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1.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285770, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319825

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia, always a major malady, became the main public health and economic disaster of historical proportions with the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was based on a premise that pathology of lung metabolism in inflammation may have features invariant to the nature of the underlying cause. Amino acid uptake by the lungs was measured from plasma samples collected pre-terminally from a carotid artery and vena cava in mice with bleomycin-induced lung inflammation (N = 10) and compared to controls treated with saline instillation (N = 6). In the control group, the difference in concentrations between the arterial and venous blood of the 19 amino acids measured reached the level of statistical significance only for arginine (-10.7%, p = 0.0372) and phenylalanine (+5.5%, p = 0.0266). In the bleomycin group, 11 amino acids had significantly lower concentrations in the arterial blood. Arginine concentration was decreased by 21.1% (p<0.0001) and only that of citrulline was significantly increased (by 20.1%, p = 0.0002). Global Arginine Bioavailability Ratio was decreased in arterial blood by 19.5% (p = 0.0305) in the saline group and by 30.4% (p<0.0001) in the bleomycin group. Production of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline from arginine by the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is greatly increased in the immune system's response to lung injury. Deprived of arginine, the endothelial cells downstream may fail to provide enough NO to prevent the activation of thrombocytes. Thrombotic-related vascular dysfunction is a defining characteristic of pneumonia, including COVID-19. This experiment lends further support to arginine replacement as adjuvant therapy in pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Mice , Humans , Animals , Arginine/metabolism , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Citrulline/metabolism , Pandemics , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 311: 116423, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270017

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jingfang granules (JF), one famous traditional Chinese formula in "She Sheng Zhong Miao Fang" written by Shi-Che Zhang during the Ming Dynasty era, has been widely used to prevent epidemic diseases in history and now was recommended for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the roles of JF against acute lung injury and its mechanisms remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Acute lung injury (ALI) and its progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are a continuum of lung inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality in clinic, especially in COVID-19 patients. The present study aims to investigate the effect of JF on ALI and clarify its underlying mechanisms for clinical application in COVID-19 control. METHODS: Bleomycin-induced ALI mice were given oral gavage daily for seven days with or without Jingfang granules (2, 4 g/kg). The body weight, lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung appearance and tissue histopathology were evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR, biochemical bronchoalveolar lavage fluids analysis was used to determine the gene expression of proinflammation factor and infiltrated inflammatory cells in lung. Immunofluorescence image and western blot were used to detect the markers of alveolar macrophages (AMs), endothelial cell apoptosis and changes of CD200-CD200R pathway. RESULTS: Firstly, histopathological analysis showed that JF significantly attenuated pulmonary injury and inflammatory response in ALI mice. Then, cytokine detection, inflammatory cells assay, and JNKs and p38 pathway analysis indicated that the recruitment and activation of alveolar macrophages was the main reason to cause ALI and JF could reverse this variation. Next, immunofluorescence staining and TUNEL assay showed that JF upregulated the expression of CD200 and suppressed the apoptosis of alveolar endothelial cells. Finally, double immunofluorescence staining of CD200 and CD11c indicated that the seriously damaged tissue had the lower CD200 while more AMs infiltration, which was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of CD200/CD200R. CONCLUSIONS: Jingfang granules can protect lung from acu te injury and mitigate the recruitment and overactive AMs-induced inflammation via CD200-CD200R immunoregulatory signal axis, which will provide an experimental basis for Jingfang granules clinical applications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Female , Mice , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2128, 2023 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267535

ABSTRACT

Lung fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, is an intractable disease accompanied by an irreversible dysfunction in the respiratory system. Its pathogenesis involves the transforming growth factorß (TGFß)-induced overproduction of the extracellular matrix from fibroblasts; however, limited countermeasures have been established. In this study, we identified osa-miR172d-5p, a plant-derived microRNA (miR), as a potent anti-fibrotic miR. In silico analysis followed by an in vitro assay based on human lung fibroblasts demonstrated that osa-miR172d-5p suppressed the gene expression of TGF-ß activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 1 (Tab1). It also suppressed the TGFß-induced fibrotic gene expression in human lung fibroblasts. To assess the anti-fibrotic effect of osa-miR172d-5p, we established bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis models to demonstrate that osa-miR172d-5p ameliorated lung fibrosis. Moreover, it suppressed Tab1 expression in the lung tissues of bleomycin-treated mice. In conclusion, osa-miR172d-5p could be a potent candidate for the treatment of lung fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , MicroRNAs , Humans , Mice , Animals , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis , Bleomycin/toxicity , Bleomycin/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism
4.
Phytomedicine ; 112: 154707, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qimai Feiluoping decoction (QM), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula, has been included in rehabilitation program for functional disorders of discharged COVID-19 patients. QM has been proved to effectively improve the clinical symptoms and imaging signs of PF in COVID-19 convalescent patients. PURPOSE: This study to explore the pharmacological effect of QM against PF from the perspectives of imaging, pathological staining, and molecular mechanisms, and identify possible active components. METHODS: Micro-CT imaging and immunohistochemical staining were investigated to verify the therapeutic effect of QM in the bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF mouse model. The 4D-label-free proteomics analysis of lung tissues was then conducted to explore the novel mechanisms of QM against PF, which were further validated by a series of experiments. The possible components of QM in plasma and lung tissues were identified with UHPLC/IM-QTOF-MS analysis. RESULTS: The results from micro-CT imaging and pathological staining revealed that QM treatment can inhibit BLM-induced lung injury, extracellular matrix accumulation and TGF-ß expression in the mouse model with PF. The 4D-label-free proteomics analysis demonstrated that the partial subunit proteins of mitochondrial complex I and complex II might be potential targets of QM against PF. Furthermore, QM treatment can inhibit BLM-induced mitochondrial ROS content to promote ATP production and decrease oxidative stress injury in the mouse and cell models of PF, which was mediated by the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Finally, a total of 13 protype compounds and 15 metabolites from QM in plasma and lung tissues were identified by UHPLC/IM-QTOF-MS, and liquiritin and isoliquiritigenin from Glycyrrhizae radix et rhizoma could be possible active compounds against PF. CONCLUSION: It concludes that QM treatment could treat PF by inhibiting mitochondrial complex I-mediated mitochondrial oxidated stress injury, which could offer new insights into the pharmacological mechanisms of QM in the clinical application of PF patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Mice , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Bleomycin/toxicity , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Oxidative Stress
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(2)2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235591

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is a common and threatening post-COVID-19 complication with poorly resolved molecular mechanisms and no established treatment. The plasminogen activator system, including urokinase (uPA) and urokinase receptor (uPAR), is involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and contributes to the development of lung injury and post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis, although their cellular and molecular underpinnings still remain obscure. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of uPA and uPAR in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. We analyzed uPA and uPAR expression in human lung tissues from COVID-19 patients with pulmonary fibrosis using single-cell RNA-seq and immunohistochemistry. We modeled lung fibrosis in Plau-/- and Plaur-/- mice upon bleomycin instillation and explored the effect of uPAR downregulation in A549 and BEAS-2B lung epithelial cells. We found that uPAR expression drastically decreased in the epithelial airway basal cells and monocyte/macrophage cells, whereas uPA accumulation significantly increased in tissue samples of COVID-19 patients. Lung injury and fibrosis in Plaur-/- vs. WT mice upon bleomycin instillation revealed that uPAR deficiency resulted in pro-fibrogenic uPA accumulation, IL-6 and ACE2 upregulation in lung tissues and was associated with severe fibrosis, weight loss and poor survival. uPAR downregulation in A549 and BEAS-2B was linked to an increased N-cadherin expression, indicating the onset of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and potentially contributing to pulmonary fibrosis. Here for the first time, we demonstrate that plasminogen treatment reversed lung fibrosis in Plaur-/- mice: the intravenous injection of 1 mg of plasminogen on the 21st day of bleomycin-induced fibrosis resulted in a more than a two-fold decrease in the area of lung fibrosis as compared to non-treated mice as evaluated by the 42nd day. The expression and function of the plasminogen activator system are dysregulated upon COVID-19 infection, leading to excessive pulmonary fibrosis and worsening the prognosis. The potential of plasminogen as a life-saving treatment for non-resolving post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Mice , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/genetics , Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Fibrosis , Plasminogen , Bleomycin/toxicity
6.
Life Sci ; 314: 121256, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165678

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a terminal lung ailment that shares several pathological and genetic mechanisms with severe COVID-19. Thymol (THY) is a dietary compound found in thyme species that showed therapeutic effects against various diseases. However, the effect of THY against bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis was not previously investigated. The current study investigated the ability of THY to modulate oxidative stress, inflammation, miR-29a/TGF-ß expression, and PI3K/phospho-Akt signaling in lung fibrosis. Mice were divided into Normal, THY (100 mg/kg, p.o.), BLM (15 mg/kg, i.p.), BLM + THY (50 mg/kg, p.o.), and BLM + THY (100 mg/kg, p.o.) groups and treated for four weeks. The obtained results showed that BLM + THY (50 mg/kg) and BLM + THY (100 mg/kg) reduced fibrotic markers; α-SMA and fibronectin, inflammatory mediators; TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and NF-kB and oxidative stress biomarkers; MDA, GSH, and SOD, relative to BLM group. Lung histopathological examination by H&E and Masson's trichrome stains confirmed the obtained results. Remarkably, expression levels of TGF-ß, PI3K, and phospho-Akt were decreased while miR-29a expression was elevated. In conclusion, THY effectively prevented BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis by exerting significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Our novel findings that THY upregulated lung miR-29a expression while decreased TGF-ß and PI3K/Akt signaling are worthy of further investigation as a possible molecular mechanism for THY's anti-fibrotic actions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , MicroRNAs , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Mice , Animals , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Bleomycin/toxicity , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Thymol/therapeutic use , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Inflammation/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Fibrosis , MicroRNAs/metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023746

ABSTRACT

Although interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a life-threatening pathological condition that causes respiratory failure, the efficiency of current therapies is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of human MIKO-1 (hMIKO-1), a hybrid protein that suppresses the abnormal activation of macrophages, on murine macrophage function and its therapeutic effect in a mouse model of bleomycin-induced ILD (BLM-ILD). To this end, the phenotype of thioglycolate-induced murine peritoneal macrophages co-cultured with hMIKO-1 was examined. The mice were assigned to normal, BLM-alone, or BLM + hMIKO-1 groups, and hMIKO-1 (0.1 mg/mouse) was administered intraperitoneally from day 0 to 14. The mice were sacrificed on day 28, and their lungs were evaluated by histological examination, collagen content, and gene expression levels. hMIKO-1 suppressed the polarization of murine macrophages to M2 predominance in vitro. The fibrosis score of lung pathology and lung collagen content of the BLM + hMIKO-1 group were significantly lower than those in the BLM-alone group. The expression levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, F4/80, and TIMP-1 in the lungs of the BLM + hMIKO-1 group were significantly lower than those in the BLM-alone group. These findings indicate that hMIKO-1 reduces lung fibrosis and may be a future therapeutic candidate for ILD treatment.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/chemically induced , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism
8.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic, progressive, and, ultimately, terminal interstitial disease caused by a variety of factors, ranging from genetics, bacterial, and viral infections, to drugs and other influences. Varying degrees of PF and its rapid progress have been widely reported in post-COVID-19 patients and there is consequently an urgent need to develop an appropriate, cost-effective approach for the prevention and management of PF. AIM: The potential "therapeutic" effect of the tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) and carotene against bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung fibrosis was investigated in rats via the modulation of TGF-ß/Smad, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. DESIGN/METHODS: Lung fibrosis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intratracheal BLM (5 mg/kg) injection. These rats were subsequently treated with TRF (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt/day), carotene (10 mg/kg body wt/day), or a combination of TRF (200 mg/kg body wt/day) and carotene (10 mg/kg body wt/day) for 28 days by gavage administration. A group of normal rats was provided with saline as a substitute for BLM as the control. Lung function and biochemical, histopathological, and molecular alterations were studied in the lung tissues. RESULTS: Both the TRF and carotene treatments were found to significantly restore the BLM-induced alterations in anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions. The treatments appeared to show pneumoprotective effects through the upregulation of antioxidant status, downregulation of MMP-7 and inflammatory cytokine expressions, and reduction in collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline). We demonstrated that TRF and carotene ameliorate BLM-induced lung injuries through the inhibition of apoptosis, the induction of TGF-ß1/Smad, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Furthermore, the increased expression levels were shown to be significantly and dose-dependently downregulated by TRF (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body wt/day) treatment in high probability. The histopathological findings further confirmed that the TRF and carotene treatments had significantly attenuated the BLM-induced lung injury in rats. CONCLUSION: The results of this study clearly indicate the ability of TRF and carotene to restore the antioxidant system and to inhibit proinflammatory cytokines. These findings, thus, revealed the potential of TRF and carotene as preventive candidates for the treatment of PF in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Tocotrienols , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Carotenoids/adverse effects , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Tocotrienols/adverse effects , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
9.
J Toxicol Sci ; 46(9): 425-435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389030

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells by binding with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). While ACE2 is expressed in multiple cell types, it has been implicated in the clinical progression of COVID-19 as an entry point for SARS-CoV-2 into respiratory cells. Human respiratory cells, such as airway and alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells, are considered essential for COVID-19 research; however, primary human respiratory cells are difficult to obtain. In the present study, we generated ATII and club cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and drug testing. The differentiated cells expressed ATII markers (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, SLC34A2) or club cell markers (SCGB1A1 and SCGB3A2). Differentiated cells, which express ACE2 and TMPRSS2, were infected with SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir treatment decreased intracellular SARS-CoV-2 viral replication and, furthermore, treatment with bleomycin showed cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. These data suggest that hiPSC-derived AT2 and club cells provide a useful in vitro model for drug development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bleomycin/toxicity , Cell Differentiation , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/pharmacology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/virology , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/drug effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
10.
JCI Insight ; 6(12)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223641

ABSTRACT

Mice are normally unaffected by SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection since the virus does not bind effectively to the murine version of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor molecule. Here, we report that induced mild pulmonary morbidities rendered SARS-CoV-2-refractive CD-1 mice susceptible to this virus. Specifically, SARS-CoV-2 infection after application of low doses of the acute lung injury stimulants bleomycin or ricin caused severe disease in CD-1 mice, manifested by sustained body weight loss and mortality rates greater than 50%. Further studies revealed markedly higher levels of viral RNA in the lungs, heart, and serum of low-dose ricin-pretreated mice compared with non-pretreated mice. Furthermore, lung extracts prepared 2-3 days after viral infection contained subgenomic mRNA and virus particles capable of replication only when derived from the pretreated mice. The deleterious effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were effectively alleviated by passive transfer of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies generated against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). Thus, viral cell entry in the sensitized mice seems to depend on viral RBD binding, albeit by a mechanism other than the canonical ACE2-mediated uptake route. This unique mode of viral entry, observed over a mildly injured tissue background, may contribute to the exacerbation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathologies in patients with preexisting morbidities.


Subject(s)
Bleomycin/toxicity , COVID-19/pathology , Lung Injury , Ricin/toxicity , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Comorbidity , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/virology , Mice , Vero Cells , Virus Attachment , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 230, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF), the end point of interstitial lung diseases, is characterized by myofibroblast over differentiation and excessive extracellular matrix accumulation, leading to progressive organ dysfunction and usually a terminal outcome. Studies have shown that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (uMSCs) could alleviate PF; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. METHODS: The therapeutic effects of uMSC-derived extracellular vesicles (uMSC-EVs) on PF were evaluated using bleomycin (BLM)-induced mouse models. Then, the role and mechanism of uMSC-EVs in inhibiting myofibroblast differentiation were investigated in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Treatment with uMSC-EVs alleviated the PF and enhanced the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells in BLM-induced mice, thus improved the life quality, including the survival rate, body weight, fibrosis degree, and myofibroblast over differentiation of lung tissue. Moreover, these effects of uMSC-EVs on PF are likely achieved by inhibiting the transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) signaling pathway, evidenced by decreased expression levels of TGF-ß2 and TGF-ßR2. Using mimics of uMSC-EV-specific miRNAs, we found that miR-21 and miR-23, which are highly enriched in uMSC-EVs, played a critical role in inhibiting TGF-ß2 and TGF-ßR2, respectively. CONCLUSION: The effects of uMSCs on PF alleviation are likely achieved via EVs, which reveals a new role of uMSC-EV-derived miRNAs, opening a novel strategy for PF treatment in the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Mice , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Signal Transduction , Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics , Transforming Growth Factors , Umbilical Cord
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635683

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Polysaccharides/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Animals , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Bleomycin/toxicity , COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Forkhead Box Protein O3/physiology , Fungi/chemistry , Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein D0/physiology , Humans , Macrophages/drug effects , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Neutrophils/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/prevention & control , RNA, Long Noncoding/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Seaweed/chemistry , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Smad2 Protein/physiology , Smad3 Protein/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/antagonists & inhibitors
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