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1.
J Immunol ; 207(10): 2405-2410, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471046

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes severe acute respiratory syndrome. mRNA vaccines directed at the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein resulted in development of Abs and protective immunity. To determine the mechanism, we analyzed the kinetics of induction of circulating exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Ab following vaccination of healthy individuals. Results demonstrated induction of circulating exosomes expressing spike protein on day 14 after vaccination followed by Abs 14 d after the second dose. Exosomes with spike protein, Abs to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and T cells secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α increased following the booster dose. Transmission electron microscopy of exosomes also demonstrated spike protein Ags on their surface. Exosomes with spike protein and Abs decreased in parallel after four months. These results demonstrate an important role of circulating exosomes with spike protein for effective immunization following mRNA-based vaccination. This is further documented by induction of humoral and cellular immune responses in mice immunized with exosomes carrying spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Exosomes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Blood Circulation , Cells, Cultured , Exosomes/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunization , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Vaccination
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233981, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456053

ABSTRACT

We aimed to examine aneurysm hemodynamics with intra-saccular pressure measurement, and compare the effects of coiling, stenting and stent-assisted coiling in proximal segments of intracranial circulation. A cohort of 45 patients underwent elective endovascular coil embolization (with or without stent) for intracranial aneurysm at our department. Arterial pressure transducer was used for all measurements. It was attached to proximal end of the microcatheter. Measurements were taken in the parent artery before and after embolization, at the aneurysm dome before embolization, after stent implantation, and after embolization. Stent-assisted coiling was performed with 4 different stents: LVIS and LVIS Jr (Microvention, Tustin, CA, USA), Leo (Balt, Montmorency, France), Barrel VRD (Medtronic/ Covidien, Irvine, CA, USA). Presence of the stent showed significant reverse correlation with intra-aneurysmal pressure-both systolic and diastolic-after its implantation (r = -0.70 and r = -0.75, respectively), which was further supported by correlations with stent cell size-r = 0.72 and r = 0.71, respectively (P<0.05). Stent implantation resulted in significant decrease in diastolic intra-aneurysmal pressure (p = 0.046). Systolic or mean intra-aneurysmal pressure did not differ significantly. Embolization did not significantly change the intra-aneurysmal pressure in matched pairs, regardless of the use of stent (p>0.05). In conclusion, low-profile braided stents show a potential to divert blood flow, there was significant decrease in diastolic pressure after stent placement. Flow-diverting properties were related to stent porosity. Coiling does not significantly change the intra-aneurysmal pressure, regardless of packing density.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Intracranial Aneurysm/physiopathology , Stents , Aged , Arterial Pressure , Blood Circulation , Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Brain/blood supply , Brain/physiopathology , Embolization, Therapeutic , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 666223, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247864

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 share similar characteristics. For instance, the genetic homology of SARS-CoV-2 compared to SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV is 80% and 50%, respectively, which may cause similar clinical features. Moreover, uncontrolled release of proinflammatory mediators (also called a cytokine storm) by activated immune cells in SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 patients leads to severe phenotype development. AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the inflammatory cytokine profile associated with three strains of severe human coronavirus diseases (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2). METHOD: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies published until July 2020. Randomized and observational studies reporting the inflammatory cytokines associated with severe and non-severe human coronavirus diseases, including MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, were included. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval to estimate the pooled mean of inflammatory biomarkers. RESULTS: A high level of circulating IL-6 could be associated with the severity of infection of the three coronavirus strains. TNF, IL-10, and IL-8 are associated with the severity of COVID-19. Increased circulating levels of CXCL10/IP10 and CCL2/MCP-1 might also be related to the severity of MERS. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the immune response and immunopathology in the three severe human coronavirus strains are somewhat similar. The findings highlight that nearly all studies reporting severe cases of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 have been associated with elevated levels of IL-6. This could be used as a potential therapeutic target to improve patients' outcomes in severe cases. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration 94 number: CRD42020209931.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Animals , Blood Circulation , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
Immunity ; 53(6): 1296-1314.e9, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965599

ABSTRACT

Temporal resolution of cellular features associated with a severe COVID-19 disease trajectory is needed for understanding skewed immune responses and defining predictors of outcome. Here, we performed a longitudinal multi-omics study using a two-center cohort of 14 patients. We analyzed the bulk transcriptome, bulk DNA methylome, and single-cell transcriptome (>358,000 cells, including BCR profiles) of peripheral blood samples harvested from up to 5 time points. Validation was performed in two independent cohorts of COVID-19 patients. Severe COVID-19 was characterized by an increase of proliferating, metabolically hyperactive plasmablasts. Coinciding with critical illness, we also identified an expansion of interferon-activated circulating megakaryocytes and increased erythropoiesis with features of hypoxic signaling. Megakaryocyte- and erythroid-cell-derived co-expression modules were predictive of fatal disease outcome. The study demonstrates broad cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection beyond adaptive immune cells and provides an entry point toward developing biomarkers and targeted treatments of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Erythroid Cells/pathology , Megakaryocytes/physiology , Plasma Cells/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , Blood Circulation , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proteomics , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis
5.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 161: 15-22, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-816474

ABSTRACT

Amelioration of immune overactivity during sepsis is key to restoring hemodynamics, microvascular blood flow, and tissue oxygenation, and in preventing multi-organ dysfunction syndrome. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome that results from sepsis ultimately leads to degradation of the endothelial glycocalyx and subsequently increased vascular leakage. Current fluid resuscitation techniques only transiently improve outcomes in sepsis, and can cause edema. Nitric oxide (NO) treatment for sepsis has shown promise in the past, but implementation is difficult due to the challenges associated with delivery and the transient nature of NO. To address this, we tested the anti-inflammatory efficacy of sustained delivery of exogenous NO using i.v. infused NO releasing nanoparticles (NO-np). The impact of NO-np on microhemodynamics and immune response in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced endotoxemia mouse model was evaluated. NO-np treatment significantly attenuated the pro-inflammatory response by promoting M2 macrophage repolarization, which reduced the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum and slowed vascular extravasation. Combined, this resulted in significantly improved microvascular blood flow and 72-h survival of animals treated with NO-np. The results from this study suggest that sustained supplementation of endogenous NO ameliorates and may prevent the morbidities of acute systemic inflammatory conditions. Given that endothelial dysfunction is a common denominator in many acute inflammatory conditions, it is likely that NO enhancement strategies may be useful for the treatment of sepsis and other acute inflammatory insults that trigger severe systemic pro-inflammatory responses and often result in a cytokine storm, as seen in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Endotoxemia/drug therapy , Nitric Oxide/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Animals , Blood Circulation/drug effects , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/blood , Delayed-Action Preparations/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Macrophages/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
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