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2.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121122, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433361

ABSTRACT

Herein, we demonstrated the development and characterization of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of edoxaban (EDX); and investigated the in-vitro anticoagulation effect for the management of pulmonary or cerebral coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 infection. The formulations were prepared by mixing the inhalable micronized drug with a large carrier lactose and dispersibility enhancers, leucine, and magnesium stearate. The drug-excipient interaction was studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods. The drug and excipients showed no physical inter particulate interaction. The in-vitro drug aerosolization from the developed formulation was determined by a Twin Stage Impinger (TSI) at a flow rate of 60 ± 5 L /min. The amount of drug deposition was quantified by an established HPLC-UV method. The fine particle fraction (FPF) of EDX API from drug alone formulation was 7%, whereas the formulations with excipients increased dramatically to almost 7-folds up to 47%. The developed DPI formulation of EDX showed a promising in-vitro anticoagulation effect at a very low concentration. This novel DPI formulation of EDX could be a potential and effective inhalation therapy for managing pulmonary venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with COVID-19 infection. Further studies are warranted to investigate the toxicity and clinical application of the inhaled EDX DPI formulation.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Dry Powder Inhalers , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Particle Size , Powders
3.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1747-1751, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few observations exist with respect to the pro-coagulant profile of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Reports of thromboembolic complications are scarce but suggestive for a clinical relevance of the problem. OBJECTIVES: Prospective observational study aimed to characterize the coagulation profile of COVID-19 ARDS patients with standard and viscoelastic coagulation tests and to evaluate their changes after establishment of an aggressive thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Sixteen patients with COVID-19 ARDS received a complete coagulation profile at the admission in the intensive care unit. Ten patients were followed in the subsequent 7 days, after increasing the dose of low molecular weight heparin, antithrombin levels correction, and clopidogrel in selected cases. RESULTS: At baseline, the patients showed a pro-coagulant profile characterized by an increased clot strength (CS, median 55 hPa, 95% interquartile range 35-63), platelet contribution to CS (PCS, 43 hPa; interquartile range 24-45), fibrinogen contribution to CS (FCS, 12 hPa; interquartile range 6-13.5) elevated D-dimer levels (5.5 µg/mL, interquartile range 2.5-6.5), and hyperfibrinogenemia (794 mg/dL, interquartile range 583-933). Fibrinogen levels were associated (R2  = .506, P = .003) with interleukin-6 values. After increasing the thromboprophylaxis, there was a significant (P = .001) time-related decrease of fibrinogen levels, D-dimers (P = .017), CS (P = .013), PCS (P = .035), and FCS (P = .038). CONCLUSION: The pro-coagulant pattern of these patients may justify the clinical reports of thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism) during the course of the disease. Further studies are needed to assess the best prophylaxis and treatment of this condition.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1752-1755, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317980

ABSTRACT

A prothrombotic coagulopathy is commonly found in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A unique feature of COVID-19 respiratory failure is a relatively preserved lung compliance and high Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, with pathology reports consistently demonstrating diffuse pulmonary microthrombi on autopsy, all consistent with a vascular occlusive etiology of respiratory failure rather than the more classic findings of low-compliance in ARDS. The COVID-19 pandemic is overwhelming the world's medical care capacity with unprecedented needs for mechanical ventilators and high rates of mortality once patients progress to needing mechanical ventilation, and in many environments including in parts of the United States the medical capacity is being exhausted. Fibrinolytic therapy has previously been used in a Phase 1 clinical trial that led to reduced mortality and marked improvements in oxygenation. Here we report a series of three patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure who were treated with tissue plasminogen activator. All three patients had a temporally related improvement in their respiratory status, with one of them being a durable response.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(6): 445-453, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Over the past year, COVID-19 has posed a significant threat to global health. Although the infection is associated with mild symptoms in many patients, a significant proportion of patients develop a prothrombotic state due to a combination of alterations in coagulation and immune cell function. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological characteristics of COVID-19 that contribute to the immunothrombosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotheliopathy during COVID-19 results in increased multimeric von Willebrand factor release and the potential for increased platelet adhesion to the endothelium. In addition, decreased anticoagulant proteins on the surface of endothelial cells further alters the hemostatic balance. Soluble coagulation markers are also markedly dysregulated, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor, leading to COVID-19 induced coagulopathy. Platelet hyperreactivity results in increased platelet-neutrophil and -monocyte aggregates further exacerbating the coagulopathy observed during COVID-19. Finally, the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm primes neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps, which trap platelets and prothrombotic proteins contributing to pulmonary thrombotic complications. SUMMARY: Immunothrombosis significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Understanding the mechanisms behind COVID-19-induced coagulopathy will lead to future therapies for patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Prognosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6648199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211620

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mortality among critically ill COVID-19 patients remains relatively high despite different potential therapeutic modalities being introduced recently. The treatment of critically ill patients is a challenging task, without identified credible predictors of mortality. Methods: We performed an analysis of 160 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit between June 23, 2020, and October 2, 2020, in University Hospital Center Bezanijska kosa, Belgrade, Serbia. Patients on invasive, noninvasive ventilation and high flow oxygen therapy with moderate to severe ARDS, according to the Berlin definition of ARDS, were selected for the study. Demographic data, past medical history, laboratory values, and CT severity score were analyzed to identify predictors of mortality. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Results: The mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 29-92 years), predominantly men, 68.8%. 107 (66.9%) patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation, 31 (19.3%) on noninvasive, and 22 (13.8%) on high flow oxygen therapy machine. The median total number of ICU days was 10 (25th to 75th percentile: 6-18), while the median total number of hospital stay was 18 (25th to 75th percentile: 12-28). The mortality rate was 60% (96/160). Univariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of age, CRP, and lymphocytes at admission to hospital, serum albumin, D-dimer, and IL-6 at admission to ICU, and CT score. Serum albumin, D-dimer, and IL-6 at admission to ICU were independently associated with mortality in the final multivariate analysis. Conclusion: In the present study of 160 consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe ARDS, IL-6, serum albumin, and D-dimer at admission to ICU, accompanied by chest CT severity score, were marked as independent predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Serbia/epidemiology , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 934-944, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196422

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a grave threat to the global public health. The COVID-19-induced infection is closely related to coagulation dysfunction in the affected patients. This paper attempts to conduct a meta-analysis and systematically review the blood coagulation indicators in patients with severe COVID-19. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed to compare the blood coagulation indicators in patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published between 1 December 2019 and 7 May 2020. A total of 13 studies with 1341 adult patients were enrolled in this analysis. Platelet (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -24.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -34.12 to -15.54; P < .001), d-dimer (WMD = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29; P < .001), and fibrinogen (WMD = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.50-1.54; P < .001) were significantly associated with the severity in patients with COVID-19. The meta-analysis revealed that no correlation was evident between an increased severity risk of COVID-19 and activated partial thromboplastin time (WMD = -1.56, 95% CI: -5.77 to 2.64; P = .468) or prothrombin time (WMD = 0.19, 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.51; P = .243). The single arm meta-analysis showed that compared with the nonsevere group, the severe group had a lower pooled platelet (165.12 [95% CI: 157.38-172.85] vs 190.09 [95% CI: 179.45-200.74]), higher d-dimer (0.49 [95% CI: 0.33-0.64] vs 0.27 [95% CI: 0.20-0.34]), and higher fibrinogen (4.34 [95% CI: 1.98-6.70] vs 3.19 [95% CI: 1.13-5.24]). Coagulation dysfunction is closely related to the severity of patients with COVID-19, in which low platelet, high d-dimer, and fibrinogen upon admission may serve as risk indicators for increased aggression of the disease. These findings are of great clinical value for timely and effective treatment of the COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Blood Platelets , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 962-972, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196416

ABSTRACT

To systematically analyze the blood coagulation features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to provide a reference for clinical practice. An electronic search in PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI, WanFang Data, and VIP databases to identify studies describing the blood coagulation features of COVID-19 patients from 1 January 2020 to 21 April 2020. Three reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies, then, the meta-analysis was performed by using Stata 12.0 software. Thirty-four studies involving 6492 COVID-19 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that patients with severe disease showed significantly lower platelet count (weighted mean differences [WMD]: -16.29 × 109 /L; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -25.34 to -7.23) and shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (WMD: -0.81 seconds; 95% CI: -1.94 to 0.33) but higher D-dimer levels (WMD: 0.44 µg/mL; 95% CI: 0.29-0.58), higher fibrinogen levels (WMD: 0.51 g/L; 95% CI: 0.33-0.69) and longer prothrombin time (PT; WMD: 0.65 seconds; 95% CI: 0.44-0.86). Patients who died showed significantly higher D-dimer levels (WMD: 6.58 µg/mL; 95% CI: 3.59-9.57), longer PT (WMD: 1.27 seconds; 95% CI: 0.49-2.06) and lower platelet count (WMD: -39.73 × 109 /L; 95% CI: -61.99 to -17.45) than patients who survived. Coagulation dysfunction is common in severe COVID-19 patients and it is associated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Risk Factors
10.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(11): 1397-1413, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174805

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, attacks the immune system causing an exaggerated and uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory mediators (cytokine storm). Recent studies propose an active role of coagulation disorders in disease progression. This hypercoagulability has been displayed by marked increase in D-dimer in hospitalized patients. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, generation of cytokine storm, the interdependence between inflammation and coagulation, its consequences and the possible management options for coagulation complications like venous thromboembolism (VTE), microthrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and systemic and local coagulopathy. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for relevant reports using COVID-19, cytokine storm, and coagulation as keywords. EXPERT OPINION: A prophylactic dose of 5000-7500 units of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been recommended for hospitalized COVID-19 patients in order to prevent VTE. Treatment dose of LMWH, based on disease severity, is being contemplated for patients showing a marked rise in levels of D-dimer due to possible pulmonary thrombi. Additionally, targeting PAR-1, thrombin, coagulation factor Xa and the complement system may be potentially useful in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection induced lung injury, microvascular thrombosis, VTE and related outcomes like DIC and multi-organ failure.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Venous Thromboembolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
11.
Life Sci ; 276: 119376, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157590

ABSTRACT

The severe forms and worsened outcomes of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) are closely associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Endothelial cells express Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the entrance door for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The hallmarks of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are increased levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, neutrophilia and lymphopenia, pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy and microthrombi of alveolar capillaries. The endothelial glycocalyx, a proteoglycan- and glycoprotein-rich layer covering the luminal side of endothelial cells, contributes to vascular homeostasis. It regulates vascular tonus and permeability, prevents thrombosis, and modulates leukocyte adhesion and inflammatory response. We hypothesized that cytokine production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation associated with COVID-19 leads to glycocalyx degradation. A cohort of 20 hospitalized patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Mechanisms associated with glycocalyx degradation in COVID-19 were investigated. Increased plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL1-ß, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and glycocalyx components were detected in plasma from COVID-19 patients compared to plasma from healthy subjects. Plasma from COVID-19 patients induced glycocalyx shedding in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and disrupted redox balance. Treatment of HUVECs with low molecular weight heparin inhibited the glycocalyx perturbation. In conclusion, plasma from COVID-19 patients promotes glycocalyx shedding and redox imbalance in endothelial cells, and heparin treatment potentially inhibits glycocalyx disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Glycocalyx/pathology , Heparin/pharmacology , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Glycocalyx/virology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/metabolism
12.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(6): 995-1003, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144761

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a global public health threat unparalleled in our history. The most severe cases are marked by ARDS attributed to microvascular thrombosis. Hypercoagulability, resulting in a profoundly prothrombotic state, is a distinct feature of COVID-19 and is accentuated by a high incidence of fibrinolysis shutdown. The aims of this review were to describe the manifestations of fibrinolysis shutdown in COVID-19 and its associated outcomes, review the molecular mechanisms of dysregulated fibrinolysis associated with COVID-19, and discuss potential implications and therapeutic targets for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Thrombophilia/therapy , Thrombophilia/virology
14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(7): e28975, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117443

ABSTRACT

We report the clinical and laboratory coagulation characteristics of 27 pediatric and young adult patients (2 months to 21 years) treated for symptomatic COVID-19 at a children's hospital in the Bronx, New York, between March 1 and May 31, 2020. D-Dimer was > 0.5 µg/mL (upper limit of normal) in 25 (93%) patients at admission; 11 (41%) developed peak D-dimer > 5 µg/mL during admission. Seven (26%) patients developed venous thromboembolism: three with deep vein thrombosis and four with pulmonary embolism. Requirement of increased ventilatory support was a risk factor for thrombosis (P = 0.006). Three of eight (38%) patients on prophylactic anticoagulation developed thrombosis; however, no patients developed VTE on low-molecular-weight heparin prophylaxis titrated to anti-Xa level. Manifestation of COVID-19 disease was severe or critical in 16 (59%) patients. Four (15%) patients died of COVID-19 complications: all had comorbidities. Elevated D-dimer and increased VTE rate were observed in this young cohort, particularly in those with severe respiratory complications, suggesting thrombotic coagulopathy. More data are needed to guide thromboprophylaxis in this age group.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , New York/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Young Adult
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4432, 2021 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101681

ABSTRACT

Cardiac injury is a common complication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to reveal the association of cardiac injury with coagulation dysfunction. We enrolled 181 consecutive patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, and studied the clinical characteristics and outcome of these patients. Cardiac biomarkers high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI), myohemoglobin and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) were assessed in all patients. The clinical outcomes were defined as hospital discharge or death. The median age of the study cohort was 55 (IQR, 46-65) years, and 102 (56.4%) were males. Forty-two of the 181 patients (23.2%) had cardiac injury. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), D-dimer and serum ferritin were significantly associated with cardiac injury. Multivariate regression analysis revealed old age and elevated D-dimer levels as being strong risk predictors of in-hospital mortality. Interleukin 6 (IL6) levels were comparable in patients with or without cardiac injury. Serial observations of coagulation parameters demonstrated highly synchronous alterations of D-dimer along with progression to cardiac injury. Cardiac injury is a common complication of COVID-19 and is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of AST, D-dimer and serum ferritin are significantly associated with cardiac injury, whereas IL6 are not. Therefore, the pathogenesis of cardiac injury in COVID-19 may be primarily due to coagulation dysfunction along with microvascular injury.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , Heart Injuries/virology , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Heart Injuries/blood , Heart Injuries/epidemiology , Heart Injuries/physiopathology , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Troponin I/blood
16.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(6): 2421-2427, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092035

ABSTRACT

Aggressive inflammatory response leading to hypercoagulability has been found to be associated with disease severity in COVID-19 patients and portends bad treatment outcome. A state of acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), along with pulmonary embolism and/or deep vein thrombosis, has been observed in critically ill ICU patients. Autopsy reports of COVID-19 patients demonstrated microthrombi in lungs and in other organs, as well as marked inflammatory changes, characteristic clinicopathological features that exacerbate disease severity. Vitamin D supplementation was recommended by many clinicians across the globe to improve clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients, mainly because of its immunomodulatory roles on immune cells. Furthermore, vitamin D and its associated molecules are also known to directly or indirectly regulate various thrombotic pathways. We propose that vitamin D supplementation not only attenuates the risk of Acute Respiratory Disease Syndrome (ARDS) but it also may have a role in reducing coagulation abnormalities in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The overarching goal of this review is to discuss the effects of vitamin D on coagulation pathways and other intertwined processes leading to thrombosis. Many clinical trials are currently investigating the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection. However, randomized placebo control clinical trials are also necessary to ascertain the effect of vitamin D supplementation on reducing the risk of coagulopathy in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/etiology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/physiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Urachal Cyst/etiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/virology
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24537, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of coagulation dysfunction in Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is inconsistent. We aimed to explore the impact of coagulation dysfunction amongst patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases from December 1, 2019 to April 27, 2020 following Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Data about coagulation (Platelets, PT, APTT, fibrin, fibrinogen degradation products, D-dimer), prevalence of coagulation dysfunction and mortality were extracted. Meta regression was used to explore the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Sixteen observational studies were included, comprising 2, 139 patients with confirmed COVID-19. More severe COVID-19 cases tended to have higher mean D-dimer (SMD 0.78, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.03, P < .001). The similar pattern occurred with PT and fibrin, with a contrary trend for PLTs. Coagulation dysfunction was more frequent in severe cases compared to less severe (SMD 0.46, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.67, P < .001). Higher mortality was associated with COVID-19-related coagulopathy (RR 10.86, 2.86 to 41.24, P < .001). Prevalence of ARDS was increased in more severe patients than less severe cases (RR 16.52, 11.27 to 24.22, P < .001). PT, fibrin and D-dimer levels elevated significantly in non-survivors during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Presence of coagulation dysfunction might be associated with COVID-19 severity, and coagulopathy might be associated with mortality. Coagulation markers including PT, fibrin and D-dimer may imply the progression of COVID-19. This illuminates the necessity of effectively monitoring coagulation function for preventing COVID-19-related coagulopathy, especially in severe patients. For the obvious heterogeneity, the quality of the evidence is compromised. Future rigorous randomized controlled trials that assess the correlation between coagulation and COVID-19 are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42020183514).


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Coagulation Factors , COVID-19/complications , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 43(2): 245-249, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083299

ABSTRACT

One of the most significant negative prognostic factors in patients suffering from the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is the development of coagulopathy, associated with abnormal laboratory findings, such as increased D-dimer, and venous thromboembolic complications, requiring thromboprophylactic strategies. The main clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients are revised here as compared to other coronavirus infections, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), emphasizing clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , SARS Virus , Thrombosis/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/therapy
19.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067780

ABSTRACT

Although ACE2 (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) is considered the primary receptor for CoV-2 cell entry, recent reports suggest that alternative pathways may contribute. This paper considers the hypothesis that viral binding to cell-surface integrins may contribute to the high infectivity and widespread extra-pulmonary impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This potential is suggested on the basis of the emergence of an RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) sequence in the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein. RGD is a motif commonly used by viruses to bind cell-surface integrins. Numerous signaling pathways are mediated by integrins and virion binding could lead to dysregulation of these pathways, with consequent tissue damage. Integrins on the surfaces of pneumocytes, endothelial cells and platelets may be vulnerable to CoV-2 virion binding. For instance, binding of intact virions to integrins on alveolar cells could enhance viral entry. Binding of virions to integrins on endothelial cells could activate angiogenic cell signaling pathways; dysregulate integrin-mediated signaling pathways controlling developmental processes; and precipitate endothelial activation to initiate blood clotting. Such a procoagulant state, perhaps together with enhancement of platelet aggregation through virions binding to integrins on platelets, could amplify the production of microthrombi that pose the threat of pulmonary thrombosis and embolism, strokes and other thrombotic consequences. The susceptibility of different tissues to virion-integrin interactions may be modulated by a host of factors, including the conformation of relevant integrins and the impact of the tissue microenvironment on spike protein conformation. Patient-specific differences in these factors may contribute to the high variability of clinical presentation. There is danger that the emergence of receptor-binding domain mutations that increase infectivity may also enhance access of the RGD motif for integrin binding, resulting in viral strains with ACE2 independent routes of cell entry and novel integrin-mediated biological and clinical impacts. The highly infectious variant, B.1.1.7 (or VUI 202012/01), includes a receptor-binding domain amino acid replacement, N501Y, that could potentially provide the RGD motif with enhanced access to cell-surface integrins, with consequent clinical impacts.


Subject(s)
Integrins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Neovascularization, Pathologic/virology , Oligopeptides , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction , Virus Internalization
20.
Phys Ther ; 100(12): 2127-2133, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066389

ABSTRACT

Physical therapists have a unique role in both prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) through the promotion of early mobility and physical activity and diagnosis through discovery of signs and symptoms of VTE. This Perspective updates clinicians on the latest information regarding pathophysiology of coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 and applies VTE clinical practice guidelines to COVID-19 in order to provide guidance on physical therapist management.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Physical Therapy Specialty , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Algorithms , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/rehabilitation , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Venous Thromboembolism/rehabilitation , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
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