potential to provide decentralized and low-cost molecular diagnostics. However, it remains a challenge to deliver this sensing capacity into the hands of users in a practical manner. Here, we leverage the glucose meter, one of the most widely available point-of-care sensing devices, to serve as a universal reader for these decentralized diagnostics. We describe a molecular translator that can convert the activation of conventional gene circuit-based sensors into a glucose output that can be read by off-the-shelf glucose meters. We show the development of new glucogenic reporter systems, multiplexed reporter outputs and detection of nucleic acid targets down to the low attomolar range. Using this glucose-meter interface, we demonstrate the detection of a small-molecule analyte; sample-to-result diagnostics for typhoid, paratyphoid A/B; and show the potential for pandemic response with nucleic acid sensors for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gene Regulatory Networks/genetics , Glucose/analysis , Nucleic Acids/analysis , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Glucose/metabolism , Humans , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Typhoid Fever/blood , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis , Typhoid Fever/microbiology
13.
Bioessays ; 43(4): e2000315, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384113

ABSTRACT

The versatile clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas system has emerged as a promising technology for therapy and molecular diagnosis. It is especially suited for overcoming viral infections outbreaks, since their effective control relies on an efficient treatment, but also on a fast diagnosis to prevent disease dissemination. The CRISPR toolbox offers DNA- and RNA-targeting nucleases that constitute dual weapons against viruses. They allow both the manipulation of viral and host genomes for therapeutic purposes and the detection of viral nucleic acids in "Point of Care" sensor devices. Here, we thoroughly review recent advances in the use of the CRISPR/Cas system for the treatment and diagnosis of viral deleterious infections such as HIV or SARS-CoV-2, examining their strengths and limitations. We describe the main points to consider when designing CRISPR antiviral strategies and the scientific efforts to develop more sensitive CRISPR-based viral detectors. Finally, we discuss future prospects to improve both applications. Also see the video abstract here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0z1dLpJWl4.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Viruses/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Gene Knock-In Techniques , Genome, Viral , Humans , RNA, Guide/genetics
14.
Anal Biochem ; 634: 114362, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377633

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that caused the COVID-19 disease, has highlighted our urgent need for sensitive, fast and accurate diagnostic technologies. In fact, one of the main challenges for flatting COVID-19 spread charts is the ability to accurately and rapidly identify asymptomatic cases that result in spreading the virus to close contacts. SARS-CoV-2 virus mutation is also relatively rapid, which makes the detection of COVID-19 diseases still crucial even after the vaccination. Conventional techniques, which are commercially available have focused on clinical manifestation, along with molecular and serological detection tools that can identify the SARS-CoV-2 virus however, owing to various disadvantages including low specificity and sensitivity, a quick, low cost and easy approach is needed for diagnosis of COVID-19. Scientists are now showing extensive interest in an effective portable and simple detection method to diagnose COVID-19. There are several novel methods and approaches that are considered viable advanced systems that can meet the demands. This study reviews the new approaches and sensing technologies that work on COVID-19 diagnosis for easy and successful detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(34): 40342-40353, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366784

ABSTRACT

Sensitive point-of-care methods for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigens in clinical specimens are urgently needed to achieve rapid screening of viral infection. We developed a magnetic quantum dot-based dual-mode lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) biosensor for the high-sensitivity simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) antigens, which is beneficial for improving the detection accuracy and efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the point-of-care testing area. A high-performance magnetic quantum dot with a triple-QD shell (MagTQD) nanotag was first fabricated and integrated into the LFIA system to provide superior fluorescence signals, enrichment ability, and detectability for S/NP antigen testing. Two detection modes were provided by the proposed MagTQD-LFIA. The direct mode was used for rapid screening or urgent detection of suspected samples within 10 min, and the enrichment mode was used for the highly sensitive and quantitative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antigens in biological samples without the interference of the "hook effect." The simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 S/NP antigens was conducted in one LFIA strip, and the detection limits for two antigens under direct and enrichment modes were 1 and 0.5 pg/mL, respectively. The MagTQD-LFIA showed high accuracy, specificity, and stability in saliva and nasal swab samples and is an efficient tool with flexibility to meet the testing requirements for SARS-CoV-2 antigens in various situations.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Fluorescence , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4876, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356557

ABSTRACT

While the printed circuit board (PCB) has been widely considered as the building block of integrated electronics, the world is switching to pursue new ways of merging integrated electronic circuits with textiles to create flexible and wearable devices. Herein, as an alternative for PCB, we described a non-printed integrated-circuit textile (NIT) for biomedical and theranostic application via a weaving method. All the devices are built as fibers or interlaced nodes and woven into a deformable textile integrated circuit. Built on an electrochemical gating principle, the fiber-woven-type transistors exhibit superior bending or stretching robustness, and were woven as a textile logical computing module to distinguish different emergencies. A fiber-type sweat sensor was woven with strain and light sensors fibers for simultaneously monitoring body health and the environment. With a photo-rechargeable energy textile based on a detailed power consumption analysis, the woven circuit textile is completely self-powered and capable of both wireless biomedical monitoring and early warning. The NIT could be used as a 24/7 private AI "nurse" for routine healthcare, diabetes monitoring, or emergencies such as hypoglycemia, metabolic alkalosis, and even COVID-19 patient care, a potential future on-body AI hardware and possibly a forerunner to fabric-like computers.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Precision Medicine/instrumentation , Textiles , Wearable Electronic Devices , Wireless Technology/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sweat/physiology
17.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(8): 261, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316284

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 has promoted to develop novel serological testing technologies since they can be effectively complementary to RT-PCR. Here, a new all-fiber Fresnel reflection microfluidic biosensor (FRMB) was constructed through combining all-fiber optical system, microfluidic chip, and multimode fiber bio-probe. The transmission of the incident light and the collection and transmission of Fresnel reflection light are achieved using a single-multi-mode fiber optic coupler (SMFC) without any other optical separation elements. This compact design greatly simplifies the whole system structure and improves light transmission efficiency, which makes it suitable for the label-free, sensitive, and easy-to-use point-of-care testing (POCT) of targets in nanoliter samples. Based on Fresnel reflection mechanism and immunoassay principle, both the SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein could be sensitively quantified in 7 min using the secondary antibodies-modified multimode fiber bio-probe. The FRMB performs in one-step, is accurate, label-free, and sensitive in situ/on-site detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM or IgG in serum with simple dilution only. The limits of detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and SARS-CoV-2 IgG were 0.82 ng/mL and 0.45 ng/mL, respectively. Based on our proposed theory, the affinity constants of SARS-CoV-2 IgM or IgG antibody and their respective secondary antibodies were also determined. The FRMB can be readily extended as a universal platform for the label-free, rapid, and sensitive in situ/on-site measurement of other biomarkers and the investigation of biomolecular interaction.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Limit of Detection , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(30): 5967-5981, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307349

ABSTRACT

The infamous COVID-19 outbreak has left a crippling impact on the economy, healthcare infrastructure, and lives of the general working class, with all the scientists determined to find suitable and efficient diagnostic techniques and therapies to contain its ramifications. This article presents the complete outline of the diagnostic platforms developed using nanoparticles in the detection of SARS-CoV-2, delineating the direct and indirect use of nanomaterials in COVID-19 diagnosis. The properties of nanostructured materials and their relevance in the development of novel point-of-care diagnostic approaches for COVID-19 are highlighted. More importantly, the advantages of nanotechnologies over conventional reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique and few other methods used in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 along with the viewpoints are discussed. Also, the future perspectives highlighting the commercial aspects of the nanotechnology-based diagnostic tools developed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Nanostructures/chemistry , Point-of-Care Testing , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/virology , Colorimetry , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302155

ABSTRACT

The availability of antigen tests for SARS-CoV-2 represents a major step for the mass surveillance of the incidence of infection, especially regarding COVID-19 asymptomatic and/or early-stage patients. Recently, we reported the development of a Bioelectric Recognition Assay-based biosensor able to detect the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein expressed on the surface of the virus in just three minutes, with high sensitivity and selectivity. The working principle was established by measuring the change of the electric potential of membrane-engineered mammalian cells bearing the human chimeric spike S1 antibody after attachment of the respective viral protein. In the present study, we applied the novel biosensor to patient-derived nasopharyngeal samples in a clinical set-up, with absolutely no sample pretreatment. More importantly, membrane-engineered cells were pre-immobilized in a proprietary biomatrix, thus enabling their long-term preservation prior to use as well as significantly increasing their ease-of-handle as test consumables. The plug-and-apply novel biosensor was able to detect the virus in positive samples with a 92.8% success rate compared to RT-PCR. No false negative results were recorded. These findings demonstrate the potential applicability of the biosensor for the early, routine mass screening of SARS-CoV-2 on a scale not yet realized.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cell Line , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nasopharynx/virology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289018

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health problem that the WHO declared a pandemic. COVID-19 has resulted in a worldwide lockdown and threatened to topple the global economy. The mortality of COVID-19 is comparatively low compared with previous SARS outbreaks, but the rate of spread of the disease and its morbidity is alarming. This virus can be transmitted human-to-human through droplets and close contact, and people of all ages are susceptible to this virus. With the advancements in nanotechnology, their remarkable properties, including their ability to amplify signal, can be used for the development of nanobiosensors and nanoimaging techniques that can be used for early-stage detection along with other diagnostic tools. Nano-based protection equipment and disinfecting agents can provide much-needed protection against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, nanoparticles can serve as a carrier for antigens or as an adjuvant, thereby making way for the development of a new generation of vaccines. The present review elaborates the role of nanotechnology-based tactics used for the detection, diagnosis, protection, and treatment of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nanotechnology/methods , Nanotechnology/trends , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Global Health , Humans
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