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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518484

ABSTRACT

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) led to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A systemic hyper-inflammation characterizes severe COVID-19 disease, often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Blood biomarkers capable of risk stratification are of great importance in effective triage and critical care of severe COVID-19 patients. Flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing were done on peripheral blood cells and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and cytokines were measured from and mass spectrometry-based proteomics was done on plasma samples from an Indian cohort of COVID-19 patients. Publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed for validation of primary data. Statistical analyses were performed to validate risk stratification. We report here higher plasma abundance of suPAR, expressed by an abnormally expanded myeloid cell population, in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The plasma suPAR level was found to be linked to a characteristic plasma proteome, associated with coagulation disorders and complement activation. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis to predict mortality identified a cutoff value of suPAR at 1,996.809 pg/ml (odds ratio: 2.9286, 95% confidence interval 1.0427-8.2257). Lower-than-cutoff suPAR levels were associated with a differential expression of the immune transcriptome as well as favorable clinical outcomes, in terms of both survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0.3615, 95% confidence interval 0.1433-0.912) and faster disease remission in our patient cohort. Thus, we identified suPAR as a key pathogenic circulating molecule linking systemic hyperinflammation to the hypercoagulable state and stratifying clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Proteome/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649122, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285287

ABSTRACT

Thromboplasminflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coagulopathy consists of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced coagulopathy, activated factor XII (FXIIa)- and kallikrein, kinin system-enhanced fibrinolysis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). All three conditions induce systemic inflammation via each pathomechanism-developed production of inflammatory cytokines. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) downregulates angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, leading to an increase in Ang II levels. Ang II-induced coagulopathy comprising platelet activation, thrombin generation, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and endothelial injury causes thrombosis via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. SARS-CoV-2 RNA and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) DNA activate FXII, resulting in plasmin generation through FXIIa- and kallikrein-mediated plasminogen conversion to plasmin and bradykinin-induced tissue-type plasminogen activator release from the endothelium via the kinin B2 receptor. NETs induce immunothrombosis at the site of infection (lungs), through histone- and DNA-mediated thrombin generation, insufficient anticoagulation control, and inhibition of fibrinolysis. However, if the infection is sufficiently severe, immunothrombosis disseminates into the systemic circulation, and DIC, which is associated with the endothelial injury, occurs. Inflammation, and serine protease networks of coagulation and fibrinolysis, militate each other through complement pathways, which exacerbates three pathologies of COVID-19 coagulopathy. COVID-19 coagulopathy causes microvascular thrombosis and bleeding, resulting in multiple organ dysfunction and death in critically ill patients. Treatment targets for improving the prognosis of COVID-19 coagulopathy include thrombin, plasmin, and inflammation, and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Several drugs are candidates for controlling these conditions; however, further advances are required to establish robust treatments based on a clear understanding of molecular mechanisms of COVID-19 coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Factor XIIa/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism
3.
JCI Insight ; 6(9)2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228934

ABSTRACT

SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel viral pathogen that causes a clinical disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although most COVID-19 cases are asymptomatic or involve mild upper respiratory tract symptoms, a significant number of patients develop severe or critical disease. Patients with severe COVID-19 commonly present with viral pneumonia that may progress to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Patients with COVID-19 are also predisposed to venous and arterial thromboses that are associated with a poorer prognosis. The present study identified the emergence of a low-density inflammatory neutrophil (LDN) population expressing intermediate levels of CD16 (CD16Int) in patients with COVID-19. These cells demonstrated proinflammatory gene signatures, activated platelets, spontaneously formed neutrophil extracellular traps, and enhanced phagocytic capacity and cytokine production. Strikingly, CD16Int neutrophils were also the major immune cells within the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, exhibiting increased CXCR3 but loss of CD44 and CD38 expression. The percentage of circulating CD16Int LDNs was associated with D-dimer, ferritin, and systemic IL-6 and TNF-α levels and changed over time with altered disease status. Our data suggest that the CD16Int LDN subset contributes to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, systemic inflammation, and ARDS. The frequency of that LDN subset in the circulation could serve as an adjunct clinical marker to monitor disease status and progression.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/classification , Pandemics , Phagocytosis , Platelet Activation , Receptors, IgG/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 610131, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069722

ABSTRACT

We present a brief history of the immune response and show that Metchnikoff's theory of inflammation and phagocytotic defense was largely ignored in the 20th century. For decades, the immune response was believed to be triggered centrally, until Lafferty and Cunningham proposed the initiating signal came from the tissues. This shift opened the way for Janeway's pattern recognition receptor theory, and Matzinger's danger model. All models failed to appreciate that without inflammation, there can be no immune response. The situation changed in the 1990s when cytokine biology was rapidly advancing, and the immune system's role expanded from host defense, to the maintenance of host health. An inflammatory environment, produced by immune cells themselves, was now recognized as mandatory for their attack, removal and repair functions after an infection or injury. We explore the cellular programs of the immune response, and the role played by cytokines and other mediators to tailor the right response, at the right time. Normally, the immune response is robust, self-limiting and restorative. However, when the antigen load or trauma exceeds the body's internal tolerances, as witnessed in some COVID-19 patients, excessive inflammation can lead to increased sympathetic outflows, cardiac dysfunction, coagulopathy, endothelial and metabolic dysfunction, multiple organ failure and death. Currently, there are few drug therapies to reduce excessive inflammation and immune dysfunction. We have been developing an intravenous (IV) fluid therapy comprising adenosine, lidocaine and Mg2+ (ALM) that confers a survival advantage by preventing excessive inflammation initiated by sepsis, endotoxemia and sterile trauma. The multi-pronged protection appears to be unique and may provide a tool to examine the intersection points in the immune response to infection or injury, and possible ways to prevent secondary tissue damage, such as that reported in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Drug Development , Humans , Immunity , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism
5.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(3): 201-208, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066078

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In people living with HIV (PLWH), immune activation and inflammation levels are high even when viral suppression is maintained, potentially contributing to several comorbidities, and hampering the immune response to infections such as the recent SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). AREAS COVERED: Immune activation and inflammation play a role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe COVID-19 patients may experience cytokine release syndrome (CRS), leading to alveolar damage, pulmonary fibrinolysis, dysregulated coagulation, and pulmonary injury. Into the systemic circulation, cytokines in excess might leak out of pulmonary circulation, causing systemic symptoms and possibly a multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome. Preexisting comorbidities are also linked to worse COVID-19 outcome: studies suggest that diabetes and hypertension are linked to higher mortality rates. Such comorbidities are more frequent in PLWH, but it is unclear if they have worse outcomes in the case of COVID-19. The literature was searched in PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE, and manually in COVID-19 resources. EXPERT OPINION: A body of evidence shows that HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are able to activate inflammatory pathways, acute in the case of SARS-CoV-2, chronic in the case of HIV, while the comorbidities seem to represent, in the first case, a contributory cause, in the second an effect of the virus-induced damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Comorbidity , Cytokines/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Hyperglycemia/immunology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Inflammation , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 14(2): 155-173, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044433

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has similarities to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreaks, as severe patients and non-survivors have frequently shown abnormal coagulation profiles. Immune-mediated pathology is a key player in this disease; hence, the role of the complement system needs assessment. The complement system and the coagulation cascade share an intricate network, where multiple mediators maintain a balance between both pathways. Coagulopathy in COVID-19, showing mixed features of complement-mediated and consumption coagulopathy, creates a dilemma in diagnosis and management. AREAS COVERED: Pathophysiology of coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients, with a particular focus on D-dimer and its role in predicting the severity of COVID-19 has been discussed. A comprehensive search of the medical literature on PubMed was done till May 30th, 2020 with the keywords 'COVID-19', 'SARS-CoV-2', 'Coronavirus', 'Coagulopathy', and 'D-dimer'. Twenty-two studies were taken for weighted pooled analysis of D-dimer. EXPERT OPINION: A tailored anticoagulant regimen, including intensification of standard prophylactic regimens with low-molecular-weight heparin is advisable for COVID-19 patients. Atypical manifestations and varying D-dimer levels seen in different populations bring forth the futility of uniform recommendations for anticoagulant therapy. Further, direct thrombin inhibitors and platelet inhibitors in a patient-specific manner should also be considered.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Complement Activation , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/epidemiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/physiopathology , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Forecasting , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Iron Chelating Agents/therapeutic use , Ischemia/blood , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/physiopathology , Mice , Prevalence , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Thrombophilia/physiopathology , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/physiopathology
7.
Cir Cir ; 88(6): 787-793, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011872

ABSTRACT

Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the development of all manifestations of COVID-19, predisposes to arterial and venous thromboembolic disease. The coagulation system can be activated by various viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Vascular endothelial damage, added to the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, affects the prognosis and mortality from this disease. Treatment is aimed at the prevention, early detection and timely interventions of all coagulation disorders generated by COVID-19. The recommended anticoagulant is low molecular weight heparin, taking into account creatinine clearance, and if major invasive procedures will be performed, unfractionated heparin is a safe option.


La infección por el virus SARS-CoV-2 y el desarrollo de todas las manifestaciones de COVID-19 predisponen a la enfermedad tromboembólica arterial y venosa. El sistema de coagulación puede ser activado por diversos virus, entre ellos el SARS-CoV-2. El daño endotelial vascular, sumado al desarrollo de coagulación intravascular diseminada, afecta el pronóstico y la mortalidad de esta enfermedad. El tratamiento está dirigido a la prevención, la detección temprana y las intervenciones oportunas de todas las alteraciones de la coagulación generadas por la COVID-19. El anticoagulante recomendado es la heparina de bajo peso molecular, tomando en cuenta el aclaramiento de creatinina, y si se realizarán procedimientos invasivos mayores, la heparina no fraccionada es una opción segura.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Thromboembolism/immunology , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/immunology , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control
8.
Shock ; 55(6): 700-716, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998566

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to a significant coagulopathy, a phenomenon termed "COVID-19 associated coagulopathy." COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events, a source of significant morbidity and mortality in this disease. Further evidence suggests a link between the inflammatory response and coagulopathy associated with COVID-19. This presents a unique set of challenges for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current literature on laboratory coagulation disruptions associated with COVID-19 and the clinical effects of thromboembolic events including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, peripheral arterial thrombosis, and acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19. Endothelial injury and augmented innate immune response are implicated in the development of diffuse macro- and microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy is an important determinant of appropriate treatment and monitoring of these complications. We highlight the importance of diagnosis and management of dysregulated coagulation in COVID-19 to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients with thromboembolic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/therapy
9.
Diabetologia ; 63(12): 2548-2558, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840591

ABSTRACT

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to characterise the humoral response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in patients with diabetes. Demonstrating the ability to mount an appropriate antibody response in the presence of hyperglycaemia is relevant for the comprehension of mechanisms related to the observed worse clinical outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in patients with diabetes and for the development of any future vaccination campaign to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using a highly specific and sensitive measurement of antibodies by fluid-phase luciferase immunoprecipitation assays, we characterised the IgG, IgM and IgA response against multiple antigens of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 509 patients with documented diagnosis of COVID-19, prospectively followed at our institution. We analysed clinical outcomes and antibody titres according to the presence of hyperglycaemia, i.e., either diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, at the time of, or during, hospitalisation. RESULTS: Among patients with confirmed COVID-19, 139 (27.3%) had diabetes: 90 (17.7%) had diabetes diagnosed prior to the hospital admission (comorbid diabetes) while 49 (9.6%) had diabetes diagnosed at the time of admission (newly diagnosed). Diabetes was associated with increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and hypercoagulopathy, as well as leucocytosis and neutrophilia. Diabetes was independently associated with risk of death (HR 2.32 [95% CI 1.44, 3.75], p = 0.001), even after adjustment for age, sex and other relevant comorbidities. Moreover, a strong association between higher glucose levels and risk of death was documented irrespective of diabetes diagnosis (HR 1.14 × 1.1 mmol/l [95% CI 1.08, 1.21], p < 0.001). The humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 in patients with diabetes was present and superimposable, as for timing and antibody titres, to that of non-diabetic patients, with marginal differences, and was not influenced by glucose levels. Of the measured antibody responses, positivity for IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) was predictive of survival rate, both in the presence or absence of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The observed increased severity and mortality risk of COVID-19 pneumonia in patients with hyperglycaemia was not the result of an impaired humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. RBD IgG positivity was associated with a remarkable protective effect, allowing for a cautious optimism about the efficacy of future vaccines against SARs-COV-2 in people with diabetes. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Biomarkers/analysis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
10.
Blood ; 136(11): 1330-1341, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788623

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emergent pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since its emergence, the novel coronavirus has rapidly achieved pandemic proportions causing remarkably increased morbidity and mortality around the world. A hypercoagulability state has been reported as a major pathologic event in COVID-19, and thromboembolic complications listed among life-threatening complications of the disease. Platelets are chief effector cells of hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. However, the participation of platelets in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains elusive. This report demonstrates that increased platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation are observed in severe COVID-19 patients, but not in patients presenting mild COVID-19 syndrome. In addition, exposure to plasma from severe COVID-19 patients increased the activation of control platelets ex vivo. In our cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit, platelet-monocyte interaction was strongly associated with tissue factor (TF) expression by the monocytes. Platelet activation and monocyte TF expression were associated with markers of coagulation exacerbation as fibrinogen and D-dimers, and were increased in patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or patients who evolved with in-hospital mortality. Finally, platelets from severe COVID-19 patients were able to induce TF expression ex vivo in monocytes from healthy volunteers, a phenomenon that was inhibited by platelet P-selectin neutralization or integrin αIIb/ß3 blocking with the aggregation inhibitor abciximab. Altogether, these data shed light on new pathological mechanisms involving platelet activation and platelet-dependent monocyte TF expression, which were associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Monocytes/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , P-Selectin/metabolism , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
11.
Blood Rev ; 46: 100745, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726418

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a new pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-CoronaVirus-2 (SARS-Cov2) infection and characterized by a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. Inflammation and the innate immune system have been recently recognized as pivotal players in the most severe forms, characterized by significantly elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this setting, several studies have also reported the presence of abnormalities in coagulation parameters and platelets count, possibly identifying a subgroup of patients with poor prognosis. Some reports of full-blown thromboembolic events are emerging. Among the possible mechanisms underlying coagulation dysfunction, the so-called "cytokine storm" seems to play a pivotal role. Other candidate factors include virus-specific mechanisms, related to the virus interaction with renin angiotensin system (RAS) and the fibrinolytic pathway, but also comorbidities affecting these patients. Coagulation dysfunction is therefore a candidate risk factor for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 and should be carefully addressed in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Diseases/blood , Virus Diseases/immunology
12.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(14): 2479-2489, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-721623

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 virus and its associated disease COVID-19 have triggered significant threats to public health, in addition to political and social changes. An important number of studies have reported the onset of symptoms compatible with pneumonia accompanied by coagulopathy and lymphocytopenia during COVID-19. Increased cytokine levels, the emergence of acute phase reactants, platelet activation and immune checkpoint expression are some of the biomarkers postulated in this context. As previously observed in prolonged sepsis, T-cell exhaustion due to SARS-CoV-2 and even their reduction in numbers due to apoptosis hinder the response to the infection. In this review, we synthesized the immune changes observed during COVID-19, the role of immune molecules as severity markers for patient stratification and their associated therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Sepsis/physiopathology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/metabolism , Lymphopenia/immunology , Pandemics , Phenotype , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Blood Rev ; 46: 100743, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718665

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus termed as COVID-19 by WHO has been the causative agent of an unprecedented pandemic in the history of humanity. The global burden of mortality and morbidity associated with this pandemic continues to increase with each passing day as it is progressively leading to multiorgan dysfunction. In most cases, the cause of death has been attributed to respiratory failure, sepsis, cardiac failure, kidney injury, or coagulopathy. As more knowledge is being unfolded, an in-depth understanding of various systemic manifestations and complications of SARS-CoV2 is vital for optimum management of these patients. This novel virus is known to spread faster than its two ancestors, the SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), demonstrating a case fatality ranging from 5 to 8% [1]. Hematological abnormalities such as lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated D-Dimer, elevated fibrinogen, elevated fibrinogen degradation products as well as cytokines such as IL-6 are emerging as important prognostic marker for worse outcome of COVID-19. Among various systemic manifestations, hematological complications such as venous thrombosis causing pulmonary embolism or deep vein thrombosis, and arterial thrombosis causing myocardial infarction, strokes or limb ischemia are being noted to be directly linked to high mortality from COVID-19. An attempt to understand the pathophysiology of various hematological abnormalities including cytokine storm, hypercoagulable state and some rare presentations of this disease hence becomes imperative. Through this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date summary of current evidence-based literature of hematological manifestations, their consequences and management including role of anticoagulation and drugs targeting cytokine storm in patients with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
J Immunol ; 205(6): 1488-1495, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662455

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory infection that is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Although most people are immunocompetent to the virus, a small group fail to mount an effective antiviral response and develop chronic infections that trigger hyperinflammation. This results in major complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and multiorgan failure, which all carry poor prognoses. Emerging evidence suggests that the complement system plays a key role in this inflammatory reaction. Indeed, patients with severe COVID-19 show prominent complement activation in their lung, skin, and sera, and those individuals who were treated with complement inhibitors all recovered with no adverse reactions. These and other studies hint at complement's therapeutic potential in these sequalae, and thus, to support drug development, in this review, we provide a summary of COVID-19 and review complement's role in COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome and coagulopathy.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Complement Activation/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , COVID-19 , Complement Activation/drug effects , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Complement System Proteins/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1539-1554, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646938

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to pose new challenges to the rheumatology community in the near and distant future. Some of the challenges, like the severity of COVID-19 among patients on immunosuppressive agents, are predictable and are being evaluated with great care and effort across the globe. A few others, such as atypical manifestations of COVID-19 mimicking rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are being reported. Like in many other viral infections, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can potentially lead to an array of rheumatological and autoimmune manifestations by molecular mimicry (cross-reacting epitope between the virus and the host), bystander killing (virus-specific CD8 + T cells migrating to the target tissues and exerting cytotoxicity), epitope spreading, viral persistence (polyclonal activation due to the constant presence of viral antigens driving immune-mediated injury) and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. In addition, the myriad of antiviral drugs presently being tried in the treatment of COVID-19 can result in several rheumatic musculoskeletal adverse effects. In this review, we have addressed the possible spectrum and mechanisms of various autoimmune and rheumatic musculoskeletal manifestations that can be precipitated by COVID-19 infection, its therapy, and the preventive strategies to contain the infection.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Rheumatic Diseases/physiopathology , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arthralgia/etiology , Arthralgia/immunology , Arthralgia/physiopathology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/immunology , Molecular Mimicry , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscle Weakness/immunology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/immunology , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/immunology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/etiology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 20-24, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593671

ABSTRACT

Since the initial description in 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-Cov-2 infection (COVID-19) pandemic has swept the globe. The most severe form of the disease presents with fever and shortness of breath, which rapidly deteriorates to respiratory failure and acute lung injury (ALI). COVID-19 also presents with a severe coagulopathy with a high rate of venous thromboembiolism. In addition, autopsy studies have revealed co-localized thrombosis and inflammation, which is the signature of thromboinflammation, within the pulmonary capillary vasculature. While the majority of published data is on adult patients, there are parallels to pediatric patients. In our experience as a COVID-19 epicenter, children and young adults do develop both the coagulopathy and the ALI of COVID-19. This review will discuss COVID-19 ALI from a hematological perspective with discussion of the distinct aspects of coagulation that are apparent in COVID-19. Current and potential interventions targeting the multiple thromboinflammatory mechanisms will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Inflammation/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Thrombosis/blood , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/immunology , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Capillaries/immunology , Capillaries/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/immunology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombin/immunology , Thrombin/metabolism , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
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