Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 93
Filter
1.
Elife ; 92020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155739

ABSTRACT

Temporal inference from laboratory testing results and triangulation with clinical outcomes extracted from unstructured electronic health record (EHR) provider notes is integral to advancing precision medicine. Here, we studied 246 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive (COVIDpos) patients and propensity-matched 2460 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (COVIDneg) patients subjected to around 700,000 lab tests cumulatively across 194 assays. Compared to COVIDneg patients at the time of diagnostic testing, COVIDpos patients tended to have higher plasma fibrinogen levels and lower platelet counts. However, as the infection evolves, COVIDpos patients distinctively show declining fibrinogen, increasing platelet counts, and lower white blood cell counts. Augmented curation of EHRs suggests that only a minority of COVIDpos patients develop thromboembolism, and rarely, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), with patients generally not displaying platelet reductions typical of consumptive coagulopathies. These temporal trends provide fine-grained resolution into COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) and set the stage for personalizing thromboprophylaxis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Tests , Blood Coagulation , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
2.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 807332, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753361

ABSTRACT

In the early stage of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most cases are identified as mild or moderate illnesses. Approximately 20% of hospitalised patients become severe or critical at the middle or late stage of the disease. The predictors and risk factors for prognosis in those with mild or moderate disease remain to be determined. Of 694 patients with COVID-19, 231 patients with mild or moderate disease, who were hospitalised at 10 hospitals in Wenzhou and nearby counties in China, were enrolled in this retrospective study from 17 January to 20 March 2020. The outcomes of these patients included progression from mild/moderate illness to severe or critical conditions. Among the 231 patients, 49 (21.2%) had a poor prognosis in the hospital. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher inflammation/coagulopathy/immunology responsive index (ICIRI=[c-reactive protein × fibrinogen × D-dimer]/CD8 T cell count) on admission (OR=345.151, 95% CI=23.014-5176.318) was associated with increased odds ratios for poor prognosis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for ICIRI predicting severe and critical condition progression was 0.65 (95% CI=0.519-0.782) and 0.80 (95% CI=0.647-0.954), with cut-off values of 870.83 and 535.44, respectively. Conversely, age, sex, comorbidity, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, CD8 T cell count, and c-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels alone at admission were not good predictors of poor prognosis in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. At admission, a novel index, ICIRI, tends to be the most promising predictor of COVID-19 progression from mild or moderate illness to severe or critical conditions.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Inflammation/virology , C-Reactive Protein , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648620

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also known as COVID-19, is currently developing into a rapidly disseminating and an overwhelming worldwide pandemic. In severe COVID-19 cases, hypercoagulability and inflammation are two crucial complications responsible for poor prognosis and mortality. In addition, coagulation system activation and inflammation overlap and produce life-threatening complications, including coagulopathy and cytokine storm, which are associated with overproduction of cytokines and activation of the immune system; they might be a lead cause of organ damage. However, patients with severe COVID-19 who received anticoagulant therapy had lower mortality, especially with elevated D-dimer or fibrin degradation products (FDP). In this regard, the discovery of natural products with anticoagulant potential may help mitigate the numerous side effects of the available synthetic drugs. This review sheds light on blood coagulation and its impact on the complication associated with COVID-19. Furthermore, the sources of natural anticoagulants, the role of nanoparticle formulation in this outbreak, and the prevalence of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) after COVID-19 vaccines are also reviewed. These combined data provide many research ideas related to the possibility of using these anticoagulant agents as a treatment to relieve acute symptoms of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/classification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombophilia/etiology
5.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 81(8): 653-660, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521954

ABSTRACT

Coagulation disturbances are common in severe COVID-19 infection. We examined laboratory markers in COVID-19 patients during the first wave of the pandemic in Finland. We analysed a wide panel of coagulation tests (IL ACL TOP 750/500®) from anonymously collected samples of 78 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in intensive care units (ICUs; n = 34) or medical wards (n = 44) at Helsinki University Hospital in April-May 2020. These coagulation data were supplemented with the laboratory information system results, including complete blood count and C reactive protein (CRP). Coagulation and inflammatory markers were elevated in most: FVIII in 52%, fibrinogen 77%, D-dimer 74%, CRP 94%, platelet count 37%. Anaemia was common, especially in men (73% vs. 44% in women), and overall weakly correlated with FVIII (women R2 = 0.48, men R2 = 0.24). ICU patients had higher fibrinogen and D-dimer levels (p < .01). Men admitted to the ICU also had higher platelet count, leukocytes and FVIII and lower haemoglobin than the non-ICU patients. None of the patients met the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) criteria, but 31% had a D-dimer level of at least 1.5 mg/L. Presence of both anaemia and high D-dimer together with FVIII is independently associated with ICU admission. Antithrombin was reduced in 47% of the patients but did not distinguish severity. Overall, CRP was associated with coagulation activation. Elevated FVIII, fibrinogen and D-dimer reflected a strong inflammatory response and were characteristic of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. The patients were often anaemic, as is typical in severe inflammation, while anaemia was also associated with coagulation activity.


Subject(s)
Anemia/virology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antithrombins , Big Data , Blood Coagulation Tests , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinogen , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 282-290, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482267

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is frequently associated with microvascular thrombosis.The microthrombosis in COVID-19 is the result of the interplay between inflammation and endotheliopathy. Elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) characterizes COVID-19 inflammation resulting in endotheliopathy and coagulopathy marked by elevated D-dimer (DD). Aim of this study is to identify and to describe the coagulation changes in 100 moderate COVID-19 patients having lung involvement and to determine the association of coagulopathy with the severity and prognosis. METHODS: Inflammation, endothelial and coagulation molecules were measured in moderate and mild disease. RESULTS: IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tissue factor (TF), von Willebrand factor (VWF), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) significantly increased in moderate disease as well as D-dimer, thrombin antithrombin complex (TAT), Fibrinogen (Fib), platelet factor-4 (PF4), ß-thromboglobulin (ß-TG), P-selectin, and platelet adhesion. Shortened clotting time (CT) and clot formation time (CFT), high maximum clot firmness (MCF) and low LY at 30 min were present in 100% of moderate COVID-19 patients compared with mild COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that moderate COVID-19 has a profound inflammation associated with severee ndotheliopathy and intense coagulation activation uncontrolled by TFPI. Attention should be paid to coagulopathy in COVID-19. Closely monitoring of coagulation and application of appropriate anticoagulation may improve the prognosis of moderate COVID-19 and to prevent the progression to severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Endothelium, Vascular , Inflammation , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Humans , Inflammation/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/virology
7.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121122, 2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433361

ABSTRACT

Herein, we demonstrated the development and characterization of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of edoxaban (EDX); and investigated the in-vitro anticoagulation effect for the management of pulmonary or cerebral coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 infection. The formulations were prepared by mixing the inhalable micronized drug with a large carrier lactose and dispersibility enhancers, leucine, and magnesium stearate. The drug-excipient interaction was studied using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods. The drug and excipients showed no physical inter particulate interaction. The in-vitro drug aerosolization from the developed formulation was determined by a Twin Stage Impinger (TSI) at a flow rate of 60 ± 5 L /min. The amount of drug deposition was quantified by an established HPLC-UV method. The fine particle fraction (FPF) of EDX API from drug alone formulation was 7%, whereas the formulations with excipients increased dramatically to almost 7-folds up to 47%. The developed DPI formulation of EDX showed a promising in-vitro anticoagulation effect at a very low concentration. This novel DPI formulation of EDX could be a potential and effective inhalation therapy for managing pulmonary venous thromboembolism (VTE) associated with COVID-19 infection. Further studies are warranted to investigate the toxicity and clinical application of the inhaled EDX DPI formulation.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Dry Powder Inhalers , Pyridines/administration & dosage , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Aerosols , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Particle Size , Powders
8.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 111(3): 322-332, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427245

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coagulopathy and venous thromboembolism are common findings in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and are associated with poor outcome. Timely initiation of anticoagulation after hospital admission was shown to be beneficial. In this study we aim to examine the association of pre-existing oral anticoagulation (OAC) with outcome among a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the data from the large multi-national Lean European Open Survey on SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (LEOSS) from March to August 2020. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible for inclusion. We retrospectively analysed the association of pre-existing OAC with all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures included COVID-19-related mortality, recovery and composite endpoints combining death and/or thrombotic event and death and/or bleeding event. We restricted bleeding events to intracerebral bleeding in this analysis to ensure clinical relevance and to limit reporting errors. A total of 1 433 SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were analysed, while 334 patients (23.3%) had an existing premedication with OAC and 1 099 patients (79.7%) had no OAC. After risk adjustment for comorbidities, pre-existing OAC showed a protective influence on the endpoint death (OR 0.62, P = 0.013) as well as the secondary endpoints COVID-19-related death (OR 0.64, P = 0.023) and non-recovery (OR 0.66, P = 0.014). The combined endpoint death or thrombotic event tended to be less frequent in patients on OAC (OR 0.71, P = 0.056). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-existing OAC is protective in COVID-19, irrespective of anticoagulation regime during hospital stay and independent of the stage and course of disease.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Comorbidity , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thromboembolism/virology
9.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Postgrad Med ; 133(8): 899-911, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390265

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) is a well-recognized hematologic complication among patients with severe COVID-19 disease, where macro- and micro-thrombosis can lead to multiorgan injury and failure. Major societal guidelines that have published on the management of CAC are based on consensus of expert opinion, with the current evidence available. As a result of limited studies, there are many clinical scenarios that are yet to be addressed, with expert opinion varying on a number of important clinical issues regarding CAC management. METHODS: In this review, we utilize current societal guidelines to provide a framework for practitioners in managing their patients with CAC. We have also provided three clinical scenarios that implement important principles of anticoagulation in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Overall, decisions should be made on acase by cases basis and based on the providers understanding of each patient's medical history, clinical course and perceived risk.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Thromboembolism/therapy , Thrombosis/therapy , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Drug Monitoring , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Prevalence , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology
11.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1747-1751, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few observations exist with respect to the pro-coagulant profile of patients with COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Reports of thromboembolic complications are scarce but suggestive for a clinical relevance of the problem. OBJECTIVES: Prospective observational study aimed to characterize the coagulation profile of COVID-19 ARDS patients with standard and viscoelastic coagulation tests and to evaluate their changes after establishment of an aggressive thromboprophylaxis. METHODS: Sixteen patients with COVID-19 ARDS received a complete coagulation profile at the admission in the intensive care unit. Ten patients were followed in the subsequent 7 days, after increasing the dose of low molecular weight heparin, antithrombin levels correction, and clopidogrel in selected cases. RESULTS: At baseline, the patients showed a pro-coagulant profile characterized by an increased clot strength (CS, median 55 hPa, 95% interquartile range 35-63), platelet contribution to CS (PCS, 43 hPa; interquartile range 24-45), fibrinogen contribution to CS (FCS, 12 hPa; interquartile range 6-13.5) elevated D-dimer levels (5.5 µg/mL, interquartile range 2.5-6.5), and hyperfibrinogenemia (794 mg/dL, interquartile range 583-933). Fibrinogen levels were associated (R2  = .506, P = .003) with interleukin-6 values. After increasing the thromboprophylaxis, there was a significant (P = .001) time-related decrease of fibrinogen levels, D-dimers (P = .017), CS (P = .013), PCS (P = .035), and FCS (P = .038). CONCLUSION: The pro-coagulant pattern of these patients may justify the clinical reports of thromboembolic complications (pulmonary embolism) during the course of the disease. Further studies are needed to assess the best prophylaxis and treatment of this condition.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , Blood Coagulation Tests , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1752-1755, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317980

ABSTRACT

A prothrombotic coagulopathy is commonly found in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A unique feature of COVID-19 respiratory failure is a relatively preserved lung compliance and high Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, with pathology reports consistently demonstrating diffuse pulmonary microthrombi on autopsy, all consistent with a vascular occlusive etiology of respiratory failure rather than the more classic findings of low-compliance in ARDS. The COVID-19 pandemic is overwhelming the world's medical care capacity with unprecedented needs for mechanical ventilators and high rates of mortality once patients progress to needing mechanical ventilation, and in many environments including in parts of the United States the medical capacity is being exhausted. Fibrinolytic therapy has previously been used in a Phase 1 clinical trial that led to reduced mortality and marked improvements in oxygenation. Here we report a series of three patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure who were treated with tissue plasminogen activator. All three patients had a temporally related improvement in their respiratory status, with one of them being a durable response.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
13.
Curr Opin Hematol ; 28(6): 445-453, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299024

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Over the past year, COVID-19 has posed a significant threat to global health. Although the infection is associated with mild symptoms in many patients, a significant proportion of patients develop a prothrombotic state due to a combination of alterations in coagulation and immune cell function. The purpose of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological characteristics of COVID-19 that contribute to the immunothrombosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Endotheliopathy during COVID-19 results in increased multimeric von Willebrand factor release and the potential for increased platelet adhesion to the endothelium. In addition, decreased anticoagulant proteins on the surface of endothelial cells further alters the hemostatic balance. Soluble coagulation markers are also markedly dysregulated, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor, leading to COVID-19 induced coagulopathy. Platelet hyperreactivity results in increased platelet-neutrophil and -monocyte aggregates further exacerbating the coagulopathy observed during COVID-19. Finally, the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm primes neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps, which trap platelets and prothrombotic proteins contributing to pulmonary thrombotic complications. SUMMARY: Immunothrombosis significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Understanding the mechanisms behind COVID-19-induced coagulopathy will lead to future therapies for patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/epidemiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Prognosis , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6648199, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211620

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality among critically ill COVID-19 patients remains relatively high despite different potential therapeutic modalities being introduced recently. The treatment of critically ill patients is a challenging task, without identified credible predictors of mortality. METHODS: We performed an analysis of 160 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to the Respiratory Intensive Care Unit between June 23, 2020, and October 2, 2020, in University Hospital Center Bezanijska kosa, Belgrade, Serbia. Patients on invasive, noninvasive ventilation and high flow oxygen therapy with moderate to severe ARDS, according to the Berlin definition of ARDS, were selected for the study. Demographic data, past medical history, laboratory values, and CT severity score were analyzed to identify predictors of mortality. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 29-92 years), predominantly men, 68.8%. 107 (66.9%) patients were on invasive mechanical ventilation, 31 (19.3%) on noninvasive, and 22 (13.8%) on high flow oxygen therapy machine. The median total number of ICU days was 10 (25th to 75th percentile: 6-18), while the median total number of hospital stay was 18 (25th to 75th percentile: 12-28). The mortality rate was 60% (96/160). Univariate logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of age, CRP, and lymphocytes at admission to hospital, serum albumin, D-dimer, and IL-6 at admission to ICU, and CT score. Serum albumin, D-dimer, and IL-6 at admission to ICU were independently associated with mortality in the final multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: In the present study of 160 consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe ARDS, IL-6, serum albumin, and D-dimer at admission to ICU, accompanied by chest CT severity score, were marked as independent predictors of mortality.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Serbia/epidemiology , Serum Albumin, Human/analysis , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 934-944, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196422

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has posed a grave threat to the global public health. The COVID-19-induced infection is closely related to coagulation dysfunction in the affected patients. This paper attempts to conduct a meta-analysis and systematically review the blood coagulation indicators in patients with severe COVID-19. A meta-analysis of eligible studies was performed to compare the blood coagulation indicators in patients with severe and nonsevere COVID-19. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies published between 1 December 2019 and 7 May 2020. A total of 13 studies with 1341 adult patients were enrolled in this analysis. Platelet (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -24.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -34.12 to -15.54; P < .001), d-dimer (WMD = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.09-0.29; P < .001), and fibrinogen (WMD = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.50-1.54; P < .001) were significantly associated with the severity in patients with COVID-19. The meta-analysis revealed that no correlation was evident between an increased severity risk of COVID-19 and activated partial thromboplastin time (WMD = -1.56, 95% CI: -5.77 to 2.64; P = .468) or prothrombin time (WMD = 0.19, 95% CI: -0.13 to 0.51; P = .243). The single arm meta-analysis showed that compared with the nonsevere group, the severe group had a lower pooled platelet (165.12 [95% CI: 157.38-172.85] vs 190.09 [95% CI: 179.45-200.74]), higher d-dimer (0.49 [95% CI: 0.33-0.64] vs 0.27 [95% CI: 0.20-0.34]), and higher fibrinogen (4.34 [95% CI: 1.98-6.70] vs 3.19 [95% CI: 1.13-5.24]). Coagulation dysfunction is closely related to the severity of patients with COVID-19, in which low platelet, high d-dimer, and fibrinogen upon admission may serve as risk indicators for increased aggression of the disease. These findings are of great clinical value for timely and effective treatment of the COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Blood Platelets , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Hospitalization , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prognosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 962-972, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196416

ABSTRACT

To systematically analyze the blood coagulation features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to provide a reference for clinical practice. An electronic search in PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, Scopus, CNKI, WanFang Data, and VIP databases to identify studies describing the blood coagulation features of COVID-19 patients from 1 January 2020 to 21 April 2020. Three reviewers independently screened literature, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies, then, the meta-analysis was performed by using Stata 12.0 software. Thirty-four studies involving 6492 COVID-19 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that patients with severe disease showed significantly lower platelet count (weighted mean differences [WMD]: -16.29 × 109 /L; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -25.34 to -7.23) and shorter activated partial thromboplastin time (WMD: -0.81 seconds; 95% CI: -1.94 to 0.33) but higher D-dimer levels (WMD: 0.44 µg/mL; 95% CI: 0.29-0.58), higher fibrinogen levels (WMD: 0.51 g/L; 95% CI: 0.33-0.69) and longer prothrombin time (PT; WMD: 0.65 seconds; 95% CI: 0.44-0.86). Patients who died showed significantly higher D-dimer levels (WMD: 6.58 µg/mL; 95% CI: 3.59-9.57), longer PT (WMD: 1.27 seconds; 95% CI: 0.49-2.06) and lower platelet count (WMD: -39.73 × 109 /L; 95% CI: -61.99 to -17.45) than patients who survived. Coagulation dysfunction is common in severe COVID-19 patients and it is associated with severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrinogen/analysis , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Platelet Count , Prothrombin Time , Risk Factors
17.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(11): 1397-1413, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174805

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, attacks the immune system causing an exaggerated and uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory mediators (cytokine storm). Recent studies propose an active role of coagulation disorders in disease progression. This hypercoagulability has been displayed by marked increase in D-dimer in hospitalized patients. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, generation of cytokine storm, the interdependence between inflammation and coagulation, its consequences and the possible management options for coagulation complications like venous thromboembolism (VTE), microthrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and systemic and local coagulopathy. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for relevant reports using COVID-19, cytokine storm, and coagulation as keywords. EXPERT OPINION: A prophylactic dose of 5000-7500 units of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been recommended for hospitalized COVID-19 patients in order to prevent VTE. Treatment dose of LMWH, based on disease severity, is being contemplated for patients showing a marked rise in levels of D-dimer due to possible pulmonary thrombi. Additionally, targeting PAR-1, thrombin, coagulation factor Xa and the complement system may be potentially useful in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection induced lung injury, microvascular thrombosis, VTE and related outcomes like DIC and multi-organ failure.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Venous Thromboembolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/virology
18.
Life Sci ; 276: 119376, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157590

ABSTRACT

The severe forms and worsened outcomes of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 19) are closely associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Endothelial cells express Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is the entrance door for the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The hallmarks of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are increased levels of IL-6, C-reactive protein, D-dimer, ferritin, neutrophilia and lymphopenia, pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy and microthrombi of alveolar capillaries. The endothelial glycocalyx, a proteoglycan- and glycoprotein-rich layer covering the luminal side of endothelial cells, contributes to vascular homeostasis. It regulates vascular tonus and permeability, prevents thrombosis, and modulates leukocyte adhesion and inflammatory response. We hypothesized that cytokine production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation associated with COVID-19 leads to glycocalyx degradation. A cohort of 20 hospitalized patients with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Mechanisms associated with glycocalyx degradation in COVID-19 were investigated. Increased plasma concentrations of IL-6 and IL1-ß, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and glycocalyx components were detected in plasma from COVID-19 patients compared to plasma from healthy subjects. Plasma from COVID-19 patients induced glycocalyx shedding in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and disrupted redox balance. Treatment of HUVECs with low molecular weight heparin inhibited the glycocalyx perturbation. In conclusion, plasma from COVID-19 patients promotes glycocalyx shedding and redox imbalance in endothelial cells, and heparin treatment potentially inhibits glycocalyx disruption.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Glycocalyx/pathology , Heparin/pharmacology , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion/physiology , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Female , Glycocalyx/metabolism , Glycocalyx/virology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Oxidation-Reduction , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/metabolism
19.
J Am Coll Surg ; 232(6): 995-1003, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144761

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a global public health threat unparalleled in our history. The most severe cases are marked by ARDS attributed to microvascular thrombosis. Hypercoagulability, resulting in a profoundly prothrombotic state, is a distinct feature of COVID-19 and is accentuated by a high incidence of fibrinolysis shutdown. The aims of this review were to describe the manifestations of fibrinolysis shutdown in COVID-19 and its associated outcomes, review the molecular mechanisms of dysregulated fibrinolysis associated with COVID-19, and discuss potential implications and therapeutic targets for patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Thrombophilia/therapy , Thrombophilia/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL