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1.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 144, 2023 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243437

ABSTRACT

Field-effect transistor (FET) is regarded as the most promising candidate for the next-generation biosensor, benefiting from the advantages of label-free, easy operation, low cost, easy integration, and direct detection of biomarkers in liquid environments. With the burgeoning advances in nanotechnology and biotechnology, researchers are trying to improve the sensitivity of FET biosensors and broaden their application scenarios from multiple strategies. In order to enable researchers to understand and apply FET biosensors deeply, focusing on the multidisciplinary technical details, the iteration and evolution of FET biosensors are reviewed from exploring the sensing mechanism in detecting biomolecules (research direction 1), the response signal type (research direction 2), the sensing performance optimization (research direction 3), and the integration strategy (research direction 4). Aiming at each research direction, forward perspectives and dialectical evaluations are summarized to enlighten rewarding investigations.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Transistors, Electronic , Nanotechnology , Biosensing Techniques/methods
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(11)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242697

ABSTRACT

Viral infections can pose a major threat to public health by causing serious illness, leading to pandemics, and burdening healthcare systems. The global spread of such infections causes disruptions to every aspect of life including business, education, and social life. Fast and accurate diagnosis of viral infections has significant implications for saving lives, preventing the spread of the diseases, and minimizing social and economic damages. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques are commonly used to detect viruses in the clinic. However, PCR has several drawbacks, as highlighted during the recent COVID-19 pandemic, such as long processing times and the requirement for sophisticated laboratory instruments. Therefore, there is an urgent need for fast and accurate techniques for virus detection. For this purpose, a variety of biosensor systems are being developed to provide rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput viral diagnostic platforms, enabling quick diagnosis and efficient control of the virus's spread. Optical devices, in particular, are of great interest due to their advantages such as high sensitivity and direct readout. The current review discusses solid-phase optical sensing techniques for virus detection, including fluorescence-based sensors, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), optical resonators, and interferometry-based platforms. Then, we focus on an interferometric biosensor developed by our group, the single-particle interferometric reflectance imaging sensor (SP-IRIS), which has the capability to visualize single nanoparticles, to demonstrate its application for digital virus detection.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Viruses , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
3.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(5)2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235396

ABSTRACT

Since the global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has spread rapidly around the world. The nucleocapsid (N) protein is one of the most abundant SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Therefore, a sensitive and effective detection method for SARS-CoV-2 N protein is the focus of research. Here, we developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor based on the dual signal-amplification strategy of Au@Ag@Au nanoparticles (NPs) and graphene oxide (GO). Additionally, a sandwich immunoassay was utilized to sensitively and efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 N protein. On the one hand, Au@Ag@Au NPs have a high refractive index and the capability to electromagnetically couple with the plasma waves propagating on the surface of gold film, which are harnessed for amplifying the SPR response signal. On the other hand, GO, which has the large specific surface area and the abundant oxygen-containing functional groups, could provide unique light absorption bands that can enhance plasmonic coupling to further amplify the SPR response signal. The proposed biosensor could efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 N protein for 15 min and the detection limit for SARS-CoV-2 N protein was 0.083 ng/mL, with a linear range of 0.1 ng/mL~1000 ng/mL. This novel method can meet the analytical requirements of artificial saliva simulated samples, and the developed biosensor had a good anti-interference capability.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Gold , Immunoassay/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis
4.
Anal Chem ; 95(23): 9006-9013, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235047

ABSTRACT

Due to its high efficiency and selectivity, cell-free biosynthesis has found broad utility in the fields of bioproduction, environment monitoring, and disease diagnostics. However, the practical application is limited by its low productivity. Here, we introduce the entropy-driven assembly of transcription templates as dynamic amplifying modules to accelerate the cell-free transcription process. The catalytic DNA circuit with high sensitivity and enzyme-free format contributes to the production of large amounts of transcription templates, drastically accelerating the as-designed cell-free transcription system without interference from multiple enzymes. The proposed approach was successfully applied to the ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2, improving the sensitivity by 3 orders of magnitude. Thanks to the high programmability and diverse light-up RNA pairs, the method can be adapted to multiplexing detection, successfully demonstrated by the analysis of two different sites of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in parallel. Further, the flexibility of the entropy-driven circuit enables a dynamic responding range by tuning the circuit layers, which is beneficial for responding to targets with different concentration ranges. The strategy was also applied to the analysis of clinical samples, providing an alternative for sensitively detecting the current SARS-CoV-2 RNA that quickly mutates.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , DNA/analysis , Entropy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods
5.
Talanta ; 262: 124711, 2023 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327278

ABSTRACT

We presented a polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhanced ligation-triggered self-priming isothermal amplification (PEG-LSPA) for the detection D614G mutation in S-glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. PEG was employed to improve the ligation efficiency of this assay by constructing a molecular crowding environment. Two hairpin probes (H1 and H2) were designed to contain 18 nt and 20 nt target binding site at their 3' end and 5' end, respectively. In presence of target sequence, it complemented with H1 and H2 to trigger ligation by ligase under molecular crowding condition to form ligated H1-H2 duplex. Then 3' terminus of the H2 would be extended by DNA polymerase under isothermal conditions to form a longer extended hairpin (EHP1). 5' terminus of EHP1 with phosphorothioate (PS) modification could form hairpin structure due to the lower Tm value. The resulting 3' end overhang would also fold back as a new primer to initiate the next round of polymerization, resulting in the formation of a longer extended hairpin (EHP2) containing two target sequence domains. In the circle of LSPA, long extended hairpin (EHPx) containing numerous target sequence domains was produced. The resulting DNA products can be monitored in real-time fluorescence signaling. Our proposed assay owns an excellent linear range from 10 fM to 10 nM with a detection limit down to 4 fM. Thus, this work provides a potential isothermal amplification method for monitoring mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA/chemistry , Biological Assay , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 236: 115421, 2023 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323496

ABSTRACT

We developed a multi-pronged approach to enhance the detection sensitivity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor chips to detect SARS-CoV-2. To this end, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers were immobilized onto the surface of LSPR sensor chips to serve as templates to further conjugate aptamers specific for SARS-CoV-2. The immobilized dendrimers were shown to reduce surface nonspecific adsorptions and increase capturing ligand density on the sensor chips, thereby improving detection sensitivity. To characterize the detection sensitivity of the surface-modified sensor chips, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain was detected using LSPR sensor chips with different surface modifications. The results showed that the dendrimer-aptamer modified LSPR sensor chip exhibited a limit of detection (LOD) of 21.9 pM, a sensitivity that was 9 times and 152 times more sensitive than the traditional aptamer- or antibody-based LSPR sensor chips, respectively. In addition, detection sensitivity was further improved by combining rolling circle amplification product and gold nanoparticles to further amplify the detection signals by increasing both the target mass and plasmonic coupling effects. Using pseudo SARS-CoV-2 viral particles as detection targets, we demonstrated that this combined signal intensification approach further enhanced the detection sensitivity by 10 folds with a remarkable LOD of 148 vp/mL, making it one of the most sensitive SARS-CoV-2 detection assays reported to date. These results highlight the potential of a novel LSPR-based detection platform for sensitive and rapid detection of COVID-19 infections, as well as other viral infections and point-of-care applications.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Dendrimers , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Vis Exp ; (195)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326239

ABSTRACT

This sensing prototype model involves the development of a reusable, twofold graphene oxide (GrO)-glazed double inter-digitated capacitive (DIDC) detecting chip for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) specifically and rapidly. The fabricated DIDC comprises a Ti/Pt-containing glass substrate glazed with graphene oxide (GrO), which is further chemically modified with EDC-NHS to immobilize antibodies (Abs) hostile to SARS-CoV-2 based on the spike (S1) protein of the virus. The results of insightful investigations showed that GrO gave an ideal engineered surface for Ab immobilization and enhanced the capacitance to allow higher sensitivity and low sensing limits. These tunable elements helped accomplish a wide sensing range (1.0 mg/mL to 1.0 fg/mL), a minimum sensing limit of 1 fg/mL, high responsiveness and good linearity of 18.56 nF/g, and a fast reaction time of 3 s. Besides, in terms of developing financially viable point-of-care (POC) testing frameworks, the reusability of the GrO-DIDC biochip in this study is good. Significantly, the biochip is specific against blood-borne antigens and is stable for up to 10 days at 5 °C. Due to its compactness, this scaled-down biosensor has the potential for POC diagnostics of COVID-19 infection. This system can also detect other severe viral diseases, although an approval step utilizing other virus examples is under development.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Viruses , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Antibodies, Viral
8.
Sensors (Basel) ; 23(9)2023 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318020

ABSTRACT

Since its first report in 2006, magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS)-based biosensors have flourished over the past decade. Currently, MPS are used for a wide range of applications, such as disease diagnosis, foodborne pathogen detection, etc. In this work, different MPS platforms, such as dual-frequency and mono-frequency driving field designs, were reviewed. MPS combined with multi-functional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been extensively reported as a versatile platform for the detection of a long list of biomarkers. The surface-functionalized MNPs serve as nanoprobes that specifically bind and label target analytes from liquid samples. Herein, an analysis of the theories and mechanisms that underlie different MPS platforms, which enable the implementation of bioassays based on either volume or surface, was carried out. Furthermore, this review draws attention to some significant MPS platform applications in the biomedical and biological fields. In recent years, different kinds of MPS point-of-care (POC) devices have been reported independently by several groups in the world. Due to the high detection sensitivity, simple assay procedures and low cost per run, the MPS POC devices are expected to become more widespread in the future. In addition, the growth of telemedicine and remote monitoring has created a greater demand for POC devices, as patients are able to receive health assessments and obtain results from the comfort of their own homes. At the end of this review, we comment on the opportunities and challenges for POC devices as well as MPS devices regarding the intensely growing demand for rapid, affordable, high-sensitivity and user-friendly devices.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , Humans , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Magnetics , Spectrum Analysis , Magnetic Phenomena
9.
J Mater Chem B ; 11(20): 4511-4522, 2023 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317961

ABSTRACT

Viral particles bind to receptors through multivalent protein interactions. Such high avidity interactions on sensor surfaces are less studied. In this work, three polyelectrolytes that can form biosensing surfaces with different interfacial characteristics in probe density and spatial arrangement were designed. Quartz crystal microbalance, interferometry and atomic force microscopy were used to study their surface density and binding behaviors with proteins and virus particles. A multivalent adsorption kinetic model was developed to estimate the number of bonds from the viral particles bound to the polyelectrolyte surfaces. Experimental results show that the heterogeneous 3D surface with jagged forest-like structure enhances the virus capture ability by maximizing the multivalent interactions. As a proof of concept, specific coronavirus detection was achieved in spiked swab samples. These results indicate the importance of both probe density and their spatial arrangement on the sensing performance, which could be used as a guideline for rational biosensing surface design.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Polyelectrolytes , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques/methods , Adsorption , Virion
10.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 149, 2023 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316616

ABSTRACT

Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology, as a powerful tool to identify molecular species by collecting molecular spectral signals at the single-molecule level, has achieved substantial progresses in the fields of environmental science, medical diagnosis, food safety, and biological analysis. As deepening research is delved into SERS sensing, more and more high-performance or multifunctional SERS substrate materials emerge, which are expected to push Raman sensing into more application fields. Especially in the field of biological analysis, intrinsic and extrinsic SERS sensing schemes have been widely used and explored due to their fast, sensitive and reliable advantages. Herein, recent developments of SERS substrates and their applications in biomolecular detection (SARS-CoV-2 virus, tumor etc.), biological imaging and pesticide detection are summarized. The SERS concepts (including its basic theory and sensing mechanism) and the important strategies (extending from nanomaterials with tunable shapes and nanostructures to surface bio-functionalization by modifying affinity groups or specific biomolecules) for improving SERS biosensing performance are comprehensively discussed. For data analysis and identification, the applications of machine learning methods and software acquisition sources in SERS biosensing and diagnosing are discussed in detail. In conclusion, the challenges and perspectives of SERS biosensing in the future are presented.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Humans , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nanotechnology , Biosensing Techniques/methods
11.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 236: 115362, 2023 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316354

ABSTRACT

Pandemics as the one we are currently facing, where fast-spreading viruses present a threat to humanity, call for simple and reliable methods to perform early diagnosis, enabling detection of very low pathogen loads even before symptoms start showing in the host. So far, standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most reliable method for doing so, but it is rather slow and needs specialized reagents and trained personnel to operate it. Additionally, it is expensive and not easily accessible. Therefore, developing miniaturized and portable sensors which perform early detection of pathogens with high reliability is necessary to not only prevent the spreading of the disease but also to monitor the effectiveness of the developed vaccines and the appearance of new pathogenic variants. Thus, in this work we develop a sensitive microfluidic impedance biosensor for the direct detection of SARS-CoV-2, towards a mobile point-of-care (POC) platform. The operational parameters are optimized with the aid of design-of-experiment (DoE), for an accurate detection of the viral antigens using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We perform the biodetection of buffer samples spiked with fM concentration levels and validate the biosensor in a clinical context of relevance by analyzing 15 real patient samples up to a Ct value (cycle threshold) of 27. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the developed platform using different settings, including a small portable potentiostat, using multiple channels for self-validation, as well as with single biosensors for a smartphone-based readout. This work contributes to the rapid and reliable diagnostics of COVID-19 and can be extended to other infectious diseases, allowing the monitoring of viral load in vaccinated and unvaccinated people to anticipate a potential relapse of the disease.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Microfluidics , Electric Impedance , Reproducibility of Results , Biosensing Techniques/methods
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316276

ABSTRACT

Rapid and reliable techniques for virus identification are required in light of recurring epidemics and pandemics throughout the world. Several techniques have been distributed for testing the flow of patients. Polymerase chain reaction with reverse transcription is a reliable and sensitive, though not rapid, tool. The antibody-based strip is a rapid, though not reliable, and sensitive tool. A set of alternative tools is being developed to meet all the needs of the customer. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) provides the possibility of single molecule detection taking several minutes. Here, a multiplex lithographic SERS aptasensor was developed aiming at the detection of several respiratory viruses in one pot within 17 min. The four labeled aptamers were anchored onto the metal surface of four SERS zones; the caught viruses affect the SERS signals of the labels, providing changes in the analytical signals. The sensor was able to decode mixes of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus two), influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus within a single experiment through a one-stage recognition process.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Oligonucleotides/chemistry , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Biosensing Techniques/methods
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(4)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315555

ABSTRACT

Biosensors are analytical tools that can be used as simple, real-time, and effective devices in clinical diagnosis, food analysis, and environmental monitoring. Nanoscale functional materials possess unique properties such as a large surface-to-volume ratio, making them useful for biomedical diagnostic purposes. Nanoengineering has resulted in the increased use of nanoscale functional materials in biosensors. Various types of nanostructures i.e., 0D, 1D, 2D, and 3D, have been intensively employed to enhance biosensor selectivity, limit of detection, sensitivity, and speed of response time to display results. In particular, carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have been extensively employed in electrochemical biosensors, which have become an interdisciplinary frontier between material science and viral disease detection. This review provides an overview of the current research activities in nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors for diagnostic purposes. The clinical applications of these nanobiosensors are also highlighted, along with a discussion of the future directions for these materials in diagnostics. The aim of this review is to stimulate a broader interest in developing nanofiber-based electrochemical biosensors and improving their applications in disease diagnosis. In this review, we summarize some of the most recent advances achieved in point of care (PoC) electrochemical biosensor applications, focusing on new materials and modifiers enabling biorecognition that have led to improved sensitivity, specificity, stability, and response time.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanofibers , Nanostructures , Nanotubes, Carbon , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/methods
14.
Molecules ; 28(9)2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313883

ABSTRACT

Electrochemical biosensors are known as analytical tools, guaranteeing rapid and on-site results in medical diagnostics, food safety, environmental protection, and life sciences research. Current research focuses on developing sensors for specific targets and addresses challenges to be solved before their commercialization. These challenges typically include the lowering of the limit of detection, the widening of the linear concentration range, the analysis of real samples in a real environment and the comparison with a standard validation method. Nowadays, functional nanomaterials are designed and applied in electrochemical biosensing to support all these challenges. This review will address the integration of functional nanomaterials in the development of electrochemical biosensors for the rapid diagnosis of viral infections, such as COVID-19, middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), influenza, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and dengue, among others. The role and relevance of the nanomaterial, the type of biosensor, and the electrochemical technique adopted will be discussed. Finally, the critical issues in applying laboratory research to the analysis of real samples, future perspectives, and commercialization aspects of electrochemical biosensors for virus detection will be analyzed.


Subject(s)
Biological Science Disciplines , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 236: 115402, 2023 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313386

ABSTRACT

Rapid point-of-care diagnostics, essential in settings such as airport on-site testing and home-based screening, displayed important implications for infectious disease control during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. However, the deployment of simple and sensitive assays in real-life scenarios still faces the concern of aerosol contamination. Here, we report an amplicon-depleting CRISPR-based one-pot loop-mediated isothermal amplification (CoLAMP) assay for point-of-care diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In this work, AapCas12b sgRNA is designed to recognize the activator sequence sited in the loop region of the LAMP product, which is crucial for exponential amplification. By destroying the aerosol-prone amplifiable products at the end of each amplification reaction, our design can significantly reduce the amplicons contamination that causes false positive results in point-of-care diagnostics. For at-home self-testing, we designed a low-cost sample-to-result device for fluorescence-based visual interpretation. As well, a commercial portable electrochemical platform was deployed as a proof-of-concept of ready-to-use point-of-care diagnostic systems. The field deployable CoLAMP assay can detect as low as 0.5 copies/µL of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in clinical nasopharyngeal swab samples within 40 min without the need for specialists for its operation.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , COVID-19 Testing
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 215: 114580, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311736

ABSTRACT

Rational detection of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is crucial to prevention, control, and treatment of disease. Herein, a dual-wavelength ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor based on resonance energy transfer (RET) between g-C3N4 nanosheets and Ru-SiO2@folic acid (FA) nanomaterials was designed to realize ultrasensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus (RdRp gene). Firstly, the unique g-C3N4 nanosheets displayed very intense and stable ECL at 460 nm, then the triple helix DNA was stably and vertically bound to g-C3N4 on electrode by high binding affinity between ssDNA and g-C3N4. Meanwhile, trace amounts of target genes were converted to a large number of output by three-dimensional (3D) DNA walker multiple amplification, and the output bridged a multifunctional probe Ru-SiO2@FA to electrode. Ru-SiO2@FA not only showed high ECL at 620 nm, but also effectively quenched g-C3N4 ECL. As a result, ECL decreased at 460 nm and increased at 620 nm, which was used to design a rational ECL biosensor for detection of SARS gene. The results show that the biosensor has excellent detection sensitivity for RdRp gene with a dynamic detection range of 1 fM to 10 nM and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.18 fM. The dual-wavelength ratio ECL biosensor has inestimable value and application prospects in the fields of biosensing and clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , DNA , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Energy Transfer , Folic Acid , Humans , Limit of Detection , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Nanostructures , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Ruthenium , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Silicon Dioxide
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 235: 115358, 2023 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311698

ABSTRACT

Accurate and rapid screening techniques on a population scale are crucial for preventing and managing epidemics like COVID-19. The standard gold test for nucleic acids in pathogenic infections is primarily the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, this method is not suitable for widespread screening due to its reliance on large-scale equipment and time-consuming extraction and amplification processes. Here, we developed a collaborative system that combines high-load hybridization probes targeting N and OFR1a with Au NPs@Ta2C-M modified gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) sensors to enable direct nucleic acid detection. Multiple activation sites of SARS-CoV-2 were saturable modified on the surface of a homogeneous arrayed AuNPs@Ta2C-M/Au structure based on a segmental modification approach. The combination of hybrid probe synergy and composite polarisation response in the excitation structure results in highly specific hybridization analysis and excellent signal transduction of trace target sequences. The system demonstrates excellent trace specificity, with a limit of detection of 0.2 pg/mL, and achieves a rapid response time of 1.5 min for clinical samples without amplification. The results showed high agreement with the RT-PCR test (Kappa index = 1). And the gradient-based detection of 10-in-1 mixed samples exhibits high-intensity interference immunity and excellent trace identification. Therefore, the proposed synergistic detection platform has a good tendency to curb the global spread of epidemics such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Nucleic Acids , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods
18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1265: 341326, 2023 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311677

ABSTRACT

Herein, we have proposed a straightforward and label-free electrochemical immunosensing strategy supported on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a biocompatible and conducting biopolymer functionalized molybdenum disulfide-reduced graphene oxide (CS-MoS2/rGO) nanohybrid to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 virus. CS-MoS2/rGO nanohybrid-based immunosensor employs recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD protein (rSP) that specifically identifies antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus via differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The antigen-antibody interaction diminishes the current responses of the immunosensor. The obtained results indicate that the fabricated immunosensor is extraordinarily capable of highly sensitive and specific detection of the corresponding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with a LOD of 2.38 zg mL-1 in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) samples over a broad linear range between 10 zg mL-1-100 ng mL-1. In addition, the proposed immunosensor can detect attomolar concentrations in spiked human serum samples. The performance of this immunosensor is assessed using actual serum samples from COVID-19-infected patients. The proposed immunosensor can accurately and substantially differentiate between (+) positive and (-) negative samples. As a result, the nanohybrid can provide insight into the conception of Point-of-Care Testing (POCT) platforms for cutting-edge infectious disease diagnostic methods.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Molybdenum , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Electrochemical Techniques/methods
19.
Talanta ; 260: 124614, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311488

ABSTRACT

A novel immunosensor based on electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) for the sensitive determination of N protein of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is described. For this purpose, bifunctional core@shell nanoparticles composed of a Pt-coated Au core and finally decorated with small Au inlays (Au@Pt/Au NPs) have been synthesized to act as ECL acceptor, using [Ru (bpy)3]2+ as ECL donor. These nanoparticles are efficient signaling probes in the immunosensor developed. The proposed ECL-RET immunosensor has a wide linear response to the concentration of N protein of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus with a detection limit of 1.27 pg/mL. Moreover, it has a high stability and shows no response to other proteins related to different virus. The immunosensor has achieved the quantification of N protein of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in saliva samples. Results are consistent with those provided by a commercial colorimetric ELISA kit. Therefore, the developed immunosensor provides a feasible and reliable tool for early and effective detection of the virus to protect the population.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Gold , SARS-CoV-2 , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Immunoassay/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Limit of Detection
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 234: 115356, 2023 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310195

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic ignited massive research into the rapid detection of bioaerosols. In particular, nanotechnology-based detection strategies are proposed as alternatives because of issues in bioaerosol enrichment and lead time for molecular diagnostics; however, the practical implementation of such techniques is still unclear due to obstacles regarding the large research and development effort and investment for the validation. The use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence (expressed as relative luminescence unit (RLU) per unit volume of air) of airborne particulate matter (PM) to determine the bacterial population as a representative of the total bioaerosols (viruses, bacteria, and fungi) has been raised frequently because of the high reponse speed, resolution, and compatibility with culture-based bioaerosol monitoring. On the other hand, additional engineering attempts are required to confer significance because of the size-classified (bioluminescence for different PM sizes) and specific (bioluminescence per unit PM mass) biological risks of air for providing proper interventions in the case of airborne transmission. In this study, disc-type impactors to cut-off aerosols larger than 1 µm, 2.5 µm, and 10 µm were designed and constructed to collect PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 on sampling swabs. This engineering enabled reliable size-classified bioluminescence signals using a commercial ATP luminometer after just 5 min of air intake. The simultaneous operations of a six-stage Andersen impactor and optical PM spectrometers were conducted to determine the correlations between the resulting RLU and colony forming unit (CFU; from the Andersen impactor) or PM mass concentration (deriving specific bioluminescence).


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Pandemics , Air Microbiology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Bacteria , Fungi , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Particle Size
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