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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 968, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705624

ABSTRACT

DNA/RNA-gold nanoparticle (DNA/RNA-AuNP) nanoprobes have been widely employed for nanobiotechnology applications. Here, we discover that both thiolated and non-thiolated DNA/RNA can be efficiently attached to AuNPs to achieve high-stable spherical nucleic acid (SNA) within minutes under a domestic microwave (MW)-assisted heating-dry circumstance. Further studies show that for non-thiolated DNA/RNA the conjugation is poly (T/U) tag dependent. Spectroscopy, test strip hybridization, and loading counting experiments indicate that low-affinity poly (T/U) tag mediates the formation of a standing-up conformation, which is distributed in the outer layer of SNA structure. In further application studies, CRISPR/Cas9-sgRNA (136 bp), SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragment (1278 bp), and rolling circle amplification (RCA) DNA products (over 1000 bp) can be successfully attached on AuNPs, which overcomes the routine methods in long-chain nucleic acid-AuNP conjugation, exhibiting great promise in biosensing and nucleic acids delivery applications. Current heating-dry strategy has improved traditional DNA/RNA-AuNP conjugation methods in simplicity, rapidity, cost, and universality.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , DNA/chemistry , Heating/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Microwaves , Nanomedicine/methods , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438525

ABSTRACT

The objective of this review is to describe the evolution of lung tissue-derived diploid progenitor cell applications, ranging from historical biotechnological substrate functions for vaccine production and testing to current investigations around potential therapeutic use in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Such cell types (e.g., MRC-5 or WI-38 sources) were extensively studied since the 1960s and have been continuously used over five decades as safe and sustainable industrial vaccine substrates. Recent research and development efforts around diploid progenitor lung cells (e.g., FE002-Lu or Walvax-2 sources) consist in qualification for potential use as optimal and renewed vaccine production substrates and, alternatively, for potential therapeutic applications in respiratory tract regenerative medicine. Potentially effective, safe, and sustainable cell therapy approaches for the management of inflammatory lung diseases or affections and related symptoms (e.g., COVID-19 patients and burn patient severe inhalation syndrome) using local homologous allogeneic cell-based or cell-derived product administrations are considered. Overall, lung tissue-derived progenitor cells isolated and produced under good manufacturing practices (GMP) may be used with high versatility. They can either act as key industrial platforms optimally conforming to specific pharmacopoeial requirements or as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) for potentially effective promotion of lung tissue repair or regeneration.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Diploidy , Lung/cytology , Regenerative Medicine/methods , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Animals , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Lung/physiology , Regeneration , Regenerative Medicine/history , SARS-CoV-2 , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells/cytology , Transplantation, Homologous
4.
Cell ; 184(21): 5271-5274, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433036

ABSTRACT

This year's Lasker∼Debakey Clinical Research Award honors Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman for the development of a therapeutic technology based on nucleoside-modification of messenger RNA, enabling the rapid development of the highly effective COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Messenger/chemistry
5.
Cell ; 184(21): 5293-5296, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433035

ABSTRACT

The highly effective and safe mRNA-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines draw on decades of painstaking research to overcome the many hurdles for delivering, expressing, and avoiding toxicity of therapeutic mRNA. Cell editor Nicole Neuman talked with Dr. Katalin Karikó and Dr. Drew Weissman, recipients of the 2021 Lasker∼DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award, to learn more about their quest to develop mRNA-based therapeutics, which led them to the crucial discovery that modification of mRNA could prevent toxicity and increase expression. This conversation has been adapted for print below, with editing for clarity, accuracy, and length.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Discovery , Humans , Interviews as Topic , RNA, Messenger/chemistry
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2305: 129-140, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355903

ABSTRACT

The expression of mammalian recombinant proteins in insect cell lines using transient-plasmid-based gene expression enables the production of high-quality protein samples. Here, the procedure for virus-free transient gene expression (TGE) in High Five insect cells is described in detail. The parameters that determine the efficiency and reproducibility of the method are presented in a robust protocol for easy implementation and set-up of the method. The applicability of the TGE method in High Five cells for proteomic, structural, and functional analysis of the expressed proteins is shown.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Cloning, Molecular , Insecta/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/biosynthesis , Transfection/methods , Animals , Bioreactors , Cell Culture Techniques/methods , Cell Line , Gene Expression , Glycosylation , Humans , Insecta/cytology , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/metabolism , Plasmids , Proteomics , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(31): 12194-12201, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320215

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 can survive in wastewater for several days with a potential risk of waterborne human transmission, hence posing challenges in containing the virus and reducing its spread. Herein, we report on an active biohybrid microrobot system that offers highly efficient capture and removal of target virus from various aquatic media. The algae-based microrobot is fabricated by using click chemistry to functionalize microalgae with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The resulting ACE2-algae-robot displays fast (>100 µm/s) and long-lasting (>24 h) self-propulsion in diverse aquatic media including drinking water and river water, obviating the need for external fuels. Such movement of the ACE2-algae-robot offers effective "on-the-fly" removal of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Specifically, the active biohybrid microrobot results in 95% removal of viral spike protein and 89% removal of pseudovirus, significantly exceeding the control groups such as static ACE2-algae and bare algae. These results suggest considerable promise of biologically functionalized algae toward the removal of viruses and other environmental threats from wastewater.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Biotechnology/methods , Microalgae/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Waste Water/virology , Water Purification/methods , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biotechnology/instrumentation , Cell Line , Click Chemistry , Humans , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Water Purification/instrumentation
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 186: 933-951, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309238

ABSTRACT

Polylactic acid (PLA) has been highlighted as an important polymer due to its high potential for applicability in various areas, such as in the chemical, medical, pharmaceutical or biotechnology field. Very recently, studies have reported its use as a basic component for the production of personal protective equipment (PPE) required for the prevention of Sars-Cov-2 contamination, responsible for the cause of coronavirus disease, which is currently a major worldwide sanitary and social problem. PLA is considered a non-toxic, biodegradable and compostable plastic with interesting characteristics from the industrial point of view, and it emerges as a promising product under the concept of "green plastic", since most of the polymers produced currently are petroleum-based, a non-renewable raw material. Biotechnology routes have been mentioned as potential methodologies for the production of this polymer, especially by enzymatic routes, in particular by use of lipases enzymes. The availability of pure lactic acid isomers is a fundamental aspect of the manufacture of PLA with more interesting mechanical and thermal properties. Due to the technological importance that PLA-based polymers are acquiring, as well as their characteristics and applicability in several fields, especially medical, pharmaceutical and biotechnology, this review article sought to gather very recent information regarding the development of research in this area. The main highlight of this study is that it was carried out from a biotechnological point of view, aiming at a totally green bioplastic production, since the obtaining of lactic acid, which will be used as raw material for the PLA synthesis, until the degradation of the polymer obtained by biological routes.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Polyesters/metabolism , Green Chemistry Technology , Humans , Polyesters/chemistry
9.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 26, 2021 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067241

ABSTRACT

With the rapid advancement and progress of nanotechnology, nanomaterials with enzyme-like catalytic activity have fascinated the remarkable attention of researchers, due to their low cost, high operational stability, adjustable catalytic activity, and ease of recycling and reuse. Nanozymes can catalyze the same reactions as performed by enzymes in nature. In contrast the intrinsic shortcomings of natural enzymes such as high manufacturing cost, low operational stability, production complexity, harsh catalytic conditions and difficulties of recycling, did not limit their wide applications. The broad interest in enzymatic nanomaterial relies on their outstanding properties such as stability, high activity, and rigidity to harsh environments, long-term storage and easy preparation, which make them a convenient substitute instead of the native enzyme. These abilities make the nanozymes suitable for multiple applications in sensing and imaging, tissue engineering, environmental protection, satisfactory tumor diagnostic and therapeutic, because of distinguished properties compared with other artificial enzymes such as high biocompatibility, low toxicity, size dependent catalytic activities, large surface area for further bioconjugation or modification and also smart response to external stimuli. This review summarizes and highlights latest progress in applications of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials with enzyme/multienzyme mimicking activities. We cover the applications of sensing, cancer therapy, water treatment and anti-bacterial efficacy. We also put forward the current challenges and prospects in this research area, hoping to extension of this emerging field. In addition to therapeutic potential of nanozymes for disease prevention, their practical effects in diagnostics, to monitor the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and related biomarkers for future pandemics will be predicted.


Subject(s)
Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Metals/chemistry , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanostructures/chemistry , Oxides/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biocatalysis , Biomimetic Materials/therapeutic use , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Metals/therapeutic use , Nanotechnology/methods , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/therapy , Oxides/therapeutic use
10.
J Biol Chem ; 295(46): 15438-15453, 2020 11 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975108

ABSTRACT

Widespread testing for the presence of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in individuals remains vital for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic prior to the advent of an effective treatment. Challenges in testing can be traced to an initial shortage of supplies, expertise, and/or instrumentation necessary to detect the virus by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), the most robust, sensitive, and specific assay currently available. Here we show that academic biochemistry and molecular biology laboratories equipped with appropriate expertise and infrastructure can replicate commercially available SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR test kits and backfill pipeline shortages. The Georgia Tech COVID-19 Test Kit Support Group, composed of faculty, staff, and trainees across the biotechnology quad at Georgia Institute of Technology, synthesized multiplexed primers and probes and formulated a master mix composed of enzymes and proteins produced in-house. Our in-house kit compares favorably with a commercial product used for diagnostic testing. We also developed an environmental testing protocol to readily monitor surfaces for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Our blueprint should be readily reproducible by research teams at other institutions, and our protocols may be modified and adapted to enable SARS-CoV-2 detection in more resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/economics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Technology Transfer , Universities/economics , Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/supply & distribution , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(6): 551-554, 2020 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966126

ABSTRACT

The 1980s mark the starting point of nanotechnology: the capacity to synthesise, manipulate and visualise matter at the nanometre scale. New powers to reach the nanoscale brought us the unprecedented possibility to directly target at the scale of biomolecular interactions, and the motivation to create smart nanostructures that could circumvent the hurdles hindering the success of traditional pharmacological approaches. Forty years on, the progressive integration of bio- and nanotechnologies is starting to produce a transformation of the way we detect, treat and monitor diseases and unresolved medical problems [ 1]. While much of the work remains in research laboratories, the first nano-based treatments, vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic devices, are now receiving approval for commercialisation and clinical use. In this special issue we review recent advances of nanomedical approaches to combat antibiotic resistance, treatment and detection of cancers, targeting neurodegerative diseases, and applications as diverse as dentistry and the treatment of tuberculosis. We also examine the use of advanced smart nanostructured materials in areas such as regenerative medicine, and the controlled release of drugs and treatments. The latter is currently poised to bring ground-breaking changes in immunotherapy: the advent of 'vaccine implants' that continuously control and improve immune responses over time. With the increasingly likely prospect of ending the COVID 19 pandemic with the aid of a nanomedicine-based vaccine (both Moderna and BioNTech/Pfizer vaccines are based on lipid nanoparticle formulations), we are witnessing the coming of age of nanomedicine. This makes it more important than ever to concentrate on safety: in parallel to pursuing the benefits of nanomedine, we must strengthen the continuous focus on nanotoxicology and safety regulation of nanomedicines that can deliver the medical revolution that is within our grasp.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Nanomedicine/methods , Nanotechnology/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(D1): D437-D451, 2021 01 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936421

ABSTRACT

The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB), the US data center for the global PDB archive and a founding member of the Worldwide Protein Data Bank partnership, serves tens of thousands of data depositors in the Americas and Oceania and makes 3D macromolecular structure data available at no charge and without restrictions to millions of RCSB.org users around the world, including >660 000 educators, students and members of the curious public using PDB101.RCSB.org. PDB data depositors include structural biologists using macromolecular crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 3D electron microscopy and micro-electron diffraction. PDB data consumers accessing our web portals include researchers, educators and students studying fundamental biology, biomedicine, biotechnology, bioengineering and energy sciences. During the past 2 years, the research-focused RCSB PDB web portal (RCSB.org) has undergone a complete redesign, enabling improved searching with full Boolean operator logic and more facile access to PDB data integrated with >40 external biodata resources. New features and resources are described in detail using examples that showcase recently released structures of SARS-CoV-2 proteins and host cell proteins relevant to understanding and addressing the COVID-19 global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Protein , Macromolecular Substances/chemistry , Protein Conformation , Proteins/chemistry , Bioengineering/methods , Biomedical Research/methods , Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Macromolecular Substances/metabolism , Pandemics , Proteins/genetics , Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Software , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
13.
Microb Biotechnol ; 14(1): 94-110, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852123

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus-related disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a pandemic in February 2020, and worldwide researchers try to tackle the disease with approved drugs of all kinds, or to develop novel compounds inhibiting viral spreading. Flavonoids, already investigated as antivirals in general, also might bear activities specific for the viral agent causing COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. Microbial biotechnology and especially synthetic biology may help to produce flavonoids, which are exclusive plant secondary metabolites, at a larger scale or indeed to find novel pharmaceutically active flavonoids. Here, we review the state of the art in (i) antiviral activity of flavonoids specific for coronaviruses and (ii) results derived from computational studies, mostly docking studies mainly inhibiting specific coronaviral proteins such as the 3CL (main) protease, the spike protein or the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. In the end, we strive towards a synthetic biology pipeline making the fast and tailored production of valuable antiviral flavonoids possible by applying the last concepts of division of labour through co-cultivation/microbial community approaches to the DBTL (Design, Build, Test, Learn) principle.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery/methods , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Exocytosis/drug effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Microbiota , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1283-1289, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: An epidemic outbreak of COVID-19 has increased the demand for medical equipment, medical accessories along with daily essentials for the safety of healthcare workers. This study aims to identify the operational challenges faced by retailers in providing efficient services. The study also aimed to propose the roadmap of Industry 4.0 to reduce the impact of COVID-19. METHODS: A detailed literature review is done on an epidemic outbreak and supply chain using appropriate keywords on SCOPUS, Science Direct, Google Scholar. Some relevant industry reports and blogs are also taken to get insights. RESULTS: We have identified twelve significant challenges for the retail sectors that are acting as operational barriers and provided the application of Industry 4.0 technologies to deal with it. CONCLUSION: Industry 4.0 can act as a significant driver for reducing the impact of identified challenges on retailers to fight against the pandemic. There is a need to build trust and transparency for the effective management of healthcare essentials. The supply chain partners and government bodies should act wisely for improving the services during COVID-19 and of similar situations. The proposed roadmap provide future research directions for researchers working in the area of epidemic control, supply chain, and disaster management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biotechnology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(4): 419-422, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-116650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: COVID 19 (Coronavirus) pandemic has created surge demand for essential healthcare equipment, medicines along with the requirement for advance information technologies applications. Industry 4.0 is known as the fourth industrial revolution, which has the potential to fulfil customised requirement during COVID-19 crisis. This revolution has started with the applications of advance manufacturing and digital information technologies. METHODS: A detailed review of the literature is done on the technologies of Industry 4.0 and their applications in the COVID-19 pandemic, using appropriate search words on the databases of PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar and Research Gate. RESULTS: We found several useful technologies of Industry 4.0 which help for proper control and management of COVID-19 pandemic and these have been discussed in this paper. The available technologies of Industry 4.0 could also help the detection and diagnosis of COVID-19 and other related problems and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Industry 4.0 can fulfil the requirements of customised face masks, gloves, and collect information for healthcare systems for proper controlling and treating of COVID-19 patients. We have discussed ten major technologies of Industry 4.0 which help to solve the problems of this virus. It is useful to provide day to day update of an infected patient, area-wise, age-wise and state-wise with proper surveillance systems. We also believe that the proper implementation of these technologies would help to enhance education and communication regarding public health. These Industry 4.0 technologies could provide a lot of innovative ideas and solution for fighting local and global medical emergencies.


Subject(s)
Biotechnology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Infection Control/organization & administration , Information Technology/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Education as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infection Control/trends , Patient Care , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
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