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1.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 49(4): 483-491, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691664

ABSTRACT

Progress in the study of Covid-19 disease in rodents has been hampered by the lack of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2; virus entry route to the target cell) affinities for the virus spike proteins across species. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a modified protocol of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats can mimic both cell signalling pathways as well as severe disease phenotypes of Covid-19 disease. Rats were injected via intratracheal (IT) instillation with either 15 mg/kg of LPS (model group) or saline (control group) before being killed after 3 days. A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like effect was observed in the model group as demonstrated by the development of a "cytokine storm" (>2.7 fold increase in blood levels of IL-6, IL-17A, GM-CSF, and TNF-α), high blood ferritin, demonstrable coagulopathy, including elevated D-dimer (approximately 10-fold increase), PAI-1, PT, and APTT (p < 0.0001). In addition, LPS increased the expression of lung angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)-JAK-STAT axis (>4 fold increase). Chest imaging revealed bilateral small patchy opacities of the lungs. Severe lung injury was noted by the presence of both, alveolar collapse and haemorrhage, desquamation of epithelial cells in the airway lumen, infiltration of inflammatory cells (CD45+ leukocytes), widespread thickening of the interalveolar septa, and ultrastructural alterations similar to Covid-19. Thus, these findings demonstrate that IT injection of 15 mg/kg LPS into rats, induced an AT1R/JAK/STAT-mediated cytokine storm with resultant pneumonia and coagulopathy that was commensurate with moderate and severe Covid-19 disease noted in humans.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung Diseases/etiology , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/metabolism , STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Animals , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Hemorrhage/pathology , Janus Kinases , Lung Diseases/pathology , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
2.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103812, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolism is a life-threatening manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated a dysfunctional phenotype of vascular endothelial cells in the lungs during COVID-19. METHODS: We obtained the lung specimens from the patients who died of COVID-19. The phenotype of endothelial cells and immune cells was examined by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. We tested the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the endothelium using IHC and electron microscopy. FINDINGS: The autopsy lungs of COVID-19 patients exhibited severe coagulation abnormalities, immune cell infiltration, and platelet activation. Pulmonary endothelial cells of COVID-19 patients showed increased expression of procoagulant von Willebrand factor (VWF) and decreased expression of anticoagulants thrombomodulin and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). In the autopsy lungs of COVID-19 patients, the number of macrophages, monocytes, and T cells was increased, showing an activated phenotype. Despite increased immune cells, adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin were downregulated in pulmonary endothelial cells of COVID-19 patients. Notably, decreased thrombomodulin expression in endothelial cells was associated with increased immune cell infiltration in the COVID-19 patient lungs. There were no SARS-CoV-2 particles detected in the lung endothelium of COVID-19 patients despite their dysfunctional phenotype. Meanwhile, the autopsy lungs of COVID-19 patients showed SARS-CoV-2 virions in damaged alveolar epithelium and evidence of hypoxic injury. INTERPRETATION: Pulmonary endothelial cells become dysfunctional during COVID-19, showing a loss of thrombomodulin expression related to severe thrombosis and infiltration, and endothelial cell dysfunction might be caused by a pathologic condition in COVID-19 patient lungs rather than a direct infection with SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Johns Hopkins University, the American Heart Association, and the National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Down-Regulation , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Thrombomodulin/biosynthesis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/ultrastructure , Endothelium, Vascular/ultrastructure , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/pathology , Lung/ultrastructure , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Hamostaseologie ; 41(5): 387-396, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483190

ABSTRACT

Hypercoagulability and vascular injury, which characterize morbidity in COVID-19 disease, are frequently observed in the skin. Several pathomechanisms, such as inflammation caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-mediated uptake into endothelial cells or SARS-CoV-2-initiated host immune responses, contribute to microthrombus formation and the appearance of vascular skin lesions. Besides pathophysiologic mechanisms observed in the skin, this review describes the clinical appearance of cutaneous vascular lesions and their association with COVID-19 disease, including acro-ischemia, reticular lesions, and cutaneous small vessel vasculitis. Clinicians need to be aware that skin manifestations may be the only symptom in SARS-CoV-2 infection, and that inflammatory and thrombotic SARS-CoV-2-driven processes observed in multiple organs and tissues appear identically in the skin as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin/blood supply , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Complement Activation , Cytokines/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Humans , Microvessels/immunology , Microvessels/pathology , Microvessels/physiopathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Skin/immunology , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/pathology , Vasculitis/physiopathology , Virus Internalization
4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 5904-5912, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Liver injury has been reported in patients with COVID-19. This condition is characterized by severe outcome and could be related with the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to activate cytotoxic T cells. The purpose of this study is to show the histological and scanning electron microscopy features of liver involvement in COVID-19 to characterize the liver changes caused by the activation of multiple molecular pathways following this infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Liver biopsies from 4 patients (3 post-mortems and 1 in vivo) with COVID-19 were analyzed with histology and by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The liver changes showed significant heterogeneity. The first case showed ground glass hepatocytes and scattered fibrin aggregates in the sinusoidal lumen. The second evidenced intra-sinusoidal thrombi. The third was characterized by sinusoidal dilatation, atrophy of hepatocytes, Disse's spaces dilatation and intra-sinusoidal aggregates of fibrin and red blood cells. The fourth case exhibited diffuse fibrin aggregates in the dilated Disse spaces and microthrombi in the sinusoidal lumen. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19-related liver injury, a large spectrum of pathological changes was observed. The most peculiar features were very mild inflammation, intra-sinusoidal changes, including sinusoidal dilatation, thrombotic sinusoiditis and diffuse intra-sinusoidal fibrin deposition. These findings suggested that a thrombotic sinusoiditis followed by a local diffuse intra-vascular (intra-sinusoidal) coagulation could be the typical features of the SARS-CoV-2-related liver injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Liver/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Aged , Autopsy , Biopsy , Erythrocytes/pathology , Fibrin , Hepatocytes/pathology , Humans , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Young Adult
5.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(6): 445-453, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Over the past year, COVID-19 has posed a significant threat to global health. Although the infection is associated with mild symptoms in many patients, a significant proportion of patients develop a prothrombotic state due to a combination of alterations in coagulation and immune cell function. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological characteristics of COVID-19 that contribute to the immunothrombosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotheliopathy during COVID-19 results in increased multimeric von Willebrand factor release and the potential for increased platelet adhesion to the endothelium. In addition, decreased anticoagulant proteins on the surface of endothelial cells further alters the hemostatic balance. Soluble coagulation markers are also markedly dysregulated, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor, leading to COVID-19 induced coagulopathy. Platelet hyperreactivity results in increased platelet-neutrophil and -monocyte aggregates further exacerbating the coagulopathy observed during COVID-19. Finally, the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm primes neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps, which trap platelets and prothrombotic proteins contributing to pulmonary thrombotic complications. SUMMARY: Immunothrombosis significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Understanding the mechanisms behind COVID-19-induced coagulopathy will lead to future therapies for patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Prognosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13325, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281739

ABSTRACT

COVID 19 is associated with a hypercoagulable state and frequent thromboembolic complications. For how long this acquired abnormality lasts potentially requiring preventive measures, such as anticoagulation remains to be delineated. We used viscoelastic rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) in a single center cohort of 13 critical ill patients and performed follow up examinations three months after discharge from ICU. We found clear signs of a hypercoagulable state due to severe hypofibrinolysis and a high rate of thromboembolic complications during the phase of acute illness. Three month follow up revealed normalization of the initial coagulation abnormality and no evidence of venous thrombosis in all thirteen patients. In our cohort the coagulation profile was completely normalized three months after COVID-19. Based on these findings, discontinuation of anticoagulation can be discussed in patients with complete venous reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombelastography , Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
8.
A A Pract ; 15(4): e01432, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158241

ABSTRACT

The role of concurrent illness in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. Patients with leukemia may display altered thromboinflammatory responses. We report a 53-year-old man presenting with acute leukemia and COVID-19 who developed thrombotic complications and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple analyses, including rotational thromboelastometry and flow cytometry on blood and bronchoalveolar lavage, are reported to characterize coagulation and immune profiles. The patient developed chemotherapy-induced neutropenia that may have protected his lungs from granulocyte-driven hyperinflammatory acute lung injury. However, neutropenia also alters viral clearing, potentially enabling ongoing viral propagation. This case depicts a precarious equilibrium between leukemia and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Acute Lung Injury/diagnosis , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/diagnosis , Neutropenia/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombelastography , Virulence Factors
9.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 64(6): 687-697, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143104

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly become a global pandemic. In addition to the acute pulmonary symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) (the disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection), pulmonary and distal coagulopathies have caused morbidity and mortality in many patients. Currently, the molecular pathogenesis underlying COVID-19-associated coagulopathies are unknown. Identifying the molecular basis of how SARS-CoV-2 drives coagulation is essential to mitigating short- and long-term thrombotic risks of sick and recovered patients with COVID-19. We aimed to perform coagulation-focused transcriptome analysis of in vitro infected primary respiratory epithelial cells, patient-derived bronchial alveolar lavage cells, and circulating immune cells during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our objective was to identify transcription-mediated signaling networks driving coagulopathies associated with COVID-19. We analyzed recently published experimentally and clinically derived bulk or single-cell RNA sequencing datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infection to identify changes in transcriptional regulation of blood coagulation. We also confirmed that the transcriptional expression of a key coagulation regulator was recapitulated at the protein level. We specifically focused our analysis on lung tissue-expressed genes regulating the extrinsic coagulation cascade and the plasminogen activation system. Analyzing transcriptomic data of in vitro infected normal human bronchial epithelial cells and patient-derived bronchial alveolar lavage samples revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection induces the extrinsic blood coagulation cascade and suppresses the plasminogen activation system. We also performed in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection experiments on primary human lung epithelial cells to confirm that transcriptional upregulation of tissue factor, the extrinsic coagulation cascade master regulator, manifested at the protein level. Furthermore, infection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with influenza A virus did not drive key regulators of blood coagulation in a similar manner as SARS-CoV-2. In addition, peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not differentially express genes regulating the extrinsic coagulation cascade or plasminogen activation system during SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that they are not directly inducing coagulopathy through these pathways. The hyperactivation of the extrinsic blood coagulation cascade and the suppression of the plasminogen activation system in SARS-CoV-2-infected epithelial cells may drive diverse coagulopathies in the lung and distal organ systems. Understanding how hosts drive such transcriptional changes with SARS-CoV-2 infection may enable the design of host-directed therapeutic strategies to treat COVID-19 and other coronaviruses inducing hypercoagulation.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Gene Expression Regulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription, Genetic , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line , Female , Humans , Influenza A virus/metabolism , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/metabolism , Influenza, Human/pathology , Male
10.
Shock ; 55(6): 700-716, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998566

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to a significant coagulopathy, a phenomenon termed "COVID-19 associated coagulopathy." COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events, a source of significant morbidity and mortality in this disease. Further evidence suggests a link between the inflammatory response and coagulopathy associated with COVID-19. This presents a unique set of challenges for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current literature on laboratory coagulation disruptions associated with COVID-19 and the clinical effects of thromboembolic events including pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, peripheral arterial thrombosis, and acute ischemic stroke in COVID-19. Endothelial injury and augmented innate immune response are implicated in the development of diffuse macro- and microvascular thrombosis in COVID-19. The pathophysiology of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy is an important determinant of appropriate treatment and monitoring of these complications. We highlight the importance of diagnosis and management of dysregulated coagulation in COVID-19 to improve outcomes in COVID-19 patients with thromboembolic complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/metabolism , Ischemic Stroke/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/therapy , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/therapy
12.
Blood ; 136(11): 1330-1341, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788623

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an emergent pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since its emergence, the novel coronavirus has rapidly achieved pandemic proportions causing remarkably increased morbidity and mortality around the world. A hypercoagulability state has been reported as a major pathologic event in COVID-19, and thromboembolic complications listed among life-threatening complications of the disease. Platelets are chief effector cells of hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. However, the participation of platelets in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains elusive. This report demonstrates that increased platelet activation and platelet-monocyte aggregate formation are observed in severe COVID-19 patients, but not in patients presenting mild COVID-19 syndrome. In addition, exposure to plasma from severe COVID-19 patients increased the activation of control platelets ex vivo. In our cohort of COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit, platelet-monocyte interaction was strongly associated with tissue factor (TF) expression by the monocytes. Platelet activation and monocyte TF expression were associated with markers of coagulation exacerbation as fibrinogen and D-dimers, and were increased in patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or patients who evolved with in-hospital mortality. Finally, platelets from severe COVID-19 patients were able to induce TF expression ex vivo in monocytes from healthy volunteers, a phenomenon that was inhibited by platelet P-selectin neutralization or integrin αIIb/ß3 blocking with the aggregation inhibitor abciximab. Altogether, these data shed light on new pathological mechanisms involving platelet activation and platelet-dependent monocyte TF expression, which were associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Monocytes/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Adult , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , P-Selectin/metabolism , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
13.
Life Sci ; 260: 118431, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759139

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a prominent pandemic disease that emerged in China and hurriedly stretched worldwide. There are many reports on COVID-19 associated with the amplified incidence of thrombotic events. In this review, we focused on COVID-19 coupled with the coagulopathy contributes to severe outcome inclusive of comorbidities such as venous thromboembolism, stroke, diabetes, lung, heart attack, AKI, and liver injury. Initially, the COVID-19 patient associated coagulation disorders show an elevated level of the D-dimer, fibrinogen, and less lymphocyte count such as lymphopenia. COVID-19 associated with the Kawasaki disease has acute vasculitis in childhood which further affects the vessels found all over the body. COVID-19 linked with the thrombotic microangiopathy triggers the multiple vasculitis along with the arterioles thrombosis, medium, large venous and arterial vessels mediates the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). SARS-Co-V-2 patients have reduced primary platelet production, increased destruction of the platelet, decreased circulating platelet leads to the condition of increased thrombocytopenia which contributes to the coagulation disorder. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in the coagulation disorders via increased generation of the thrombin and stops fibrinolysis further leads to hypercoagulopathy. Along with that endothelial dysfunction activates the complement system pathways and contributes to the acute and chronic inflammation via cytokine storm with the production of the cytokines and chemokines, coagulation in different organs such as lung, brain, liver, heart, kidney and further leads to multi-organ failure.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 74(4): 350-354, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated coagulopathy is most often characterized by elevated D-dimer, interleukin-6, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations as well as hypercoagulability in thromboelastometry with increased clot firmness in the EXTEM, INTEM, and FIBTEM assays. Clinically, it manifests with a very high incidence of thrombosis, particularly in the pulmonary system, whereas bleeding complications are infrequent. CASE: Here, we describe two critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to our intensive care unit demonstrating different thromboelastometry and biomarker patterns. One patient presented with hypercoagulability and the other patient with hypocoagulability and fibrinolysis shutdown in thromboelastometry. The pathophysiology and the potential impact on treatment options are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of biomarkers and thromboelastometry results can be helpful in the future to decide which therapeutic strategy might be most appropriate for critically ill patients with COVID-19. This would be an important step to establish precision medicine in this high-risk patient population.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Thrombelastography/methods , Thrombophilia/complications , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/pathology
16.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 26: 1076029620943293, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690632

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the global pandemic in early 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a multitude of challenges to health care systems worldwide. In order to combat these challenges and devise appropriate therapeutic strategies, it becomes of paramount importance to elucidate the pathophysiology of this illness. Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), is characterized by a dysregulated immune system and hypercoagulability. COVID-associated coagulopathy (CAC) was recognized based on profound d-dimer elevations and evidence of microthrombi and macrothrombi, both in venous and arterial systems. The underlying mechanisms associated with CAC have been suggested, but not clearly defined. The model of immunothrombosis illustrates the elaborate crosstalk between the innate immune system and coagulation. The rendering of a procoagulant state in COVID-19 involves the interplay of many innate immune pathways. The SARS-CoV2 virus can directly infect immune and endothelial cells, leading to endothelial injury and dysregulation of the immune system. Activated leukocytes potentiate a procoagulant state via release of intravascular tissue factor, platelet activation, NETosis, and inhibition of anticoagulant mechanisms. Additional pathways of specific relevance in CAC include cytokine release and complement activation. All these mechanisms have recently been reported in COVID-19. Immunothrombosis provides a comprehensive perspective of the several synergistic pathways pertinent to the pathogenesis of CAC.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes/metabolism , Leukocytes/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/immunology , Thrombophilia/virology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/virology
17.
Br J Haematol ; 189(6): 1044-1049, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-629751

ABSTRACT

Although the pathophysiology underlying severe COVID19 remains poorly understood, accumulating data suggest that a lung-centric coagulopathy may play an important role. Elevated D-dimer levels which correlated inversely with overall survival were recently reported in Chinese cohort studies. Critically however, ethnicity has major effects on thrombotic risk, with a 3-4-fold lower risk in Chinese compared to Caucasians and a significantly higher risk in African-Americans. In this study, we investigated COVID19 coagulopathy in Caucasian patients. Our findings confirm that severe COVID19 infection is associated with a significant coagulopathy that correlates with disease severity. Importantly however, Caucasian COVID19 patients on low molecular weight heparin thromboprophylaxis rarely develop overt disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In rare COVID19 cases where DIC does develop, it tends to be restricted to late-stage disease. Collectively, these data suggest that the diffuse bilateral pulmonary inflammation observed in COVID19 is associated with a novel pulmonary-specific vasculopathy termed pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy (PIC) as distinct to DIC. Given that thrombotic risk is significantly impacted by race, coupled with the accumulating evidence that coagulopathy is important in COVID19 pathogenesis, our findings raise the intriguing possibility that pulmonary vasculopathy may contribute to the unexplained differences that are beginning to emerge highlighting racial susceptibility to COVID19 mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/ethnology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/prevention & control , Female , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung/blood supply , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/blood , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/prevention & control
18.
Lancet Haematol ; 7(8): e575-e582, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-624336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An important feature of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pathogenesis is COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, characterised by increased thrombotic and microvascular complications. Previous studies have suggested a role for endothelial cell injury in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. To determine whether endotheliopathy is involved in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy pathogenesis, we assessed markers of endothelial cell and platelet activation in critically and non-critically ill patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: In this single-centre cross-sectional study, hospitalised adult (≥18 years) patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were identified in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) or a specialised non-ICU COVID-19 floor in our hospital. Asymptomatic, non-hospitalised controls were recruited as a comparator group for biomarkers that did not have a reference range. We assessed markers of endothelial cell and platelet activation, including von Willebrand Factor (VWF) antigen, soluble thrombomodulin, soluble P-selectin, and soluble CD40 ligand, as well as coagulation factors, endogenous anticoagulants, and fibrinolytic enzymes. We compared the level of each marker in ICU patients, non-ICU patients, and controls, where applicable. We assessed correlations between these laboratory results with clinical outcomes, including hospital discharge and mortality. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to further explore the association between biochemical markers and survival. FINDINGS: 68 patients with COVID-19 were included in the study from April 13 to April 24, 2020, including 48 ICU and 20 non-ICU patients, as well as 13 non-hospitalised, asymptomatic controls. Markers of endothelial cell and platelet activation were significantly elevated in ICU patients compared with non-ICU patients, including VWF antigen (mean 565% [SD 199] in ICU patients vs 278% [133] in non-ICU patients; p<0·0001) and soluble P-selectin (15·9 ng/mL [4·8] vs 11·2 ng/mL [3·1]; p=0·0014). VWF antigen concentrations were also elevated above the normal range in 16 (80%) of 20 non-ICU patients. We found mortality to be significantly correlated with VWF antigen (r = 0·38; p=0·0022) and soluble thrombomodulin (r = 0·38; p=0·0078) among all patients. In all patients, soluble thrombomodulin concentrations greater than 3·26 ng/mL were associated with lower rates of hospital discharge (22 [88%] of 25 patients with low concentrations vs 13 [52%] of 25 patients with high concentrations; p=0·0050) and lower likelihood of survival on Kaplan-Meier analysis (hazard ratio 5·9, 95% CI 1·9-18·4; p=0·0087). INTERPRETATION: Our findings show that endotheliopathy is present in COVID-19 and is likely to be associated with critical illness and death. Early identification of endotheliopathy and strategies to mitigate its progression might improve outcomes in COVID-19. FUNDING: This work was supported by a gift donation from Jack Levin to the Benign Hematology programme at Yale, and the National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Vascular Diseases/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Diseases/etiology , Vascular Diseases/metabolism , Young Adult
19.
Blood ; 136(11): 1317-1329, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612131

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to understand the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In particular, thrombotic complications in patients with COVID-19 are common and contribute to organ failure and mortality. Patients with severe COVID-19 present with hemostatic abnormalities that mimic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy associated with sepsis, with the major difference being increased risk of thrombosis rather than bleeding. However, whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection alters platelet function to contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19 remains unknown. In this study, we report altered platelet gene expression and functional responses in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. RNA sequencing demonstrated distinct changes in the gene-expression profile of circulating platelets of COVID-19 patients. Pathway analysis revealed differential gene-expression changes in pathways associated with protein ubiquitination, antigen presentation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The receptor for SARS-CoV-2 binding, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), was not detected by messenger RNA (mRNA) or protein in platelets. Surprisingly, mRNA from the SARS-CoV-2 N1 gene was detected in platelets from 2 of 25 COVID-19 patients, suggesting that platelets may take-up SARS-COV-2 mRNA independent of ACE2. Resting platelets from COVID-19 patients had increased P-selectin expression basally and upon activation. Circulating platelet-neutrophil, -monocyte, and -T-cell aggregates were all significantly elevated in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy donors. Furthermore, platelets from COVID-19 patients aggregated faster and showed increased spreading on both fibrinogen and collagen. The increase in platelet activation and aggregation could partially be attributed to increased MAPK pathway activation and thromboxane generation. These findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with platelet hyperreactivity, which may contribute to COVID-19 pathophysiology.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Platelets/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Transcriptome , Biomarkers , Blood Coagulation Disorders/genetics , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Blood Platelets/virology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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