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1.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(6): 1269-1273, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933531

ABSTRACT

A 11-year-old boy with acute myeloid leukemia was brought for treatment of severe acute respiratory infection in the National Capital Region, New Delhi, India. Avian influenza A(H5N1) infection was laboratory confirmed. Complete genome analysis indicated hemagglutinin gene clade 2.3.2.1a. We found the strain to be susceptible to amantadine and neuraminidase inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Birds , Child , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Humans , India , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Male , Phylogeny
2.
Immunogenetics ; 74(1): 149-165, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906024

ABSTRACT

Birds are important hosts for many RNA viruses, including influenza A virus, Newcastle disease virus, West Nile virus and coronaviruses. Innate defense against RNA viruses in birds involves detection of viral RNA by pattern recognition receptors. Several receptors of different classes are involved, such as endosomal toll-like receptors and cytoplasmic retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptors, and their downstream adaptor proteins. The function of these receptors and their antagonism by viruses is well established in mammals; however, this has received less attention in birds. These receptors have been characterized in a few bird species, and the completion of avian genomes will permit study of their evolution. For each receptor, functional work has established ligand specificity and activation by viral infection. Engagement of adaptors, regulation by modulators and the supramolecular organization of proteins required for activation are incompletely understood in both mammals and birds. These receptors bind conserved nucleic acid agonists such as single- or double-stranded RNA and generally show purifying selection, particularly the ligand binding regions. However, in birds, these receptors and adaptors differ between species, and between individuals, suggesting that they are under selection for diversification over time. Avian receptors and signalling pathways, like their mammalian counterparts, are targets for antagonism by a variety of viruses, intent on escape from innate immune responses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , RNA , Animals , Birds/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Ligands , Mammals/genetics
3.
Microbiome ; 10(1): 60, 2022 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wild birds may harbor and transmit viruses that are potentially pathogenic to humans, domestic animals, and other wildlife. RESULTS: Using the viral metagenomic approach, we investigated the virome of cloacal swab specimens collected from 3182 birds (the majority of them wild species) consisting of > 87 different species in 10 different orders within the Aves classes. The virus diversity in wild birds was higher than that in breeding birds. We acquired 707 viral genomes from 18 defined families and 4 unclassified virus groups, with 265 virus genomes sharing < 60% protein sequence identities with their best matches in GenBank comprising new virus families, genera, or species. RNA viruses containing the conserved RdRp domain with no phylogenetic affinity to currently defined virus families existed in different bird species. Genomes of the astrovirus, picornavirus, coronavirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, circovirus, retrovirus, and adenovirus families which include known avian pathogens were fully characterized. Putative cross-species transmissions were observed with viruses in wild birds showing > 95% amino acid sequence identity to previously reported viruses in domestic poultry. Genomic recombination was observed for some genomes showing discordant phylogenies based on structural and non-structural regions. Mapping the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data respectively against the 707 genomes revealed that these viruses showed distribution pattern differences among birds with different habitats (breeding or wild), orders, and sampling sites but no significant differences between birds with different behavioral features (migratory and resident). CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a highly diverse virome highlights the challenges in elucidating the evolution, etiology, and ecology of viruses in wild birds. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
RNA Viruses , Viruses , Animals , Animals, Wild , Birds , Cloaca , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/genetics , Virome/genetics , Viruses/genetics
4.
Acta Virol ; 64(2): 264-267, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718101

ABSTRACT

The members of coronavirus family are facultative pathogens of birds and mammals, including men. From their first isolation 60 years ago, they caused smaller or larger epidemics mainly originating from China. The most recent pandemic quickly spreading worldwide has affected over 2,000,000 people. Keywords: coronavirus; epidemic; single strand vRNA.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Birds , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Mammals , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30102, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622736

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic species of the Chlamydiaceae family should be considered as rare pathogenic agents of severe atypical pneumonia. A fatal case of a severe pneumonia due to Chlamydia psittaci was traced back to pet birds, and pneumonia in a pregnant woman was attributed to abortions in a sheep and goat flock, being the source of Chlamydia abortus. The two SARS­CoV­2-negative pneumonia cases presented here were investigated in an inter-disciplinary approach involving physicians and veterinarians. State-of-art molecular methods allowed the identification and genotyping of zoonotic Chlamydiae.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Chlamydophila psittaci , Animals , Birds , Chlamydia Infections/complications , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydophila psittaci/genetics , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sheep
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 811: 152358, 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569041

ABSTRACT

Bird collisions with windows are among the highest sources of human caused mortality to this group of animals. However, environmental correlates of spatial patterns in collision risk are poorly understood, thus making mitigation measures difficult to implement. We took advantage of Covid-19 lockdown in the spring of 2020, when people were obligated to stay mainly at home, and performed a memory-recall questionnaire survey concerning bird-window collisions in Poland. We received information on bird-window collisions with 1800 buildings across the whole country accompanied by characteristics of each building, its vicinity and resident's behavior (time spent home, window cleaning). We supplemented these data with landscape description and performed statistical models to estimate importance of 13 explanatory variables as predictors of number of bird-window collisions. Reported number of collisions increased with the share of forests and arable land within 2 km of the building, and with proximity to rivers. Number of collisions also increased when single trees were close to buildings. More collisions were reported for houses than for flats and for new buildings than for old ones. Reported number of collisions increased with window cleaning which might suggest that cleaning reduces glass visibility for birds. As bird-window collision risk is highly variable among buildings but can be reduced with several measures improving glass visibility for birds, we recommend to use predictive models to identify collision hotspots for applying these measures. New houses located near rivers, in forests or agricultural landscapes have highest collision risk, and trees near buildings, often planted to benefit birds, can additionally elevate collision rate, thus potentially creating ecological traps. In such collision hotspots, reduction of window cleaning frequency can be considered as a mitigation measure unless the visual markers improving glass visibility for birds are installed on the panels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Citizen Science , Animals , Birds , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Poland , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Nature ; 600(7889): 386, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565095
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7083, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555251

ABSTRACT

The availability of viral entry factors is a prerequisite for the cross-species transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Large-scale single-cell screening of animal cells could reveal the expression patterns of viral entry genes in different hosts. However, such exploration for SARS-CoV-2 remains limited. Here, we perform single-nucleus RNA sequencing for 11 non-model species, including pets (cat, dog, hamster, and lizard), livestock (goat and rabbit), poultry (duck and pigeon), and wildlife (pangolin, tiger, and deer), and investigated the co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Furthermore, cross-species analysis of the lung cell atlas of the studied mammals, reptiles, and birds reveals core developmental programs, critical connectomes, and conserved regulatory circuits among these evolutionarily distant species. Overall, our work provides a compendium of gene expression profiles for non-model animals, which could be employed to identify potential SARS-CoV-2 target cells and putative zoonotic reservoirs.


Subject(s)
Atlases as Topic , Single-Cell Analysis/veterinary , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Birds , Cell Communication , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Regulatory Networks , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Mammals , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Reptiles , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Transcriptome , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization
10.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538547

ABSTRACT

2014 marked the first emergence of avian influenza A(H5N8) in Jeonbuk Province, South Korea, which then quickly spread worldwide. In the midst of the 2020-2021 H5N8 outbreak, it spread to domestic poultry and wild waterfowl shorebirds, leading to the first human infection in Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. Despite being clinically asymptomatic and without direct human-to-human transmission, the World Health Organization stressed the need for continued risk assessment given the nature of Influenza to reassort and generate novel strains. Given its promiscuity and easy cross to humans, the urgency to understand the mechanisms of possible species jumping to avert disastrous pandemics is increasing. Addressing the epidemiology of H5N8, its mechanisms of species jumping and its implications, mutational and reassortment libraries can potentially be built, allowing them to be tested on various models complemented with deep-sequencing and automation. With knowledge on mutational patterns, cellular pathways, drug resistance mechanisms and effects of host proteins, we can be better prepared against H5N8 and other influenza A viruses.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H5N8 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/virology , Poultry Diseases/virology , Animals , Birds/virology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Pandemics/veterinary , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Russia/epidemiology
11.
Elife ; 102021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513067

ABSTRACT

Identifying the key vector and host species that drive the transmission of zoonotic pathogens is notoriously difficult but critical for disease control. We present a nested approach for quantifying the importance of host and vectors that integrates species' physiological competence with their ecological traits. We apply this framework to a medically important arbovirus, Ross River virus (RRV), in Brisbane, Australia. We find that vertebrate hosts with high physiological competence are not the most important for community transmission; interactions between hosts and vectors largely underpin the importance of host species. For vectors, physiological competence is highly important. Our results identify primary and secondary vectors of RRV and suggest two potential transmission cycles in Brisbane: an enzootic cycle involving birds and an urban cycle involving humans. The framework accounts for uncertainty from each fitted statistical model in estimates of species' contributions to transmission and has has direct application to other zoonotic pathogens.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/virology , Birds/virology , Culicidae/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Disease Vectors , Ross River virus/pathogenicity , Viral Zoonoses , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Models, Biological , Queensland , Virulence
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2742-2745, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453200

ABSTRACT

In February 2021, routine sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illness in Cambodia detected a human avian influenza A(H9N2) virus infection. Investigations identified no recent H9N2 virus infections in 43 close contacts. One chicken sample from the infected child's house was positive for H9N2 virus and genetically similar to the human virus.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Birds , Cambodia/epidemiology , Chickens , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H9N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(10): 2619-2627, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453198

ABSTRACT

The numerous global outbreaks and continuous reassortments of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N6/H5N8) clade 2.3.4.4 viruses in birds pose a major risk to the public health. We investigated the tropism and innate host responses of 5 recent HPAI A(H5N6/H5N8) avian isolates of clades 2.3.4.4b, e, and h in human airway organoids and primary human alveolar epithelial cells. The HPAI A(H5N6/H5N8) avian isolates replicated productively but with lower competence than the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, HPAI A(H5N1), and HPAI A(H5N6) isolates from humans in both or either models. They showed differential cellular tropism in human airway organoids; some infected all 4 major epithelial cell types: ciliated cells, club cells, goblet cells, and basal cells. Our results suggest zoonotic potential but low transmissibility of the HPAI A(H5N6/H5N8) avian isolates among humans. These viruses induced low levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, which are unlikely to contribute to the pathogenesis of severe disease.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza A Virus, H5N8 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , Birds , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
15.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481010

ABSTRACT

Paramyxoviruses, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, pose a critical threat to human public health. Currently, 78 species, 17 genera, and 4 subfamilies of paramyxoviruses are harbored by multiple natural reservoirs, including rodents, bats, birds, reptiles, and fish. Henipaviruses are critical zoonotic pathogens that cause severe acute respiratory distress and neurological diseases in humans. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, 115 Crocidura species individuals were examined for the prevalence of paramyxovirus infections. Paramyxovirus RNA was observed in 26 (22.6%) shrews collected at five trapping sites, Republic of Korea. Herein, we report two genetically distinct novel paramyxoviruses (genus: Henipavirus): Gamak virus (GAKV) and Daeryong virus (DARV) isolated from C. lasiura and C. shantungensis, respectively. Two GAKVs and one DARV were nearly completely sequenced using next-generation sequencing. GAKV and DARV contain six genes (3'-N-P-M-F-G-L-5') with genome sizes of 18,460 nucleotides and 19,471 nucleotides, respectively. The phylogenetic inference demonstrated that GAKV and DARV form independent genetic lineages of Henipavirus in Crocidura species. GAKV-infected human lung epithelial cells elicited the induction of type I/III interferons, interferon-stimulated genes, and proinflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, this study contributes further understandings of the molecular prevalence, genetic characteristics and diversity, and zoonotic potential of novel paramyxoviruses in shrews.


Subject(s)
Henipavirus/classification , Henipavirus/genetics , Paramyxovirinae/classification , Paramyxovirinae/genetics , Phylogeny , Shrews/virology , Animals , Biodiversity , Birds/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Fishes/virology , Henipavirus/isolation & purification , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Interferons , Paramyxovirinae/isolation & purification , RNA Viruses/classification , Reptiles/virology , Republic of Korea , Rodentia/virology , Viral Zoonoses/virology
16.
Conserv Biol ; 35(5): 1659-1668, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455530

ABSTRACT

Anurans (frogs and toads) are among the most globally threatened taxonomic groups. Successful conservation of anurans will rely on improved data on the status and changes in local populations, particularly for rare and threatened species. Automated sensors, such as acoustic recorders, have the potential to provide such data by massively increasing the spatial and temporal scale of population sampling efforts. Analyzing such data sets will require robust and efficient tools that can automatically identify the presence of a species in audio recordings. Like bats and birds, many anuran species produce distinct vocalizations that can be captured by autonomous acoustic recorders and represent excellent candidates for automated recognition. However, in contrast to birds and bats, effective automated acoustic recognition tools for anurans are not yet widely available. An effective automated call-recognition method for anurans must be robust to the challenges of real-world field data and should not require extensive labeled data sets. We devised a vocalization identification tool that classifies anuran vocalizations in audio recordings based on their periodic structure: the repeat interval-based bioacoustic identification tool (RIBBIT). We applied RIBBIT to field recordings to study the boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) of temperate North American grasslands and the critically endangered variable harlequin frog (Atelopus varius) of tropical Central American rainforests. The tool accurately identified boreal chorus frogs, even when they vocalized in heavily overlapping choruses and identified variable harlequin frog vocalizations at a field site where it had been very rarely encountered in visual surveys. Using a few simple parameters, RIBBIT can detect any vocalization with a periodic structure, including those of many anurans, insects, birds, and mammals. We provide open-source implementations of RIBBIT in Python and R to support its use for other taxa and communities.


Los anuros (ranas y sapos) se encuentran dentro de los grupos taxonómicos más amenazados a nivel mundial. La conservación exitosa de los anuros dependerá de información mejorada sobre el estado y los cambios en las poblaciones locales, particularmente para las especies raras y amenazadas. Los sensores automatizados, como las grabadoras acústicas, tienen el potencial para proporcionar dicha información al incrementar masivamente la escala espacial y temporal de los esfuerzos de muestreo poblacional. El análisis de dicha información requerirá herramientas robustas y eficientes que puedan identificar automáticamente la presencia de una especie en las grabaciones de audio. Como las aves y los murciélagos, muchas especies de anuros producen vocalizaciones distintivas que pueden ser capturadas por las grabadoras acústicas autónomas y también son excelentes candidatas para el reconocimiento automatizado. Sin embargo, a diferencia de las aves y los murciélagos, todavía no se cuenta con una disponibilidad extensa de herramientas para el reconocimiento acústico automatizado de los anuros. Un método efectivo para el reconocimiento automatizado del canto de los anuros debe ser firme ante los retos de los datos reales de campo y no debería requerir conjuntos extensos de datos etiquetados. Diseñamos una herramienta de identificación de las vocalizaciones: la herramienta de identificación bioacústica basada en el intervalo de repetición (RIBBIT), el cual clasifica las vocalizaciones de los anuros en las grabaciones de audio con base en su estructura periódica. Aplicamos la RIBBIT a las grabaciones de campo para estudiar a dos especies: la rana coral boreal (Pseudacris maculata) de los pastizales templados de América del Norte y la rana arlequín variable (Atelopus varius), críticamente en peligro de extinción, de las selvas tropicales de América Central. Mostramos que RIBBIT puede identificar correctamente a las ranas corales boreales, incluso cuando vocalizan en coros con mucha superposición, y puede identificar las vocalizaciones de la rana arlequín variable en un sitio de campo en donde rara vez se le ha visto durante censos visuales. Mediante relativamente unos cuantos parámetros simples, RIBBIT puede detectar cualquier vocalización con una estructura periódica, incluyendo aquellas de muchos anuros, insectos, aves y mamíferos. Proporcionamos implementaciones de fuente abierta de RIBBIT en Python y en R para fomentar su uso para otros taxones y comunidades.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources , Vocalization, Animal , Acoustics , Animals , Anura , Birds
17.
Infect Genet Evol ; 93: 104993, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373190

ABSTRACT

Avian influenza virus (AIV) H7N9 that emerged in 2013 in eastern China is a novel zoonotic agent mainly circulating in poultry without clinical signs but causing severe disease with high fatality in humans in more than 5 waves. Since the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 variants in 2016, it has induced heavy losses in the poultry industry leading to the implementation of an intensive nationwide vaccination program at the end of wave 5 (September 2017). To characterize the ongoing evolution of H7N9 AIV, we conducted analyses of H7N9 glycoprotein genes obtained from 2013 to 2019. Bayesian analyses revealed a decreasing population size of HP H7N9 variants post wave 5. Phylogenetic topologies revealed that two novel small subclades were formed and carried several fixed amino acid mutations that were along HA and NA phylogenetic trees since wave 5. Some of the mutations were located at antigenic sites or receptor binding sites. The antigenic analysis may reveal a significant antigenic drift evaluated by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay and the antigenicity of H7N9 AIV might evolute in large leaps in wave 7. Molecular simulations found that the mutations (V135T, S145P, and L226Q) around the HA receptor pocket increased the affinity to α2,3-linked sialic acid (SIA) while decreased to α2,6-linked SIA. Altered affinity may suggest that HP H7N9 variations aggravate the pathogenicity to poultry but lessen the threat to public health. Selection analyses showed that the HP H7N9 AIV experienced an increasing selection pressure since wave 5, and the national implementation of vaccination might intensify the role of natural selection during the evolution waves 6 and 7. In summary, our data provide important insights about the genetic and antigenic diversity of circulating HP H7N9 viruses from 2017 to 2019. Enhanced surveillance is urgently warranted to understand the current situation of HP H7N9 AIV.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation/immunology , Birds , Genetic Variation , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza in Birds/virology , Animals , China , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Phylogeny
18.
Virol Sin ; 36(3): 402-411, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372824

ABSTRACT

Outbreaks of severe virus infections with the potential to cause global pandemics are increasingly concerning. One type of those commonly emerging and re-emerging pathogens are coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2). Wild animals are hosts of different coronaviruses with the potential risk of cross-species transmission. However, little is known about the reservoir and host of coronaviruses in wild animals in Qinghai Province, where has the greatest biodiversity among the world's high-altitude regions. Here, from the next-generation sequencing data, we obtained a known beta-coronavirus (beta-CoV) genome and a novel delta-coronavirus (delta-CoV) genome from faecal samples of 29 marmots, 50 rats and 25 birds in Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, China in July 2019. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the beta-CoV shared high nucleotide identity with Coronavirus HKU24. Although the novel delta-CoV (MtCoV) was closely related to Sparrow deltacoronavirus ISU42824, the protein spike of the novel delta-CoV showed highest amino acid identity to Sparrow coronavirus HKU17 (73.1%). Interestingly, our results identified a novel host (Montifringilla taczanowskii) for the novel delta-CoV and the potential cross-species transmission. The most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of MtCoVs along with other closest members of the species of Coronavirus HKU15 was estimated to be 289 years ago. Thus, this study increases our understanding of the genetic diversity of beta-CoVs and delta-CoVs, and also provides a new perspective of the coronavirus hosts.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Phylogeny , Animals , Birds/virology , China , Coronavirus/classification , Marmota/virology , Rats/virology , Tibet
19.
Virology ; 563: 20-27, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356482

ABSTRACT

Viruses of the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae can cause mild to severe disease in people, including COVID-19, MERS and SARS. Their most common natural hosts are bat and bird species, which are mostly split across four virus genera. Molecular clock analyses of orthocoronaviruses suggested the most recent common ancestor of these viruses might have emerged either around 10,000 years ago or, using models accounting for selection, many millions of years. Here, we reassess the evolutionary history of these viruses. We present time-aware phylogenetic analyses of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase locus from 123 orthocoronaviruses isolated from birds and bats, including those in New Zealand, which were geographically isolated from other bats around 35 million years ago. We used this age, as well as the age of the avian-mammals split, to calibrate the molecular clocks, under the assumption that these ages are applicable to the analyzed viruses. We found that the time to the most recent ancestor common for all orthocoronaviruses is likely 150 or more million years, supporting clock analyses that account for selection.


Subject(s)
Birds/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Coronaviridae , Genome, Viral , Animals , Coronaviridae/classification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , New Zealand/epidemiology
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