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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099737

ABSTRACT

The rapid growth of the world population has increased the food demand as well as the need for assurance of food quality, safety, and sustainability. However, food security can easily be compromised by not only natural hazards but also changes in food preferences, political conflicts, and food frauds. In order to contribute to building a more sustainable food system-digitally visible and processes measurable-within this review, we summarized currently available evidence for various information and communication technologies (ICTs) that can be utilized to support collaborative actions, prevent fraudulent activities, and remotely perform real-time monitoring, which has become essential, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Internet of Everything, 6G, blockchain, artificial intelligence, and digital twin are gaining significant attention in recent years in anticipation of leveraging the creativity of human experts in collaboration with efficient, intelligent, and accurate machines, but with limited consideration in the food supply chain. Therefore, this paper provided a thorough review of the food system by showing how various ICT tools can help sense and quantify the food system and highlighting the key enhancements that Industry 5.0 technologies can bring. The vulnerability of the food system can be effectively mitigated with the utilization of various ICTs depending on not only the nature and severity of crisis but also the specificity of the food supply chain. There are numerous ways of implementing these technologies, and they are continuously evolving.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Artificial Intelligence , Food Security
2.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7025485, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029566

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused global epidemic infections, which is one of the most severe infections in human medical history. In the absence of proper medications and vaccines, handling the pandemic has been challenging for governments and major health facilities. Additionally, tracing COVID-19 cases and handling data generated from the pandemic are also extremely challenging. Data privacy access and collection are also a challenge when handling COVID-19 data. Blockchain technology provides various features such as decentralization, anonymity, cryptographic security, smart contracts, and a distributed framework that allows users and entities to handle COVID-19 data better. Since the outbreak has made the moral crisis in the clinical and administrative centers worse than any other that has resulted in the decline in the supply of the exact information, however, it is vital to provide fast and accurate insight into the situation. As a result of all these concerns, this study emphasizes the need for COVID-19 data processing to acquire aspects such as data security, data integrity, real-time data handling, and data management to provide patients with all benefits from which they had been denied owing to misinformation. Hence, the management of COVID-19 data through the use of the blockchain framework is crucial. Therefore, this paper illustrates how blockchain technology can be implemented in the COVID-19 data handling process. The paper also proposes a framework with three main layers: data collection layer; data access and privacy layer; and data storage layer.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Security , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 7078764, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020524

ABSTRACT

Due to the high transmission rate and high pathogenicity of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), there is an urgent need for the diagnosis and treatment of outbreaks around the world. In order to diagnose quickly and accurately, an auxiliary diagnosis method is proposed for COVID-19 based on federated learning and blockchain, which can quickly and effectively enable collaborative model training among multiple medical institutions. It is beneficial to address data sharing difficulties and issues of privacy and security. This research mainly includes the following sectors: in order to address insufficient medical data and the data silos, this paper applies federated learning to COVID-19's medical diagnosis to achieve the transformation and refinement of big data values. With regard to third-party dependence, blockchain technology is introduced to protect sensitive information and safeguard the data rights of medical institutions. To ensure the model's validity and applicability, this paper simulates realistic situations based on a real COVID-19 dataset and analyses problems such as model iteration delays. Experimental results demonstrate that this method achieves a multiparty participation in training and a better data protection and would help medical personnel diagnose coronavirus disease more effectively.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Learning , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4862742, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020507

ABSTRACT

Infectious and contagious diseases exist in humanity for many centuries which causes a curb in the growth of the population. Immunization plays a vital role to prevent mortality and morbidity against infectious diseases. COVID-19 pandemic continues to rage the urgency of developing a vaccine that should ensure the safety, efficacy, swift and fair deployment, implementation, and monitoring of vaccines across the globe. In the present context, the vaccine production to immunization campaign is a critical challenge. Therefore, an effective vaccine supply chain mechanism is required to address issues such as counterfeit vaccines, reduce vaccine wastages, and vaccine record fraud. In this paper, a blockchain-enabled vaccine supply chain is proposed to ensure the correctness, transparency, trust, and immutable log and improve the efficiency of vaccine distribution in the cold chain. The uniqueness of the proposed system is to provide distributed system to verify the reliability and efficacy of the vaccine from production to end beneficiaries' feedback about the vaccine. Our proposed system gives a clear view to the users as well as to the healthcare provider about the vaccination and ensures the anticounterfeit vaccine. The proposed system minimizes counterfeit vaccines and records, provides transparent communication between stakeholders in the supply chain, and improves the security of the vaccine supply chain and immutable feedback system about the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Reproducibility of Results , Vaccine Efficacy
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e057281, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932731

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: By using health code blockchain, cities can maximise the use of personal information while maximising the protection of personal privacy in the monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of listed vaccines. DESIGN: This study constructs an urban COVID-19 listed vaccine effectiveness (VE) monitoring, evaluation and application system based on the health code blockchain. This study uses this system and statistical simulation to analyse three urban application scenarios, namely evaluating the vaccination rate (VR) and determining the optimal vaccination strategy, evaluating herd immunity and monitoring the VE on variant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes first establish an urban COVID-19 listed VE monitoring, evaluation and application system by using the health code blockchain, combined with the dynamic monitoring model of VE, the evaluation index system of VE and the monitoring and evaluation system of personal privacy information use, and then three measures are analysed in urban simulation: one is to take the index reflecting urban population mobility as the weight to calculate the comprehensive VR, the second is to calculate the comprehensive basic reproduction number (R) in the presence of asymptomatic persons, the third is to compare the difference between the observed effectiveness and the true effectiveness of listed vaccines under virus variation. RESULTS: Combining this system and simulation, this study finds: (1) The comprehensive VR, which is weighted to reflect urban population mobility, is more accurate than the simple VR which does not take into account urban population mobility. Based on population mobility, the algorithm principle of urban optimal vaccination strategy is given. In the simulation of urban listed vaccination involving six regions, programmes 1 and 5 have the best protective effect among the eight vaccination programmes, and the optimal vaccination order is 3-5-2-4-6-1. (2) In the presence of asymptomatic conditions, the basic reproduction number, namely R0*(1-VR*VE), does not accurately reflect the effect of herd immunity, but the comprehensive basic reproduction number (R) should be used. The R is directly proportional to the proportion of asymptomatic people (aw) and the duration of the incubation period (ip), and inversely proportional to the VR, the VE and the number of days transmitted in the ip (k). In the simulation analysis, when symptomatic R0=3, even with aw=0.2, the R decreases to nearly 1 until the VR reaches 95%. When aw=0.8, even when the entire population is vaccinated, namely VR=1, the R is 1.688, and still significantly greater than 1. If the R is to be reduced to 1, the VE needs to be increased to 0.87. (3) This system can more comprehensively and accurately grasp the impact of the variant virus on urban VE. The traditional epidemiological investigation can lose the contacts of infected persons, which leads to the deviation between the observed effectiveness and the true effectiveness. Virus variation aggravates the loss, and then increases the deviation. Simulation case 1 assumes the unvaccinated rate of 0.8, the ongoing VR of 0.1, the completed VR of 0.1 and an average infection rate of 2% for the variant virus. If a vaccine is more than 90% effectiveness against the premutant virus, but only 80% effectiveness against the mutant virus, and because 80% of the unvaccinated people who are not infected are not observed, the observed effectiveness of the vaccine is 91.76%, it will lead to the wrong judgement that the VE against the variant virus is not decreased. Simulation case 2 assumes the unvaccinated rate of 0.8, the ongoing VR of 0.1, the completed VR of 0.1 and an average infection rate of 5% for the variant virus. Simulation finds that the higher the proportion of unvaccinated infected people who are not observed, the lower the estimate of observed effectiveness; and the lower the true effectiveness, the larger the gap between observed effectiveness and true effectiveness. Simulation case 3 assumes the unvaccinated rate of 0.2, the ongoing VR of 0.2, the completed VR of 0.6 and an average infection rate of 2% for the variant virus. Simulation finds that the higher the proportion of unobserved completed vaccination patients who are not infected, the lower the estimate of observed effectiveness; and the lower the true effectiveness, the larger the gap between observed effectiveness and true effectiveness. Simulation case 4 assumes the unvaccinated rate of 0.2, the ongoing VR of 0.2, the completed VR of 0.6 and an average infection rate of 5% for the variant virus. If a vaccine is more than 90% effectiveness against the premutant virus, but only 80% effectiveness against the mutant virus, and because 80% of the infected people with complete vaccination are not observed, the observed effectiveness of the vaccine is 91.95%, similar to case 1, it will lead to the wrong judgement that the VE against the variant virus is not decreased. CONCLUSION: Compared with traditional epidemiological investigation, this system can meet the challenges of accelerating virus variation and a large number of asymptomatic people, dynamically monitor and accurately evaluate the effectiveness of listed vaccines and maximise personal privacy without locking down the relevant area or city. This system established in this study could serve as a universal template for monitoring and evaluating the effectiveness of COVID-19 listed vaccines in cities around the world. If this system can be promoted globally, it will promote countries to strengthen unity and cooperation and enhance the global ability to respond to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 295: 312-315, 2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924035

ABSTRACT

Advances in computer communication technology have enabled the rapid growth of e-health services for delivering healthcare, such as facilitating online consent and data sharing between patients and health professionals. Developing a patient-centric healthcare system is challenging because by necessity, it should be secure, reliable, and resilient to cyber threats, whilst remaining user-friendly. Key to any development aiming for a refined proof-of-concept (PoC) system is the pursuit of comprehensive public system testing and evaluation. This paper focuses on the methodology and results obtained from the participatory approach adopted by the EU H2020 project Serums to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of a smart healthcare system based on emergent technologies like blockchain, data lake, and multi-factor authentication. We discuss the challenges faced by remote PoC system evaluations with end-users as a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917487

ABSTRACT

In the face of the health challenges caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, healing and therapeutic design (HTD) as interventions can help with improving people's health. It is considered to have great potential to promote health in the forms of art, architecture, landscape, space, and environment. However, there are insufficient design approaches to address the challenges during the HTD process. An increased number of studies have shown that emerging information modeling (IM) such as building information modeling (BIM), landscape information modeling (LIM), and city information modeling (CIM) coupled with blockchain (BC) functionalities have the potential to enhance designers' HTD by considering important design elements, namely design variables, design knowledge, and design decision. It can also address challenges during the design process, such as design changes, conflicts in design requirements, the lack of design evaluation tools and frameworks, and incomplete design information. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a conceptual BC enhanced IM for HTD (BC-HTD) framework that addresses the challenges in the HTD and promotes health and well-being. The structure of BC-HTD framework is twofold: (1) a conceptual high-level framework comprising three levels: user; system; and information, (2) a conceptual low-level framework of detailed content at the system level, which has been constructed using a mixed quantitative and qualitative method of literature analysis, and validated via a pre-interview questionnaire survey and follow-up interviews with industry experts and academics. This paper analyzes the process of BC enhanced HTD and the knowledge management of HTD to aid design decisions in managing design information. This paper is the first attempt to apply the advantages of BC enabled IM to enhance the HTD process. The results of this study can foster and propel new research pathways and knowledge on the value of design in the form of non-fungible token (NFT) based on the extended advantages of BC in the field of design, which can fully mobilize the healing and therapeutic behaviors of designers and the advantage potential of HTD to promote health, and realize the vision of Health Metaverse in the context of sustainable development.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Promotion , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sustainable Development
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911341

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19, the circulation of agricultural products is increasingly important for the nutrition and health of people. With the changing needs of society and the advancement of technology, the agricultural product circulation system needs to undergo corresponding changes to adapt to the modern fast-paced social system. Blockchain technology couples with the circulation of agricultural products, as its technical features, such as immutability and a distributed ledger database, ensures the speed and stability of the key information circulation process of agricultural products. The research goal of this paper was to clarify the influence of blockchain technology on the qualification rate and circulation efficiency for agricultural products. Based on the main characteristics of blockchain technology and a summary of domestic and foreign theoretical research, this paper simulated the impacts of blockchain technology on the agricultural product circulation system. The results revealed that blockchain technology can improve the qualification rate of agricultural products and thereby ensure their quality and safety. The introduction of blockchain increased the qualification rate by nearly 30%. Moreover, blockchain technology significantly enhanced the efficiency of the agricultural product circulation system, thereby greatly promoting economic benefits. The introduction of blockchain increased circulation efficiency by nearly 15%. Finally, the introduction of blockchain technology can effectively promote the governance level and reduce the supervision costs of the agricultural product circulation system. Through simulation analysis, we found that blockchain technology has a positive impact on both the qualification rate and circulation efficiency for agricultural products. These findings enrich research into the application of blockchain technology in the management and circulation of modern agricultural products.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Agriculture , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Systems Analysis , Technology
10.
Occup Ther Int ; 2022: 2623656, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891946

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the public administration and resource allocation based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy, this paper takes the public affairs in the prevention and control of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic as an example to conduct research. On the basis of summarizing and analyzing the previous published literatures, this study expounded the research status and significance of public administration and resource allocations; elaborated the development background, current status and future challenges of blockchain, and structured occupational therapy; introduced the methods and principles of data quality collaboration model and multiparty collaboration standard management; analyzed the case background of public administration and resource allocation in the prevention and control of the COVID-19 epidemic; discussed the public administration mechanism based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy; established a resource allocation method based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy; fathomed the role of the distributed ledger established by blockchain to increase the information symmetry of public administration activities; proposed a blockchain-established special machine trust for resource allocation; and finally, anatomized the data security sharing and access control mechanism based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy. The research results show that the public administration and resource allocation in this paper can effectively realize the data integration of the whole process and all departments and show the whole data and realize the traceability of the whole process. The blockchain revolutionizes the hierarchical leadership method of traditional resource allocation, shortens the distance between superiors and subordinates, makes information dissemination more fluent, and handles things more efficiently, making resource allocation ultimately form a flatter organization structure. In the original trust system of resource allocation, the blockchain and structured occupational therapy realizes the reconstruction of the trust system by preventing information tampering, using information encryption technology, and using information traceability technology. The results of this paper provide a reference for further research on the public administration and resource allocation based on blockchain and structured occupational therapy.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Occupational Therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Security , Humans , Resource Allocation
11.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 26(8): 4187-4196, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891403

ABSTRACT

Worldwide up to May 2022 there have been 515 million cases of COVID-19 infection and over 6 million deaths. The World Health Organization estimated that 115,000 healthcare workers died from COVID-19 from January 2020 to May 2021. This toll on human lives prompted this review on 5G based networking primarily on major components of healthcare delivery: diagnosis, patient monitoring, contact tracing, diagnostic imaging tests, vaccines distribution, emergency medical services, telesurgery and robot-assisted tele-ultrasound. The positive impact of 5G as core technology for COVID-19 applications enabled exchange of huge data sets in fangcang (cabin) hospitals and real-time contact tracing, while the low latency enhanced robot-assisted tele-ultrasound, and telementoring during ophthalmic surgery. In other instances, 5G provided a supportive technology for applications related to COVID-19, e.g., patient monitoring. The feasibility of 5G telesurgery was proven, albeit by a few studies on real patients, in very low samples size in most instances. The important future applications of 5G in healthcare include surveillance of elderly people, the immunosuppressed, and nano- oncology for Internet of Nano Things (IoNT). Issues remain and these require resolution before routine clinical adoption. These include infrastructure and coverage; health risks; security and privacy protection of patients' data; 5G implementation with artificial intelligence, blockchain, and IoT; validation, patient acceptance and training of end-users on these technologies.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Aged , Artificial Intelligence , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Humans , Privacy
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884316

ABSTRACT

Due to its significant global impact, both domestic and international efforts are underway to cure the infection and stop the COVID-19 virus from spreading further. In resource-limited environments, overwhelmed healthcare institutions and surveillance systems are struggling to cope with this epidemic, necessitating a specific strategic response. In this study, we looked into the COVID-19 situation and to establish trust, accountability, and transparency, we employed blockchain's immutable and tamper-proof properties. We offered a smart contract (SC)-based solution (Block-HPCT) that has been successfully tested to preserve a digital health passport (DHP) for vaccine recipients; also, for contact tracing (CT) we employed proof of location concept, which aids in a swift and credible response directly from the appropriate healthcare authorities. To connect on-chain and off-chain data, trusted and registered oracles were integrated and to provide a double layer of security along with symmetric key encryption; both Interplanetary File System (IPFS) and Hyperledger Fabric were merged as storage center. We also provided a full description of the suggested solution's system design, implementation, experiment results, and evaluation (privacy and cost analysis). As per the findings, the suggested approach performed satisfactorily across all significant assessment criteria, implying that it can lead the way for practical implementations and also can be used for similar types of situations where contact tracing of infectious can be crucial.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Tracing/methods , Humans , Privacy
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869750

ABSTRACT

Electronic Health Records (EHR) are the healthcare sector's core digital strategy meant to improve the quality of care provided to patients. Despite the benefits afforded by this digital transformation initiative, adoption among healthcare organizations has been slower than desired. The sheer volume and sensitive nature of patient records compel these organizations to exercise a healthy amount of caution in implementing EHR. Cyberattacks have also increased the risks associated with non-optimal EHR implementations. An influx of high-profile data breaches has plagued the sector during the COVID-19 pandemic, which put the spotlight on EHR cybersecurity. One objective of this research project is to aid the acceleration of EHR adoption. Another objective is to ensure the robustness of the system to resist malicious attacks. For the former, a systematic review was used to unearth all the possible causes why the adoption of EHR has been anemic. In this paper, sixty-five existing proposed EHR solutions were analyzed and it was found that there are fourteen major challenges that need to be addressed to reduce friction and risk for health organizations. These were privacy, security, confidentiality, interoperability, access control, scalability, authentication, accessibility, availability, data storage, data ownership, data validity, data integrity, and ease of use. We propose EHRChain, a new framework that tackles all the listed challenges simultaneously to address the first objective while also being designed to achieve the second objective. It is enabled by dual-blockchains based on Hyperledger Sawtooth to allow patient data decentralization via a consortium blockchain and IPFS for distributed data storage.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Security , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Pandemics
14.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(5): 1257-1268, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846200

ABSTRACT

Blockchain is a novel data architecture characterized by a chronological sequence of blocks in a decentralized manner. We aimed to evaluate the real-world feasibility of a blockchain-based dynamic consent platform (METORY) in a decentralized and multicenter trial. The study consisted of three visits (i.e., screening and 2 follow-up visits) with a 2-week interval. Each subject was required to report the self-measured body temperatures and take a virtual investigational drug by entering the unique drug code on the application. To simulate real-world study settings, two major (i.e., changes in the schedule of body temperature measurement) and three minor protocol amendments (i.e., nonsignificant changes without any changes in the procedures) were set. Overall study completion rates, proportion of consent, and response time to each protocol amendment and adherence were evaluated. A total of 60 subjects (30 in each center) were enrolled in two study centers. All subjects completed the study, and the overall proportion of consent to each protocol amendment was 95.7 ± 13.7% (mean ± SD), with a median response time of 0.2 h. Overall, subjects took 90.8% ± 19.2% of the total drug, whereas compliance with the schedule was 69.1% ± 27.0%. Subjects reported 96.7% ± 4.2% of the total body temperature measurements whereas the adherence to the schedule was 59.0% ± 25.0%, which remarkably decreased after major protocol amendments. In conclusion, we evaluated a blockchain-based dynamic consent platform in real clinical trial settings. The results suggested that major changes should be avoided unless subjects' proper understanding is warranted.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Humans , Informed Consent , SARS-CoV-2
15.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(4): e32411, 2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an ongoing global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. As of June 2021, 5 emergency vaccines were available for COVID-19 prevention, and with the improvement of vaccination rates and the resumption of activities in each country, verification of vaccination has become an important issue. Currently, in most areas, vaccination and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results are certified and validated on paper. This leads to the problem of counterfeit documents. Therefore, a global vaccination record is needed. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to design a vaccine passport (VP) validation system based on a general blockchain architecture for international use in a simulated environment. With decentralized characteristics, the system is expected to have the advantages of low cost, high interoperability, effectiveness, security, and verifiability through blockchain architecture. METHODS: The blockchain decentralized mechanism was used to build an open and anticounterfeiting information platform for VPs. The contents of a vaccination card are recorded according to international Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resource (FHIR) standards, and blockchain smart contracts (SCs) are used for authorization and authentication to achieve hierarchical management of various international hospitals and people receiving injections. The blockchain stores an encrypted vaccination path managed by the user who manages the private key. The blockchain uses the proof-of-authority (PoA) public chain and can access all information through the specified chain. This will achieve the goal of keeping development costs low and streamlining vaccine transit management so that countries in different economies can use them. RESULTS: The openness of the blockchain helps to create transparency and data accuracy. This blockchain architecture contains a total of 3 entities. All approvals are published on Open Ledger. Smart certificates enable authorization and authentication, and encryption and decryption mechanisms guarantee data protection. This proof of concept demonstrates the design of blockchain architecture, which can achieve accurate global VP verification at an affordable price. In this study, an actual VP case was established and demonstrated. An open blockchain, an individually approved certification mechanism, and an international standard vaccination record were introduced. CONCLUSIONS: Blockchain architecture can be used to build a viable international VP authentication process with the advantages of low cost, high interoperability, effectiveness, security, and verifiability.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computer Security , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 6112815, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794365

ABSTRACT

Due to the high amount of electronic health records, hospitals have prioritized data protection. Because it uses parallel computing and is distributed, the security of the cloud cannot be guaranteed. Because of the large number of e-health records, hospitals have made data security a major concern. The cloud's security cannot be guaranteed because it uses parallel processing and is distributed. The blockchain (BC) has been deployed in the cloud to preserve and secure medical data because it is particularly prone to security breaches and attacks such as forgery, manipulation, and privacy leaks. An overview of blockchain (BC) technology in cloud storage to improve healthcare system security can be obtained by reading this paper. First, we will look at the benefits and drawbacks of using a basic cloud storage system. After that, a brief overview of blockchain cloud storage technology will be offered. Many researches have focused on using blockchain technology in healthcare systems as a possible solution to the security concerns in healthcare, resulting in tighter and more advanced security requirements being provided. This survey could lead to a blockchain-based solution for the protection of cloud-outsourced healthcare data. Evaluation and comparison of the simulation tests of the offered blockchain technology-focused studies can demonstrate integrity verification with cloud storage and medical data, data interchange with reduced computational complexity, security, and privacy protection. Because of blockchain and IT, business warfare has emerged, and governments in the Middle East have embraced it. Thus, this research focused on the qualities that influence customers' interest in and approval of blockchain technology in cloud storage for healthcare system security and the aspects that increase people's knowledge of blockchain. One way to better understand how people feel about learning how to use blockchain technology in healthcare is through the United Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). A snowball sampling method was used to select respondents in an online poll to gather data about blockchain technology in Middle Eastern poor countries. A total of 443 randomly selected responses were tested using SPSS. Blockchain adoption has been shown to be influenced by anticipation, effort expectancy, social influence (SI), facilitation factors, personal innovativeness (PInn), and a perception of security risk (PSR). Blockchain adoption and acceptance were found to be influenced by anticipation, effort expectancy, social influence (SI), facilitating conditions, personal innovativeness (PInn), and perceived security risk (PSR) during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as providing an overview of current trends in the field and issues pertaining to significance and compatibility.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Computer Security , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records , Adult , Blockchain/standards , Blockchain/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cloud Computing/standards , Cloud Computing/statistics & numerical data , Computational Biology , Computer Security/standards , Computer Security/statistics & numerical data , Computer Simulation , Delivery of Health Care/standards , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Electronic Health Records/standards , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
17.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266916, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793498

ABSTRACT

The lack of data outsourcing in healthcare management systems slows down the intercommunication and information sharing between different entities. A standard solution is outsourcing the electronic health record (EHR) to a cloud service provider (CSP). The outsourcing of the EHR should be performed securely without compromising the CSP functionalities. Searchable encryption would be a viable approach to ensure the confidentiality of the data without compromising searchability and accessibility. However, most existing searchable encryption solutions use centralised architecture. These systems have trust issues as not all the CSPs are fully trusted or honest. To address these problems, we explore blockchain technology with smart contract applications to construct a decentralised system with auditable yet immutable data storage and access. First, we propose a blockchain-based searchable encryption scheme for EHR storage and updates in a decentralised fashion. The proposed scheme supports confidentiality of the outsourced EHR, keyword search functionalities, verifiability of the user and the server, storage immutability, and dynamic updates of EHRs. Next, we implement a prototype using JavaScript and Solidity on the Ethereum platform to demonstrate the practicality of the proposed solution. Finally, we compare the performance and security of the proposed scheme against existing solutions. The result indicates that the proposed scheme is practical while providing the desired security features and functional requirements.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Cloud Computing , Computer Security , Confidentiality , Delivery of Health Care , Electronic Health Records
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785638

ABSTRACT

Counterfeiting drugs has been a global concern for years. Considering the lack of transparency within the current pharmaceutical distribution system, research has shown that blockchain technology is a promising solution for an improved supply chain system. This study aims to explore the current solution proposals for distribution systems using blockchain technology. Based on a literature review on currently proposed solutions, it is identified that the secrecy of the data within the system and nodes' reputation in decision making has not been considered. The proposed prototype uses a zero-knowledge proof protocol to ensure the integrity of the distributed data. It uses the Markov model to track each node's 'reputation score' based on their interactions to predict the reliability of the nodes in consensus decision making. Analysis of the prototype demonstrates a reliable method in decision making, which concludes with overall improvements in the system's confidentiality, integrity, and availability. The result indicates that the decision protocol must be significantly considered in a reliable distribution system. It is recommended that the pharmaceutical distribution systems adopt a relevant protocol to design their blockchain solution. Continuous research is required further to increase performance and reliability within blockchain distribution systems.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , Confidentiality , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Reproducibility of Results , Technology
19.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 215: 106595, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COVID-19, a serious infectious disease outbreak started in the end of 2019, has caused a strong impact on the overall medical system, which reflects the gap in the volume and capacity of medical services and highlights the importance of clinical data ex-change and application. The most important concerns of medical records in the medical field include data privacy, data correctness, and data security. By realizing these three goals, medical records can be made available to different hospital information systems to achieve the most complete medical care services. The privacy and protection of health data require detailed specification and usage requirements, which is particularly important for cross-agency data exchange. METHODS: This research is composed of three main modules. "Combined Encryption and Decryption Architecture", which includes the hybrid double encryption mechanism of AES and RSA, and encrypts medical records to produce "Secured Encrypted Medical Record". "Decentralize EMR Repository", which includes data decryption and an exchange mechanism. After a data transmission is completed, the content verification and data decryption process will be launched to confirm the correctness of the data and obtain the data. A blockchain architecture is used to store the hash value of the encrypted EMR, and completes the correctness verification of the EMR after transmission through the hash value. RESULTS: The results of this study provide an efficient triple encryption mechanism for electronic medical records. SEMRES ensures the correctness of data through the non-repudiation feature of a blockchain open ledger, and complete integrated information security protection and data verification architecture, in order that medical data can be exchanged, verified, and applied in different locations. After the patient receives medical services, the medical record is re-encrypted and verified and stored in the patient's medical record. The blockchain architecture is used to ensure the verification of non-repudiation of medical service, and finally to complete the payment for medical services. CONCLUSIONS: The main aim of this study was to complete a security architecture for medical data, and develop a triple encryption authentication architecture to help data owners easily and securely share personal medical records with medical service personnel.


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , Health Records, Personal , Computer Security , Electronic Health Records , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 145: 105461, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763669

ABSTRACT

With the global spread of the COVID-19 epidemic, a reliable method is required for identifying COVID-19 victims. The biggest issue in detecting the virus is a lack of testing kits that are both reliable and affordable. Due to the virus's rapid dissemination, medical professionals have trouble finding positive patients. However, the next real-life issue is sharing data with hospitals around the world while considering the organizations' privacy concerns. The primary worries for training a global Deep Learning (DL) model are creating a collaborative platform and personal confidentiality. Another challenge is exchanging data with health care institutions while protecting the organizations' confidentiality. The primary concerns for training a universal DL model are creating a collaborative platform and preserving privacy. This paper provides a model that receives a small quantity of data from various sources, like organizations or sections of hospitals, and trains a global DL model utilizing blockchain-based Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In addition, we use the Transfer Learning (TL) technique to initialize layers rather than initialize randomly and discover which layers should be removed before selection. Besides, the blockchain system verifies the data, and the DL method trains the model globally while keeping the institution's confidentiality. Furthermore, we gather the actual and novel COVID-19 patients. Finally, we run extensive experiments utilizing Python and its libraries, such as Scikit-Learn and TensorFlow, to assess the proposed method. We evaluated works using five different datasets, including Boukan Dr. Shahid Gholipour hospital, Tabriz Emam Reza hospital, Mahabad Emam Khomeini hospital, Maragheh Dr.Beheshti hospital, and Miandoab Abbasi hospital datasets, and our technique outperform state-of-the-art methods on average in terms of precision (2.7%), recall (3.1%), F1 (2.9%), and accuracy (2.8%).


Subject(s)
Blockchain , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Privacy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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